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Nos. 1 — 1 S3. 




Price to Fellows of the Institute, 0/-; to Non-Fellows, 10/- 

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1 .'M~'GO 



JEgeSLTi Script. On the Survival of Pre-Hellenic Signs in the Island of Kos. (Illustrated.) 

Dr. Rudolf Herzog 52 

Africa : Algeria. See Algeria. 

Africa, East. A Carved Stool and other Objects from British East Africa. ( With Plate D.) 

Alfred Sharpe, C.B. 39 

Africa, East. A Collection of Objects from the District to the South-west of Lake Nyassa. 

(Illustrated.) R. W. Felkin, M.D., F.R.G.S 112 

Africa : Egypt. See Egypt. 

Africa: Rhodesia. On the Kharai Ruins, Rhodesia. Franklin White 82 

Africa, South. See Folklore ; Natal ; Totemism. 

Africa, South. Description of a Bushman Skull. (Illustrated.) J. Beddoe, M.D., F.B.S. 58 

Africa: Tripoli. Collateral Survival of Successive Styles of Art in North Africa. 

(Illustrated.) John L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A 88 

Africa : Tunis. A Piece of Early Masonry at Chaouach in Tunis. (Illustrated.) J. L. Myres, 

M.A., F.S.A 109 

Africa, West. On Carved Doorposts from the West Coast of Africa. (Illustrated.) 0. M. 

Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. 57 

Algeria : Ethnography. On the " Libyan Notes " of Messrs. Randall-Maclver and Wilkin. 

Jean Capart ... 69 

America. See California. 

America : Ethnography. (4.) The Ethnographic Survey of Canada. (2.) Ethnological 

Studies of the Mainland Halk5melEm, a Division of the Salish of British Columbia Chas. 

Hill-Tout 183 

America: Iroquois. Dekanawideh ; the Law-giver of the Caniengahakas. J. 0. Brant-Sero 134 
Anthropometry. On an Improved Method of Measuring the Vertical Proportions of the 

Head. (Illustrated.) H. H. Risley, C.S.I 144 

Asia. See Burma ; China ; Georgia : India ; Japan ; Siam. 

Asia Minor: Religion. A Yezidi Rite. J. W. Crowfoot, M.A. 122 

Australia. A Swan-neck Boomerang of unusual form. (With Plate (\ 1-2.) Henry Balfour 27 
Australia. Strangling-cords from the Murray River, Victoria, Australia. (Illustrated.) 

Henry Balfour, M.A. 94 

Australia. Three Bambu Trumpets from N. Territory, South Australia. (With Plate C, 3-5.) 

Henry Balfour, M.A 28 

Australia. The Australian Ethnological Expedition. N. W. Thomas, M.A 67 

Australia. The Australian Ethnological Expedition ; part of a Letter received from Professor 

Baldwin Spencer. J. Edge- Partington 143 

Bibliography. Suggestions for an International Bibliography of Anthropology. N. W. 

Thomas, M.A 108 

Biographical. See Max MCller; Mortillet; Peek. 

Brain. See Physical Anthropology. 

Buddhism. See Japan. 

Burma : Shan States. A Spear-head and Socketed Celt of Bronze from the Shan States, 

Burma. (With Plate G.) Henry Balfour. M.A 77 

California. Note on a Specimen of Basket-work. (Illustrated.) O. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. 17 

China. Relics from Chinese Tombs. ( With Plate B.) C. H. Read, F.S.A 15 

China. Relics from Chinese Tombs. (See Man, 1901. 1">.) Dr. S. W. Bushell, C.M.G. ... 54 

Crete. Exploration at Zakro in Eastern Crete. D. G. Hogarth. M.A 147 

Crete : Excavations Report on Excavations at Pnesos in Eastern Crete. R. C. Bosanquet 148 
Crete : Prehistoric. Abstract of the Report of the Committee of the British Association on 

Explorations in Crete. J. L. M 145 

Crete. The Neolithic Settlement at Knossos and its Place in the History of Early, ^Egean 

Culture. (Illustrated.) A. J. Evans, M.A^ LL.D., F.R.S 14$ 

Egypt. An Egyptian Kbony Statuette of a Negress. (With Plate I-J.) W. M. Flinders 

Petrie, LL.D., D.C.L 107 

Egypt. Egyptian Cutting-out Tools. {Illustrated.) W. M. Flinders Petrie, LL.D., D.C.L. 123 
Egypt: El Khargeh. (With Plate H.) Four Photographs from the Oasis of El Khargeh, 

with a Brief Description of the District. (Illustrated.) C. 8. Myers, M.A 91 

Jt: Prehistoric A Prehistoric Cemetery at El Ararah in Egypt. (Illustrated.) 

Randall-MacIveb, M.A. 40 

Egypt. The Bones of Hen Nekht, an Egyptian King of the Third Dynasty. (Illustrated.) 

C. S. Myers, M.A 127 

England. See Kent ; Stonerenge. 

England : SkulL Notes on a Human Skull found in Peat in the Bed of the River Orwell. 

Ipswich. Nina Layard 126 

.Europe. See JSgean ; Crete; England; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Norway; Scot- 

Folklore. See Asia Minor ; Georgia ; Palmistry ; Religion ; Totemism. 

Folklore: Africa. On some Problems of Early Religion, in the light of Sou'h African 

Folklore. E. S. Hartland 21 

Folklore : Ireland. On certain Wells in Ireland. Prof. J. Rhys, 11. E. 8. Hartland ... 19 

Forgeries. See New Zealand, 92 ; Pacific, 56, 98. 

Georgia: Folklore. Animal Folklore in Georgia. (Illustrated.) N. W. Thomas, M.A. ... 42 

Greece. See ^gean ; Crete. 

Greece: Prehistoric. Note on Mycenaean Chronology. John L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A. ... 139 

Greece: Prehistoric Pre-Mycena?an Athens. (Illustrated.) John L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A. 70 

Greece : Prehistoric. i4 The Oldest Civilisation of Greece: Mr. Hall and , H. ,,f A. J. Evans, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S 188 

Guilloehe Ornament on an Etruscan Potsherd. Henry Balfour, M.A 4 

India. Ethnographic Survey of India in connection with the Census of 1901. Government 

of India 113 

India : Madras. The D6mbs of Jeypur, Vizagapatam District, Madras. (Illustrated.) F. 

Fawcett 29 

Japan : Buddhism. On a Wheel of Life from Japan. (IF/7 A Plate A.) N. W. Thomas, M.A. 1 

Kent : Flint Implements. The Occurrence in a very Limited Area of the Rudest with the 

Finer Forms of Worked Stones. (With Plate F.) W.M.Newton ... 66 

Linguistics. Men's Language and Women's Language. J. G. Frazeb, M.A., Litt.D. ... 129 

Malay Peninsula. Notes on the Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula. (Illustrated.) 

(With Plate M.) W. W. Skeat, M.A 142 

Malta : Prehistoric. Prehistoric Pottery in the Valletta Museum in Malta. (Illustrated.) 

J. L. Myrbs. M.A., F S.A 71 

Max Muller. (With Portrait.) Prof. A. A. Macdonell, M.A. 16 

Mortillet. The Proposed Monument to Gabriel de Mortillet. Louis Giraux H4 

NataL Native Smoking Pipe3 from Natal. Henry Balfour, M.A 10 

New Guinea. A Papuan Bo w-and- Arrow Fleam. (With Plate K.) A. C. Haddon, Sc.D.. 

F.R.8 121 

New Hebrides. Feathered Arrows from Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. J. Edge-Partington 32 
New Hebrides. Memorial Heads in the Pitt-Rivers Museum. (With Plate E.) Henry 

Balfour, M.A 51 

New Zealand: Forgeries. Forgeries of New Zealand Stone Implements. J. Edge - 

Partington 92 

New Zealand. On the Origin of the Maori Scroll Design. A. C. Haddon, Sc.D., F.R.S. ... 55 
New Zealand. The Matuatonga in the Art Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand. (Illustrated.) 

J. Edge-Partinoton 30 

Nomenclature: Glaze Or Varnish. Note on the Use of the Words " Glaze" and 

u Varnish " in the Description of Painted Pottery. John L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A. (see aim 95) 78 
Norway : Folklore. A Modern Trace of Sun. Worship in Norway. W. W. Skeat, M.A. ... 79 
Ornament. See Guilloche : New Zealand. 55. 

Pacific. An Object of Unknown Use and Locality. J. Edge- Partington 80 

Pacific: Forgeries. Note on the Occurrence of Forgeries in the Pacific. H. Ling Roth ... 93 
Pacific. Note on Forged Ethnographical Specimens from the Pacific Islands. J. Edge- 

Partington 56 

Pacific. Note on Tatu-patterns employed in Lord Howe's Island. (Illustrated.) C. M. 

Woodford 31 

Pacific. On the Stone Figures from Easier Island. J. Edge Partington ^ 

Pacific : Solomon Islands. Native Ornaments from the Solomon Islands, recently presented 

to the British Museum by Mr. C. M. Woodford. (Illustrated.) J. Edge-Partington ... 8J 


Pacific : Tonga. A Stone Celt from Tonga. (Illustrated.) Basil Thomson 110 

Palmistry. The Anatomy of Palmistry. Abthur Keith, M.D ... 20 

Peek, Sir C. E. F. w. Rudlbb 96 

Physical Anthropology. See anthropometry ; Egypt, 127 ; England ; India, 29 ; 

Physical Anthropology: Brain. On the Temporary Fissures of the Human Cerebral 

Hemisphere, with Observations on the Development of the Hippocampal Fissure and 

Hippocampal Formation. J. Symington, M.D 126 

Race Improvement. The Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the existing 

Conditions of Law and Sentiment. (With Plate L.) Francis Oalton, D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S. 132 

Religion. Note on the Acts of St. Dasius. Franz Cumont 58 

Religion. The Martyrdom of St. Dasius. A. Lang, M.A 68 

Scotland : Pigmentation. The Frequency and Pigmentation Value of Surnames of 

School Children in Bast Aberdeenshire. J. F. Tocher, F.I.C., and J. Gray, B.Sc 128 

Slam : Celadon Ware. The Place of Manufacture of Celadon Ware. (Illustrated.) 

T. H. Lylr 41 

Spiritualism. Anthropology and Superstition. Andrew Lang, M.A 135 

StOnehenge. On the Damage recently sustained by Stonehenge. (Illustrated.) A.L. Lewis. 18 
Torres Strait. On the Functions of the Maternal Uncle in Torres Strait. W. H. R. 

Rivers, M.D 136 

Torres Strait. On the Functions of the Son-in-Law and Brother-in-Law in Torres Strait. 

W. H. R. Rivers, M.D 137 

Torres Strait: Pottery. Correction. A. C. Haddon, Sc.D., F.R.S 95 

Totemism. Notes on Two Letters published in the Times of September the 3rd and 7th, 1901. 

A. C. Haddon, ScD., F.R.S 124 

Totemism. South African Totemism. J. O. Frazer, Litt.D., D.C.L Ill 


Africa: Algeria. Randall- Maclver and Wilkin. Libyan Notes: Wilkin. Among the Berbers 

of Algeria: J. L. M 62 

Africa: Ashanti. Freeman. Travels and Life in] Axhanti and Jaman. R. W. F 101 

Africa: Congo. See Congo. 

AfHca: Masai. Hinde. The Masai Language. R. N. Cust 73 

Africa : Morocco. See Morocco. 
Africa : Negro. See American Negro. 
Africa: Nigeria. See Nigeria. 

AfHca: SOUdan. Chantre. Les Bicharieh et les Ababdeh. A. H. Keane 74 

AfHca, South. Native Races Committee. The Natives of South Africa ; their Economic and 

Social Condition. B. S. Hartland 72 

Africa : West. See west Africa. 

American Negro. Du Bois : The Philadelphia Negro. Eaton : Iteport on Domestic Service 14 

AmeHca. Dellenbaugh. The North Americans of Yesterday : A Comparative Study of North 

American Indian Life, Customs, and Products, on the Theory of the Ethnic Unity of the Race. 

N. W. T 97 

America. See North America ; Ontario. 

Anthropology. Schurtz. Urgeschichte der Knltur. N. W. T 102 

Arabia. Bent. Southern Arabia. H. 23 

ArchSBOlOgy. See Africa (Algeria) ; Aryan Race ; Crete ; Egypt ; France ; 

Greece ; Mesopotamia ; Ontario ; Schleswig Holstein. 
Aryan Race. Penka. Die Ethnologisch-ethnngraphische Bedeutung der Megalith ischen 

Grabbauten. J. L. M. 88 

Asia. See Arabia ; Assam ; Burma ; India ; Mesopotamia ; Siam. 

Asia. Futterer. Durch Asien (I. Geogr. Charakter-Bdder). A. H. KeaKE 34 

Assam. See Language. 

Australia, &C. Verschuur. At the Antipodes. J. L. M 60 

Biography : Huxley. P. Chalmeri Mitchell, M.A. Thomas Henry Huxley. G. B. H. ... 63 

Brunswick: Folklore. Andrew. Braunschtceiger Volkikunde. N. W. T H5 

Burma: Upper. See Upper Burma. 

Burmo-Chinese Frontier. Government Reports on the Chin Hills, &c, 181)9-1900. W. .. 13 

Colour Vision. Bosse and Holricn. The Order of Development of Colour Perception and of 

Colour Preference in the. Child. Rivers : Primitive Colour Vision. The Colour llsion of 

the E*kimo. W. H. R. Rivers, M.D 87 

CongO, Sclimeltz. Album of the Ethnography of the Congo Basin. C. H. READ, F.S.A. ... H6 



Consanguinity. Davies. Consanguinity as a Factor in the Aetiology of Tuhercnlosix. A. K. 8 

Crete. Evans and Hogarth. The Cretan Exploration Fund. J. L. M. \ 2 

Egypt. Niebuhr. Hie Tell-eUAmirna Period. H. H 141 

Egypt. Sethe. Sesostris. A. H. Gardiner 24 

Egypt. Steindorff. Grabfunde des Mittleren Reich* in den Koenigliehen Museen zu Berlin. 

F. Ll. Griffith 61 

Europe. See Aryan Race ; Brunswick ; Crete; Folklore ; France; Great Britain ; 

Greece ; Religion ; Savoy ; Schleswig Holstein ; Sweden ; Wales. 

Folklore : Animal Superstitions. Thomas. O mercado de grillos 5 

Folklore : Brunswick. See Brunswick. 

Folklore: England. Gommc. Old English Singing Barnes. N. W. T. 48 

Folklore: Sebillot. U Folklore ties Pecheurs. N. W. T 140 

Folklore : Scotland. Campbell. Superstition* of the Highland* and Islands of Scotland ; 

collected entirely from Oral Sources. N. W. T 104 

Folklore : Wales. Rh£s. Celtic Folklore : Welsh and Manx. F. Y. P 4 

Folklore. Various Authors. Popular Studies in Mythology , Romance, and Folklore ... 64 
Franee. Girod and Masse*nat. Les Stations de V Age du Renne dans les ValUes de la Vizere 

et de la Corrize. F. W. Rudler 87 

Great Britain. Macnamara. Origin and Character of the British People. C. H. R. ... 151 

Greece. Hall. Tlte Oldest Civilisation of Greece; Studies of the Mycenaean Age. H. ... 130 

Greece. See Religion. 

India. Campbell. Index- Catalogue of Indian Official Publications in the Library of the 

British Museum. Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.I.E., C.B 35 

India. Waddell. Among the Himalayas, T. H. H 49 

Language : Assam. Hamilton. An Outline Grammar of the Dafla Language as spoken by 

the Tribes immediately South of the Apa Taming Country. W. CROOKE 46 

Language : General. Sweet. The History of Language. S.H.RAY 50 

Language. See Africa (Masai) ; Morocco. 

Left-handedneSS. Lueddeckens. Rechts- und Linhthandigkeit. R. W. F 84 

Melanesia. Foy. Tanz-objecte com Bismarck- Archipel, Nissan, und Buka. A. C. Haddon 47 

Mesopotamia. Thompson. Tlte Reports of the Magicians, Sfc. of Nineveh and Babylon. N. W. T. 9 

Mesopotamia. Sayce. Babylonians and Assyrians, Life and Customs. N. W. T 25 

Morocco : Language. Stumme. Handbueh des Schilhischen von TazerxcaU. J. L. M. ... 45 

New Guinea. Despatches from H.E. the Lieut. -Governor of British New Guinea. S. H. Ray 36 

New Guinea. Meyer and Parkinson. Papua- Album II. J. Edge- Partington 117 

New Zealand. Reeves. Tlie Long White Cloud. J. E.-P 98 

Nigeria. Robinson. Our Latest Protectorate. C. F. H.-B 6 

North America: Folklore. Fletcher. Indian, Story and Song from North America. 

E. 8. HARTLAND 118 

Ontario. Boyle. Archeeological Reports, 1898-9. E. Sidney Hartland 33 

Pacific. Brigham. An Index to the Islands of the Pacific Ocean. 0. M. D 103 

Pacific : Nomenclature. Von Luschan. Vorsclddgc zur Geographischen Nomenklatur der 

Sudsee. O. M. Dalton,M.A., F.8.A 119 

Pacific. See Melanesia ; New Zealand ; Philippines. 

Philippines. Koetze. Crania Ethnica Philippinica. Sir W. Turner, M.D., F.R.S 149 

Religion. Andrew Lang. The Making of Religion. K. S. H 3 

Religion. Forlong. Short Studies in tlte Science of Comparative Religions. E. W. B. ... 26 

Religion. Frazer. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magie and Religion. E. Sidney Hartland 43 
Religion : Greece, de Viaser. De Gracorum Diis non referentibus speciem hvmanam. 

L. R. Farnell 86 

Savoy. Pittard. Note Preliminaire sur VEthnologie de la Saroie et de la Haute-Sa roic. F. C. »S. 38 
SchleSWig-HolStein : Bronze Age. Splieth. Inventar der Brimze-altcr Fnnde aus 

Schleswig-Uolstein. J. L. M. 85 

Slam. James McCarthy. Surveying and Exploring in Siam. H. W. S. 12 

Slam. Young. The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe : Being Sketches of the Domestic and Religious 

Rites and Ceremonies of the Siamese. H. W. S 99 

Sweden: Physical Anthropology. Gustaf Retzius. Crania Succica Antigua. J. Bkddoe, 

M.D., F.R.S H ..*' 59 

Trepanning. Pittard. Sur une Trepanation preliistorique de V Age du Br&nze 65 

Upper Burma. Scott and Hardiman. Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan State*. 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.I.E., C.B 150 

Wales. Rh^ and Brynmor Jones. Tlte Welsh People. J. Beddoe. M.D., F.R.S 22 

West Africa. Kingsley. West African Studies. L. T. S 100 



A. Buddhist Wheal of Life from Japan With No. 1 

b. Bowl, Vase, and Mirror, from a Mediaeval Chinese Tomb in the British Museum ... „ 15 

c. Australian Objects in the Pitt Rivers Museum — 1-2. Swan-necked Boomerangs : 

3-5. Bambu Trumpets „ 27-8 

d. Carved Wooden Stool from British East Africa „ 39 

E. Memorial Heads from the New Hebrides, in the Pitt Rivers Museum „ 51 

F. Palaeolithic Implements from a High Terrace Pleistocene River Bed near Green- 

hithe „ 66 

o. Spear-head and Socketed Celt of Bronze from the Shan States, Burma : in the 

Pitt Rivers Museum „ 77 

H. Temple of Hibis. Oasis of Bl Khargeh, Egypt „ 91 

i-j. Egyptian Ebony Statuette of a Negress ,. 107 

k. Papuan Bow-and-Arrow Fleam 121 

L. Standard Scheme of Descent „ 132 

M. Malay Spinning and Weaving „ 142 


N.B. — All are Photograph*, except wliere otherwise described. 

Guilloche Ornament on an Etruscan Potsherd : Pitt Rivers Museum. (Photograph.)... 

Native Tobacco Pipes from Natal : Pitt Rivers Museum. (Four examples.') 

Friedrich Max Mttller 

Basket Work from California : British Museum 

Stonehenge Plan. (Sketch.) 

Stonehenge : View from West, showing the Stones which fell in 1797 and 1900 

Tatu Marks of the Ddmbs of Madras. (Twelve examples : *ket eh.) 

Matuatonga in the Art Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand. (Three views.) 

Tatu Marks employed in Lord Howe's Island 

Prehistoric Cemetery at El Amrah in Egypt : (1) Clay Model of a House ; (2) Clay 
Model of Kine ; (3) Stone Celt; (4-6) Stone Mace Heads ; (7-11) Forked Hunting 
Lances of Flint ; (12) Dagger of Cop|>er ; (13-14) Baskets ; (15-16) Clay Dolls ; 

(17) Hieroglyph (Drawing) „ 40 

Celadon Ware from an Ancient Pottery Site in Siam „ 41 

Animal Skull, and Wooden Cross with Crown of Thorns used as Charms to protect 

Gardens in Georgia. (Sketches.) „ 42 

Pre- Hellenic Signs in the Island of Kos. (Sketch.) „ 52 

Carved Door-posts from the West Coast of Africa „ 57 

Skull of a Bushman. (Side, top, a /id face ; sketches.) „ 58 

Pre-Mycensean Layer on the South Side of the Acropolis of Athens ., 70 

Prehistoric Pottery in the Valletta Museum in Malta „ 71 

Object of unknown use and locality, obtained at Rotumah „ 80 

Native OrnamentB from the Solomon Islands ,, 81 

Shell Money from New < J eorgia ,, 81 

Native-made Pots for Sale at K horns (LeUla) in Tripoli „ 83 

Tomb, probably Nestorian, in the Oasis of Kl Khargeh, Egypt ( , 91 

Native Street in Khargeh ., 91 

Strangling Cord from the Murray River, Victoria. Australia # ... „ 94 

Piece of Early Masonry at Chaouach in Tunis „ 109 

Stone Celt from Tonga. (Tun* view*.) ., HO 

Objects from the District to the South-west of Lake Nyanza : (1) Scrajier and Dagger ; 

(2-3) Dagger and Beer Ladle ; (4) Iron Fighting-Axe : (5) Iron Spear \\2 

Egyptian Cutting-out Tools „ 123 

Skull of lien Nekht, an Egyptian King of the Third Dynasty. (Side, back, front, top.) ... .. 127 

Malay Native House „ 142 

Malay Weavers at Work. (cf. Plate M.) 142 

Improved Method of Measuring the Vertical Proportions of the Head ., 144 

Neolithic and Early Metal Age : Figures in Clay and Marble from Knossos and Amorgos. 

(14 sketches.) , 146 

With No. 




















N.B. — The Number* to which an asterisk 

Balfour, H., 4, 10, 27, 28, 51, 77, 94. 
Beddoe, John, 22 # , 58, 59*. 
Bosanquet, R. C, 148. 
Brabbook, E. W., 14*, 26*. 
Brant-Sero, J. 0., 134. 
Bush ell, S. W., 54. 

Cap art, Jean, 69. 
Crooke, W., 13*. 
Crowfoot, J. W., 122. 
Cumont, Franz, 53. 
Cust, R. N., 73*. 

Dalton, O. M., 17, 57, 103*, 119. 

Edgk-Partington, J., 7, 20, 32, 56, 80, 
81,92,98*, 117*, i43. 

Evans, A. J., 138, 146. 

Farnell, L. R., 86*. 
Fawcett, F., 29. 
Felkin, R. W., 84*, 101*, 112. 
Frazer, J. G., Ill, 129. 

G ALTON, F., 132. 
Gardiner, A. H., 24*. 
Giraux, Louis, 114. 
Government of India, 113. 
Gray, J., 128. 
Griffith, F. Ll., 61*. 

H., 23*, 130*. 

H.-B., C F., 6. 

H., H., 141*. 

H., G. B., 63. 9 

Haddon, A. C, 55, 95, 121, 124. 

Hartland, E. S., 3*, 19, 21, 33*, 72*, 

Herzog, R., 52. 

Hill Tout, C, 133. 

Hogarth, D. G m 147. 

Holdich, Sir T. H., 35*, 150. 

is added are those of Reviews of Book*. 
J., 5. 

Keane, A. H., 34*, 74*. 
Keith, A., 8*, 20. 

Lang, A., 68, 135. 
La yard, N., 125. 
Lewis, A. L., 18. 
Ling Roth, H., 93. 
Lyle, T. H., 41. 

Macdonell, A. A., 16. 

Myers, C. S., 91, J 27. 

Myres, J. L., 2*, 60*, 62*, 70, 71, 78, 
83, 85*, 88*, 109, 139, 145. 

Newton, W. M., 66. 

Petrie, W. M. F., 107, 123. 

Randall-MacIveh, D., 40. 

Ray, S. H., 36*. 

Read, C. H., 15, 116*, 151. 

Rhys, J., 11. 

Rivers, W. H. R., 87,* 136, 137. 

Risley, H. H., 144 

Rudler, F. W., 37*, 96. 

S., F. C, 38*, 65*. 
S., L. T., 100. 
S.,.H. W., 12*, 99*. 
Sharpe, Alfred, 39. 
Skeat, W. W., 79, 142. 
Spencer, Baldwin, cf. 143. 
Symington, J., 126. 

Thomas, N. W., 1, 9*, 25*, 42, 64\ 
67, 97*, 102*, 104*, 108, 115*, 140. 

Thomson, Basil, 1 10. 

Tocher, J. F., 128. 

Turner, Sir W., 149. 

White, Franklin, 82. 
Woodford, C. M., 31, ct\ 81. 








N.B. — For convenience of reference, each communication is furnished with catch 
titles in heavier type, giving the subject of the communication, and the name of the 
author. A reference number is added i?i the margin, by which each communication 
should be quoted. 

Reviews of published works are distinguished by an asterisk *, and the author's 
name in the catch title is that of the writer of the work under review. 

All communications printed in " Man" are signed or initialled by their authors, 
and the Council of the Institute desires it to be understood that in giving publicity to 
them it accepts no responsibility for the opinions or statements expressed. 

Japan : Buddhism. With Plate A. N. W. Thomas. 

On a Pictorial Representation of the Wheel of Life from Japan. Communi- 4 

cated by N. W. Thomas. I 

The Wheel of Life, the pictorial representation of some of the main ideas of 
Buddhist philosophy, is said to have been drawn by Buddha himself with rice grains, 
but, of course, without pictorial detail ; these, however, though first introduced many 
centuries later, are said to have l>een based on the imagery of Buddha. The Wheel of 
Life, in spite of its antiquity, was discovered only quite recently, two examples having been 
found, one in Thibet, and portions of another in Central India, during the last few years. 
The present example is of Sino-Japanese origin, and though the print goes back no 
further than 1850, the picture itself is evidently far older ; it differs in many respects 
from the two wheels already mentioned, and is evidently uninfluenced by them. 

It will be convenient, before proceeding further, to give a translation of the various 
titles and the long text below the picture. For these I am indebted to the kindness of 
Mr. T. Watters, whose commentary on the picture has been invaluable to me. The 
general title is u The Wheel of Life and Death in the Five Resorts (Ways of Life)." 
Below this comes a white circle, "The Perfect Stillness of Nirvana." Over the figure 
is the title " The Great Demon of Impermanency," on either side of which are verses in 
which sense is sacrificed to sound, as is frequently the case. The long passage below 
the picture is to this effect : — In the thirty-fourth chapter of the Sarvastivadin Vinaya 
it is recorded — Ananda, addressing Buddha, told him that the venerable Moginlin, having 
made a tour of the Five Resorts (the Chinese original means " to hasten joyfully," &c, but 
in the Buddhist books it is used in the sense of " going to "; Five Resorts is a translation 
of the Sanscrit Panchagandaka, to which Samsara is sometimes added) and seen their 
sorrows, was explaining these to his congregation, and hence the large meeting. 

c i ] 

190L] MAN. OTo. L 

Buddha then explained to Ananda that a case like this was rare of a person 
being able to visit other spheres of existence and describe them to his fellow- 
creatures. For this reason, he adds, he gives instructions that bhikshus (brethren) 
at the porter's lodge of a monastery should paint a Wheel of Life and Death. 
As the brethren did not know how to proceed, Buddha explained : — "Make of 
44 appropriate size the figure of a wheel, in this make a nave and five spokes to 
44 represent the Five Resorts ; under the nave paint Hoil, and on one side of it Animals, 
44 and on the other side Hungry Demons (Ghosts) ; alxrve these paint Men and Devas. 
44 In the Men's Resort make the Four Continents, viz. : — Videha in the east, Jambu in 
44 the south, Godhani in the west, and Kuru in the north. In the nave make a white 
44 circle with a picture of Buddha ; in front of the picture paint a pigeon to typify evil 
" craviug, a snake to typify malicious temper, and a pig to typify stupidity. On the tire 
" (or rim) make a circle of water-buckets, with creatures living and dead in the buckets, 
44 the living with the head out, and the dead with the feet out. All round the Five 
44 Resorts paint illustrations of the Twelve Members of the Circle of Causation, viz. : — 
"(1.) Ignorance: paint a rakshasa (demon). 

" (2.) The elements (or Action) : an earthen wheel. (The Chinese word is hsing, 
" which means, ' going, action, &c.,' but it is here, perhaps, used in the 
" sense * elemental matter.' — T. W. [May not a potter's wheel be 
" intended, typifying 4 shaping,' as in Waddell. — N. W. T.]). 
44 (3.) Discrimination [? Consciousness. — N. W. T.] : a monkey. 
" (4.) Name-colour [? Name-form. — N. W. T.] : a man on a boat. 
" (5.) The six places : the six * roots,' the six senses. 
" (6.) Touch : a man and woman in contact. 

" (7.) Sensation (lit. receipts) : a man and woman in pain and pleasure. [The 
" third figure is apparently put in by the artist ; what is represented 
" is not very clear.— N. W. T.] 
44 (8.) Affection : a woman with twin boys or girls in her arms. 
44 (9.) Taking : a man drawing water in a pitcher. [The pitcher looks much 

44 more like a teapot.— N. W. T.] 
44 (10.) Existence : the god Brahma. 
44 (11.) — (a.) Birth : a pregnant woman. 

44 (b.) Old age : a man and woman, very old. 
44 (c.) Sickness : a man and woman in sickness. 
44 (12.)— (a.) Death : a funeral. 

44 (6.) Trouble : a man and woman in trouble. 
44 (c.) Sorrow : a man and woman weeping. 
44 (d.) Pain : a man and woman suffering pain. 

44 (e.) Mental trouble : a man and woman having difficulty in keeping 
44 an elephant [? camel] in hand. 
44 Above the wheel make the Great Demon of Impermanency, with matted hair, long 
44 mouth, and arms extended to hold the Wheel of Life and Death. On one side of the 
44 Demon's head put this gatha — Seek release, be zealously improving in Buddhism, 
44 subdue the army of life and death as an elephant crushes a straw shed. And on the 
44 other side, this gatha — Beaver assiduous in this dharma and vinaya, and you will be 
44 able to drain the sea of trouble and get beyond the farthest limit of pain. 

44 Immediately above the Demon, make a white circle to typify the perfect stillness 
44 (or solitariness, lit. cleanness) of Nirvana" (The word rendered 44 stillness " commonly 
means "clean, pure," but is here evidently used in its other sense of " lonely.") 

The bhikshus acted according to instructions, and had the Wheel of Life and Death 
painted on the porter's lodges at the monasteries. Then pious Brahmins and others 
seeing the picture, asked the bhikshus to explain the meaning, but the bhikshus were 

[ 2 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. L 

unable to do so. When this was reported to Buddha, he ordered that a Brother should 
be deputed by the monastery to take his seat at the porter's lodge and explain the 
picture to passers-by. The bhikshus were careless, and appointed ignorant Brethren, and 
then Buddha ordained that intelligent Brethren, who could explain the picture, should 
always be appointed. So far the text ; the appendix by the Japanese who reproduces 
the picture, and circulates it for the good of others, is a story of good resulting from 
the picture, aud is quoted from a Chinese Buddhist Cyclopaedia. 

The whole passage is a somewhat inaccurate trauscription from the 34th chuan of 
the Sarvastivadin Vinaya, and is in general agreement with the Divyavadana, the last not 
enumerating the Nidanas. 

The picture is in many of its features Chinese ; the figures in the nidanas and the 
Resort of Man are distinctly Chinese in character. On the other hand, some of the 
details of Svarga (the Resort of the Gods), seem to be of Japanese type. It is curious 
to note that the demon, so far as his head goes, approximates closely to the mediaeval 
devil ; his three-clawed feet are Japanese. 

On the rim of the wheel the buckets can hardly be said to form a chain, but they 
are intended, perhaps, to typify the passage from one Resort to another ; nor do they 
contain creatures ; in the buckets are human beings only. The representation in the 
picture agrees rather with the directions of the Divyavadana than with the text 

The most remarkable feature of the picture is that Buddha, instead of being outside 
the circle of Saihsara, is placed in the nave with the symbols of the passions, though in 
a different circle. In this the artist is simply following directions. The representation 
of tantalised ghosts also departs considerably from the conventional ideas ; this is 
apparently due to ignorance ; the ghosts should have large stomachs, mouths the size of 
a pinhole, and throats the size of a hair, instead of being emaciated human beings. 

The details of Hell, as of all the other Resorts, are far simpler in the Japanese 
picture than in the Thibetan. On the left is a mirror, which reflects the sins of the person 
before it ; in the centre are two persons being punished, one by having his tongue torn 
out, the other by the hang. On the right there is a figure who is being transfixed, and 
another either waitiug for this punishment or suffering starvation. At the head of the 
picture is Tama, God of the dead, and his attendants. Of course, the direction in the 
text to put Hell at the bottom is meaningless ; the wheel is regarded as being in 
perpetual revolution ; the wording of the direction seems to show that it was written by 
someone who was familiar with pictorial representations of the wheel, otherwise only 
directions as to the order of the Resorts would be given. 

These Nidanas or " Causes of Existence " were, so long as we had only a Sanscrit 
text to help us, one of the darkest portions of Buddhistic philosophy. Being, as they 
are, a fundamental point of the whole system, their correct interpretation is necessarily 
of the highest importance. The idea which lies at the bottom is in many respects the 
same as that which forms the basis of Schopenhauer's system of philosophy. When the 
Nidanas form a chain they may be interpreted as successive stages of development of 
the Will ; first the unconscious Will, then matter, then consciousness, self-consciousness, 
the perception of the external world, and so on. The question of how far the Nidanas 
of the Japanese picture can be so interpreted must be left for future discussion. It 
is impossible to enter here into the question raised by the pictorial representations of 
them. It may be of interest to note, however, that they are not looked on as a 
regular catena, but rather as " members " (anga) or " branches." With few exceptions, 
both the pictures and the names differ from those found in Thibet. In No. 10, 
where Waddell has " Fuller Life" we have "Existence," represented by the God 
Brahma ; the picture shows a three-headed figure ; on the head is a smaller figure like 
those found in the representations of Avalokita, where it is meant for his spiritual 

[ 3 1 

190L] MAN. QTos. 1-2. 

father, Amitabha Buddha. The fiual figure in the series, the camel, which according to 
the text should have beeu au elepbaut, is perhaps the same as WaddcU's blind she- 
camel ; it does not, however, typify Avidya (Iguorance), for which a demon stands in 
the Japanese picture. There are many interesting points raised by the picture ; it may- 
be possible to ascertain approximately the date of its composition. 

The Resort of the Gods seems to embody early Japanese ideas. These questions 
of art criticism, however, as well as those deeper philosophical ones raised by the 
XidanaSy must be reserved for future discussion. N. W. THOMAS. 

Crete. Evans & Hogarth. 

The Cretan Exploration Fund : an Abstract of the Preliminary Report of the f% 
First Season's Excavations. Communicated by the Secretary of the Fund. £ 

The new conditions in which Crete is placed, and the final emancipation of the 
island from Turkish rule, have, at last, rendered it possible to organise a serious effort to 
recover the evidences of her early civilisation. 

How important are tbe results which a thoroughgoing investigation in this field 
holds out to archaeological science may be gathered from what has already been brought 
to light in far less favourable circumstances. The path of Cretan exploration was opened 
out by the English travellers Pashley and Spratt. Their exploratory labours have been 
followed, in more recent years, by the striking discoveries of Halbherr and Fabricius. 
The great inscription containing the early laws of Gortyua stands alone as a monument 
of Greek civic legislation. The bronzes of the Idieau Cave have afforded a unique 
revelation of the begiuuings of classical Greek art. Further researches, to which 
Euglish investigation has once more contributed, have brought into relief the important 
part played by the still earlier civilisation of Myceuse, tbe wide diffusion of its remains, 
and even the existeuce in the island of an indigenous system of sign-writing anterior to 
the use of the Phoenician alphabet. Additional indications, indeed, have come to light 
which carry back tbe chronology of the earlier relics of Cretan culture far beyond the 
date of Schlieuianu's great discoveries on the mainland of Greece, and attest au 
intercourse with Egypt going back to the third and, it may be, even the fourth 
millennium before our era. We have here in Crete the first stepping-stone of European 

The better to solve the many interesting problems thus opened up it was decided in 
the summer of 1899 to form a "Cretan Exploration Fund," under the direction of 
Mr. Arthur J. Evans, M.A., F.S.A., Keeper of the Ashmoleau Museum at Oxford, and 
Mr. D. G. Hogarth, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Fellow of Magdalen College, and at that 
time Director of the British School of Archaeology in Athens, in order to carry out a 
scries of comprehensive excavations in co operation with tbe British School. His Royal 
Highness Prince George of Greece, High Commissioner of the Powers in Crete, 
graciously consented to become patrou of the Fund, and through his good offices it has 
been possible to secure for British enterprise a series of sites selected for their historic 
importance or specially representative character. At Knossos — the city of Minos and 
the Labyrinth, of Dtedalos aud the " Choros " of Ariadne, the traditional centre of the 
aucient sea- power of Crete and its earliest school of art — oue of the first objects inviting 
excavation was a mouud containing the ruins of a pre-historic building, the exploration 
of which had beeu already one of Schliemann's ambitions, and was the objective of the 
first season's work of the Fund. At Praesos, another site is reserved, on which it is 
hoped to lay bare the chief stronghold of the original Eteocretan race, where an archaic 
inscription in an indigenous and still undeciphered dialect has already been discovered. 
Lyttos, which is also included in the scheme, was regarded as the model Dorian City, 
and the fragments of its ancient laws that have come to light on its acropolis give 

[ 4 ] 

190L] MAN. [Wo. 2. 

hopes of considerable epigraphic results. The great cave of Psychro on Mt. Dikta has 
already yielded, also in the first season's work, results not inferior in interest and scientific 
importance to those obtained from the cave sanctuary on Mt. Ida ; and the investigation 
of some prehistoric sites on the south-eastern coast of Crete, also included in the present 
plan, is expected to throw a valuable light on the early intercourse with Egypt. 

But the pre-occupation of the public mind caused by the war in South Africa made 
it impossible last year to press the claims of Cretan exploration, and of the £5,000 
required for the adequate realisation of the scheme, barely a tenth part was collected by 
private subscriptions. Meanwhile, Italian and French Missions, supported by Government 
aid, had already beeu in the field for several months. Even to hold their own it was 
absolutely imperative that British representatives should make a beginning, and the 
Directors of the Cretan Exploration Fund had no choice but to embark last spring on an 
enterprise which, once begun, for the honour of British science must be carried through. 

The sum of about £500 that had been privately collected was devoted to the 
furtherance of two separate enterprises. Half of the amount went to assist Mr. Arthur 
Evans in the excavation of a site already acquired by him at Kephala ou the site of 
Knossos, which proved to contain the remains of a prehistoric palace. The other half of 
the sum collected was allocated to Mr. D. G. Hogarth, the Director of the British School 
at Athens, for the exploration of the prehistoric town and tombs of Knossos and of the 
great Cave of Zeus on Mount Dikta. 

The following paragraphs from the statement and appeal recently issued by the 
Directors of the Fund will give some idea of the magnitude and importance of the 
results of the first campaign : — 

The Palace of Knossos. — " The discoveries made at Knossos throw iuto the shade 
all the other exploratory campaigns of last season iu the Eastern Mediterranean, by 
whatever nationality conducted. It is not too much to say that the materials already 
gathered have revolutionised our knowledge of prehistoric Greece, and that to find even 
an approach to the results obtained we must go back to Schliemann's great discovery of 
the Royal tombs at Mycenae." 

" The building itself, of which some two acres superficial area have been now 
uncovered, proved to be a palace, beside which those of Tiryns and Mycenre sink into 

insignificance." "At but a very slight depth below the surface of the 

ground the spade has uncovered great courts and corridors, propyhea, a long succession 
of magazines containing gigantic store jars that might have hidden the Forty Thieves, 
and a multiplicity of chambers, pre-eminent among which is the actual Throne Room 
and Council Chamber of Homeric kings. The throne itself is carved out of alabaster, 
once brilliant with coloured designs, and relieved with curious tracery and crocketed 
arcading, which is wholly unique in ancient art. In the Throne Room and elsewhere 
was a series of fresco paintings, excelling any known examples of the art in Mycenaean 
Greece. A beautiful life-size painting of a youth, with an European and almost 
classically Greek profile, gives us the first real knowledge of the race who produced 
this mysterious early civilisation. Other frescoes introduce us to a lively and hitherto 
unknown miniature style, representing, among other subjects, groups of women 
engaged in animated conversation in the courts and on the balconies of the palace. 
The monuments of the sculptor's art are equally striking ; a marble fountain in the 
shape of a lioness's head with enamelled eyes ; fragments of a frieze with beautifully 
cut rosettes, superior in its kind to anything known from Mycenae ; an alabaster vase 
natural istically copied from a Tritou shell ; a porphyry lamp with graceful foliation, 
supported on an " Egyptianizing " lotus column ; and the head and parts of the body 
of a magnificent painted relief of a bull in gesso duro" 

As showing the extreme antiquity of the earlier elements of the building, it may be 
mentioned that in the great Eastern Court was found an Egyptian seated figure of 

[ 5 ] 

190L] MAN. [No. 9. 

diorite, which can be approximately dated about 2000 B.C., and has been published in 
the Annual Report of the Egypt Exploration Fund for 1900. Below this again extends 
a vast Stone Age settlement, which forms a deposit iu some places twenty-four feet in 

Some of the discoveries in the "House of Miuos" supply new and instructive 
indications as to the cult and religious beliefs of its occupants. 

" One of the miniature frescoes represents the fac,ade of a Mycenaean shrine, and 
the Palace itself seems to have been a sanctuary of the Cretan god of the Double Axe, 
as well as a dwelling- place of prehistoric kiugs. There can be little remaining doubt 
that this huge building, with its maze of corridors and tortuous passages, its medley of 
small chambers, its long succession of magazines with their blind endings, was in fact 
the Labyrinth of later tradition which supplied a local habitation for the Minotaur of 
grisly fame. The great figures of bulls in fresco and relief that adorned the walls, the 
harem scenes of some of the frescoes, the corner stones and pillars marked with the 
labrys or double axe, the emblem of the Cretan Zeus — explaining the derivation of the 
name " Labyrinth " itself — are so many details which all conspire to bear out this 

" But brilliant as are the illustrations thus recovered of the high early civilisation 
of the City of Minos and of the substantial truth of early tradition, they are almost 
thrown into the shade by a discovery which carries back the existence of written 
documents in the Hellenic lands some seven centuries beyond the first known monuments 
of tho historic Greek writing. In the chambers and magazines of the Palace there 
came to light a series of deposits of clay tablets, in form somewhat analogous to the 
Babylonian, but inscribed with characters iu two distinct types of indigenous prehistoric 
script, one hieroglyphic or quasi-pictorial, the other linear. Tho existence of a 
hieroglyphic script in the island had been already the theme of some earlier researches 
by Mr. Evans, based on the more limited material supplied by groups of signs on a 
class of Cretan seal-stones, and the ample corroboration of the conclusions arrived at 
was therefore the more satisfactory. These Cretan hieroglyphs will be found to have a 
special importance in their bearing on the origin of the Phoenician Alphabet." 

" But the great bulk of the tablets belonged to the linear class, exhibiting an 
elegant and much more highly developed form of script, with letters of au upright 
and siugularly European aspect. The inscriptions, over a thousand of which were 
collected, were originally contained in coffers of clay, wood, and gypsum, which had 
been in turn secured by clay seals impressed with finely engraved signets, and counter- 
marked and countersigned by controlling officials in the same script while the clay was 
still wet. The clay documents themselves are beyond doubt the Palace archives. 
M^ny relate to accounts concerning the Royal Arsenal, stores and treasures. Others 
perhaps, like the contemporary cuneiform tablets, refer to contracts or correspondence. 
The problems attaching to the decipherment of these clay records are of enthralling 
interest, and we have here locked up for us materials which may some day eularge the 
bounds of history." 

The Lower Town of Knossos. — " Exploratory digging by Mr. Hogarth to the south 
and west of the Palace revealed a veritable Pompeii of houses of the same early period, 
which yielded, among other things, by far the finest series yet fouud of vases of the 
singular primitive Cretan polychrome style, unrepresented in European museums. One 
remarkably well preserved block of buildings appears to be a group of shrines devoted 
to a Pillar worship, such as is known on the Phoenician aud Palestinian coasts, and of 
which the Palace itself supplies an example connected with the cult of the Cretan Zeus." 
The Cave of Psychro. — '• Finally, the clearing of the Cave of Psychro, long 
notorious for its rich votive deposits, was also carried out by Mr. Hogarth. This cave 
is no other than the holy Dictaean Cavern, in which Hesiod and Virgil state that the 

[ « 1 

190L] MAN. [Nos. 2-3. 

Supreme God was cradled. There took place the legendary union of Zeus with Europa, 
and therefrom, as from another Sinai, Minos brought down the law after communion 
with the God. The blasting away of the fallen rocks in the upper half of the Grotto 
revealed a rude altar of burnt sacrifice, and a sacred enclosure or Temenos, cumbered 
with deposit from five to seven feet deep, full of vases, libation tables, weapons, and 
implements in bronze, bone, and iron, statuettes in terra-cotta, and models of everyday 
objects, dedicated to the God. In the lower half, a profound abyss, where a gloomy 
subterranean pool, out of which rises a forest of stalactitic pillars, continues into the 
heart of the mountain, a great surprise was in store. For not only was the bottom mud 
full of bronze statuettes, gems, and articles of male and female use, but the vertical slits 
in the pillars were found to have been used as niches, and to contain an immense number 
of votive double axes, weapons, and trinkets." " The discoveries made in this cave 
cover the whole primitive period of Cretan history back to the pre-Mycemean epoch." 

Future Work. — " Among the other sites included in the British Concessions are 
two votive caves, the citadels of more than one Mycenaean city of Eastern Crete and 
Praesos, the ancient capital of that region, within whose walls the language of the old 
indigenous stock — the Eteokrctes of the Odyssey — survived to historic times. Here, if 
anywhere, should be found the key to the undeciphered hieroglyphic script of Crete ; 
and it is to be hoped that sufficient funds may be forthcoming to begin excavation 
at this spot during the coming season under the auspices of the British School at 
Athens. The exploration that has thus been taken in hand is not confined to the back- 
waters of antiquarian research. It lies about the fountain-head of our own civilisation. 
Inadequately supported as it has been, it has already produced results which throw an 
entirely new light on the first development of high art, the origin of letters, the early 
religion and ethnography of the Greek lands, the most ancient connections between 
Europe and Egypt. To ensure the execution of the still extensive programme before 
it, the Cretan Exploration Fund needs contributions to the amount of at least £3,000." 

Subscriptions may be paid either to Mr. George Macmillan (as Hon. Treasurer), 
at St. Martin's Street, London, W.C., or into the account of " The Cretan Exploration 
Fund " at Messrs. Roberts, Lubbock & Co.'s, Lombard Street, E.C. J. L. M. 

Religion.* Lang. 

The Making of Religion. By Andrew Lang, M.A., LL.D., St. Andrews. ^ 
Second Edition. London. Longmans, 1900. 8vo, pp. xxii, 355. Price 5s. net. jj 

The new edition of " The Making of Religion " does not call for a lengthened 
notice in these pages. It is true that the revolutionary theory contained in the second 
part of the work has never yet beeu fully discussed. But to do so would require nearly 
as much space as the original occupies. On the other hand, the question raised by the 
earlier half of the book as to the validity and import of certain phenomena, vulgarly 
called " spiritualistic," is hardly one for the Anthropological Institute. 

The ne^ edition is introduced by a new preface, in which Mr. Lang restates his 
position, makes a few explanations (including an indication of what he thinks probable 
as to the origin of a savage belief in " a kind of germinal Supreme Being "), and attempts 
to meet some objections. But the last word has yet to be said. 

Cautious controversialists must not rest satisfied with reading the preface. In the 
body of the work a number of modifications have been made where specific statements 
or inapposite comparisons have been challenged. Some of the rhetoric has been pared 
down, and some of the printers' errors in the first edition have been corrected. The 
latter were numerous, and survivals (such as reduce on p. 207 for seduce, and Utilexo 
p. 209 for Utikxo) still disturb the reader. The volume is handy, and the reduction in 
price will probably render it popular. E. S. H, 

L 7 ] 



[Nob. 4-5. 

Gullloche Ornament. Balfour. 

Guilloche Pattern on <tn Etrt/sran PoUl nmunicated by II»?nry Balfour, M 

Y«, Curator of the PitURivarc Museum, < kxford, ■ 

Tie d shown in the photograph, is of some Little interest as illu 

apparently one of the mm the pattern known M the ffuUtock* , The frag- 

meni is from an Etrnacan I Formed part of tbfl collection of the late 

Johi urn Flower, no* lathi Pitt-Riv) am at Oxford. I 


f — — - — 1 sel, whirh 

n ti» 


1 in 

of in 

d o it M e 

00 D I 


an i 
- tMi- 

!\ carried out. and \h ie slightly irregular, while io one ease 

the inner circle ifl omitted, One row is >< < n to ii>n-i>t «»f Himitar double ooncentric 
circles (the two aire! g wider apart), and these overlap one another to the 

extent of the width of the spare between any pair ol tbt fries. In nome ei 

tin' outer circles have heen almost completed, giving almost the eflfocl of overlap] 
transparent dises, hnt more to the righl of the fra^m* nt (as viewed in the figure) the 
QtltOr circle lines are hrokeu with more eare ami intention, and the tt ovcr-and-imder 11 
effect of a perfeet gullloche is practically arrived at. It would appear as though this 

nncii exhibited the genesis of b goilloohe by a more or less uneonsclons pro© 
beginning with concentric circles .- slipping"" so as to overlap, and suggesting 

the adoption of the new design of combined running scrolls, the M over-aml-under w or 
** plaiting " effect being at this stage only Imperfectly grasped. In vtew of the numerous 
indepetni of transitions by which the gnllloebe baa been arrived at in various 

regions, this example may l>e of inter 1KB. 

Folklore : Animal Superstitions. Thomas, 

mcrvado d$ rjrtllos U\ Thomas. Published \n A ZVdrfffSo, Il. f 9 r 

(September, 1900), Pp. 129-M 

A short difooseion of the meaning to be attached to the sale of certain insets and 

birds in various countries of Europe, usually at fixed da J. 

[ 9 J 

190L] MAN. [Wot. 6-7. 

Nigeria.* Robinson. 

"yigerhij Omr latest Protectorate" By the Rev. Canon Robinson* M.A. A 
1900. London, Horace Marshall. 8vo, pp. xii., 222. Map ami photographic 
illustrations. Price 5*. net. 

The issue of Canon Robinson's recent work, entitled " Nigeria* Our Latest Protec- 
torate," is most opportune in view of the extension of British rule in the upper waters of 
the Niger. The volume before us deals almost exclusively with that region which for 
administrative purposes is now known as Northern Nigeria, ami particularly with the 
Hansa people, who are by far the most im porta ut race inhabiting this region. Canon 
Robinson is well qualified to give us information concerning the Hausas, for as student 
of the Hausa Association he has visited Kano, the great commercial centre of the Hausa 
States, and has lived amongst the Hausas resident in North Africa, and as a result of his 
studies of the Hausa language and people he has brought out a Dictionary of the Hausa 
language, some specimens of Hausa literature, in addition to a small grammar, and 
the translation of the Gospel of St. John. The second chapter of his present book gives 
some account of the origin of the Hausa people, showing that although the earlier tra- 
ditions may be unreliable, their history can he traced back to the 16th century, but not very 
much is known about them until the year 1802, when the conquest of the Hausa States 
by the Fulahs took place. Attempts have often been made to connect the Hausas with 
the Semitic races, but neither their language nor their physical characteristics appear 
to favour this view. The Hausa language is l>elieved by the author of " Nigeria " to be 
in some way akin to Berber, but its exact relation to other languages must for the 
present remain doubtful. As to their physical characteristics, the Hausas seem to be 
true negros, but they are capable of great mental and physical development. Mention is 
made of their great superiority as soldiers, so much so that the term of Hausas has been 
applied in many cases to native troops serving under the British flag, even though only a 
certain proportion might be true Hausas. The Hausas are also able to carry very heavy 
loads, and are thus mo<*t useful as carriers. Canon Robinson gives a graphic description 
of the commercial tastes of the Hausas generally, and the chapter on Hausa writings 
and traditions indicates something of their mental capacity. It is believed that, although 
by virtue of the Fulah Conquest the Hausas are nominally Mohammedans, a largo 
number of them are heathen to this day, and the Mohammedan influence has not. l>eon 
predominant in Hausaland for more than a century. 

" Nigeria " may be regarded as a good introduction to the study of this interesting 
race, to which it may be hoped that before very long there may be many contributions 
from those who at the present time are brought in contact with them, so that wo may 
realise the importance of the nation which by the enterprise and foresight of Sir (Joorgo 
Goldie has been brought under the influence of the British Crown. C. F. II-H. 

Pacific : Easter Island. Edge-Partlngrton. 

On the Origin of the Stone Figures or Incised Tablets from Easter Island. ■J 

Communicated by J. Edge-Parti ngton. • 

In the Smithsonian Report for the year ending 30 June, 1889, there is an elaborate 
paper on Easter Island, contributed by Paymaster Wm. J. Thomson, of the U.S. Navy, 
which deals veiy carefully with the history, &c. of this island from its discovery to the 
visit of the U.S. Warship Mohican, when a careful survey was made of the island. 
Until the publication of this paper it was generally supposed that all clue had been lost 
to the history or origin of the colossal stone statues and of the incised tablets. It in, 
therefore, the more astonishing that during the short time that the Mohican was at 
Easter Island Mr. Thomson was able to obtain from the natives the most minute details 
of how these images were qtTarried, how transported, and placed in position upon the 

[ 9 } 

1901.] MAN. [Hoi. 7-8. 

platforms prepared for them. He acknowledges, however, that the fact of the images 
being in all stages of incompletion in the workshops, and abandoned en route to the coast 
in various directions, indicates, that the work was suddenly arrested ; and jet no record 
has been handed down of the disturbance of auy of the volcanoes on the island. 

Of the incised tabkts he says, " Their existence was not known until missionaries 
settled upon the island." The ability to read their characters may have continued until 
1 864, when the greater portion of the population was carried off by the Peruvian slavers. 
During the stay of the Mohican two of these tablets were secured, and an old man, the 
patriarch of the island, was induced, under the influence of rum, to translate them, along 
with other known specimens, photographs of which were sbowu to him. 

As far as I am aware, no criticism of this paper appeared until Captain H. V. 
Barclay, R.M.L.L, late of H.M.S. Topaze, read a paper before the Royal Geographical 
Society of Australasia (South Australian Brauch), on April 1 1th, 1898. After 
describing the visit of H.M.S. Topaze and the general features of the island, he, too, 
remarks that everything points to the sudden cessation of work, and that this was 
probably caused by some great volcanic catastrophe. Many of the figures, he says, are 
uow standing vertical, but partly buried in volcanic mud, dust, and scoria. Captain 
Barclay attaches great importance to the evidence of this sudden cessation from work as 
being a proof of a vast volcanic outburst subsequent to the erection of these particular 
statues, which could not fail to have affected the whole area of the island and of every 
inhabitant on it, yet in the whole of these so-called translations of the tablets there is not 
a word about any such catastrophe ; and yet had those people been descended from those 
living at that time some dim memory of it must have been handed down from father to 
son. Therefore, either the tablets were made subsequent to tho date of the half-buried 
statues, and by a different race of people, who possessed no knowledge of any catastrophe, 
or else supposing them to have been made prior to the catastrophe, then we have the 
untenable position that the knowledge of how to read them was handed down from 
generation to generation through a period when the whole island must have been almost, 
if not quite, uninhabitable owing to the violent outburst of the great crater, and yet, though 
remembering the smallest detail of an obscure picture-writing, all knowledge of this 
terrible time is lost. Not only is this the case, but many of the so-called translations 
bear evidence of modern teaching. I think, therefore, that it may fairly be said that we 
are now no nearer the history of the statues or the meaning of the inscriptions on the 
incised tablets than we were before the publication of Mr. Thomson's paper. J. E-P. 

Consangruinity. # Davies. 

Consanguinity as a Factor in the JEtiology of Tuberculosis. A paper read Q 
at the Meeting of the British Medical Association at Ipswich, by Dr. Charles O 
Davies, of Ramsey, Isle of Man, reported at length in the British Medical Journal, 
September 29th, 1900, p. 904. 

Dr. Davies thinks favourable opportunities for observing the effects of in-breeding 
are to be found amongst tho inhabitants of the Isle of Man. For 600 years very little 
new blood has been introduced, and marriages, for the greater part, have been made 
between couples belonging to the same parish. Tho mortality from phthisis is 25 • 7 per 
10,000 living inhabitants for the whole Island, nearly double that for England ; the 
mortality for the isolated parish of Lonau, in which the families are closely related by 
marriage, and have been for many generations, is 41*17 per 10,000 inhabitants. Dr. 
Davies regards the high mortality as due to an in-breeding of families especially 
susceptible to tubercular infection. Unfortunately he gives no detailed results of an 
investigation iuto the various families within the parish, and how far the incidence of 
tuberculosis coincides with the degree of consanguinity. A. K 

[ io ] 



Mesopotamia : Astrology. # 


The Reports of the Magician* and Astrologers of Xinvveh and Huhyhn* |% 
VoL L. Cuneiform Texts ; Vol. LL, English Translation and Transliteration. 9 
By R. C. Thompson. Loudon, Luaac & Co., 1900. Ho plates, j>p, \\ii, \oi, ll<. 
Price 12j. 6rf. per volome net* 

This is a book which is by its very nature more iutorontiiitf to airtviiologUu than 
to anthropologists. Those who are deeply veiled in the anttology of the Middle \l;i».» 
will doubtless find valuable material for comparison with Wontem development . : Iml 
it is extremely difficult to discover any general principle* uudcilyiuj{ the decinionn ol the 
astrologer, and the study of them seems likely to throw uo more liKht on ethiMdnjfirul 
questions than the consideration of the linotype machine would thiovv on the enjoin «d 
the alphabet. If it is true that Babyloniau religion is a highly complicated n\»Uiu, thi«» 
is even more true of magic and astrology. The developments aio so much the ie«uU nl 
conscious endeavour that they do uot come into the proviuoo of the uhnologibt lu u 
much greater extent than moderu Auglicau theology. Add to thin, tliut tliu ntvln i«« 
obscure, and the phraseology iuteutioually vague, and it is ulnar that ihu book in inlbcr 
a happy hunting grouud of the linguist than of the anthropologist, tiud to this liuu,MUb> 
we accordingly commeud it. Tho print is good, both in the (luiioifurni uud the Wmuhh 
characters, and there is an index, vocabulary, ami tuhle. There is ulso umteriul hctoinu. 
on the history of the calendar, and in one or two passages an iustiumnut is noticed wliidi 
seems to have been a kind of clock. N. W. I • 


Natal. Balfour. 

Native Smoking Pipes from Natal. Collected by H, J), U. Kingston, M.|J. 9 
and described by Henry Balfour, M.A. 

The four pipes figured in the accompanying illustration were eollected some yinr 
ago by Dr. H. D. R. Kingston in Natal, The small -sized water pipe is of a vnM -a no wo 

form in coooooo ma- umoo/p ih* 
mjfive» of Hoolb Ahku, owj 
ih'uiaiJy tbo*e 1// MaMh i'tltur 

IJ'/JJ. h MthtieU Of H "/wV 

hothf fbioefrb u bob jo I hi .-jib 
of wbo-b /* JUj-iJ a Jo/IJuvi mm), 
00 ibe fop of wbbb 1* lix'l <i 
bowb 'ibii» howl pm-4/Hr tbi 
oliiuf |/«^ijAf i/f infi;4Jvl ui 1 bit' 

/p^'iliMJO, #J/# iOnfiad of I*' my 
ialjorioiitdy Iliad* , ath j U/< ouhvi 

fuflhi'/O, OO I Ol J,iUljl< i/J , Milll 
oUl'.J f.i/HU , I* 'OOnl.-lf- i#l llll 

O'dtOJO/ [it nit} f.intu »n|i hi|* 
1/i/ , ui, »th d »-if Ibnf tin #u 1 |i 
bl,- '/#4 0# Jin Hid wImIi lli* 
'/'/'.O/O' Int. \,iiit hl»tl>t it 11 v, ik hi 

f'/jM* mo op* n ho»l J*<illfinp 
'y/0lij )<Mr' 1.4 / n b« Hi ^ niiiinh »l 

i I,. 

Tbe ink bmtJ** a* «wil jm* v* o" 

J, .J, 

0/ *b* pU||iO--l , IHlll i«< 

li'.ottl iff i t l\,i i pijiob'i ' nMffijfb 

i ^rul».i 1 Um ii- 1 i,J ill 

, f »/.*! It* » tfini MiitiMbb >vl"»i 1 hiU » 



[Nos. 10-11 

and discarded by the white man. Both tobacco and Indian hemp are smoked in these 
pipes ; the mouth is applied to the large opening in the horn and the smoke drawn 
through water in the horn. This specimen was obtained from an old Kaffir who was 
smoking it at the Agricultural Show at Pietermaritzburg in May, 1889. 

The three smaller and extremely simple pipes were confiscated from convicts at one 
of the Natal convict stations where Dr. Kingston was medical officer. Convicts are not 

allowed to smoke until they have 
served a certain time with good 
behaviour. Two of these pipes 
(figs. 1,2) are simple short tubes 
of bone, wide open at both ends. 
One of them (fig. 1) is partly 
wrapped iu skin, and is deco- 
rated with beads, and would be 
worn suspended as a charm 
round the neck, in order that its 
real function might escape de- 
tection leading to confiscation. 
The third (fig. 3) is of clay and 
of tapering form, with wide 
aperture at the larger end form- 
ing the bowl, and narrow orifice 
at the pointed end which serves 
as the mouthpiece. These illicit 
clay pipes would be baked at the 
road-side fire, tended by one of 

NATIVE TOBACCO-PIPES PROM NATAL. the gftt)g for the coflfee keft , e 

Scale, J natural. whi]e at work> or in fhe CQok- 

house by one of the " sweepers," who are not very strictly watched. These and the 
bone pipes are used either for tobacco or hemp, whichever can be obtained. H. B. 

Folklore : Ireland. Rhys. 

On certain Wells in Ireland. Communicated by Professor J. Rhjs, with 


extracts from a letter of Sir Henry Blake, G.C.M.G. 

One day not long ago I had the good fortune to meet Professor Mahaffy, and the 
conversation was directed by me to the question of certain Irish wells which were not to 
l>e approached with impunity. He mentioned the story, which I append, and said it was 
from Sir Henry Blake, Governor of Hong Kong, that he had heard it. I wanted it in 
full for my forthcoming book on " Celtic Folklore," which has since been published by 
the Clarendon Press. So I wrote to Sir Henry Blake and received an ample reply ; but 
as it has come too late for my " Celtic Folklore," I send his letter to you, as it is far too 
good to be lost. It is dated Government House, Hong Kong, 30th October, 1900, and 
runs as follows : — 

" I heard of the incident related by Professor Mahaffy, when stationed at Belmullet, 
about the year 1866. The island is Innis Gloria, a small island lying off Termoncara, 
an old churchyard in the Mullet about 2 miles from Binghamstown. There are but 
few families living on the island. On the occasion referred to every male was away in 
Belmullet, when heavy weather came on which lasted for several days. No woman 
dared to take water from the well, the tradition being that if they did so the water 
would turn to blood and worms. They were literally perishing with thirst when, 

[ 12 ] 

1901] MAN. [No. It 

happily, a son was born. The infant was immediately taken to the well, and a tin 
' pannikin ' was held in his hand with which the much needed water was ladled out. 
Dean Lyons, Roman Catholic Dean, who was parish priest at Binghamstown, tried 
ineffectually to break down this superstitious observance. The island was once connected 
with the Mullet, and at low water the remains of a causeway may still be seen. The 
place was always considered holy, and every funeral procession to Termoncara 
goes out as far towards the island as the tide will allow before turning into 
the old churchyard. In the old ruined church exists, or existed — I write 
from recollection of over 30 years ago — an old wooden image supposed to be of the 
Virgin or of some one of the Saints. To this the people attributed miraculous powers, 
and large numbers visited the island to pray to it. I heard, but cannot vouch for its 
truth, that Dean Lyons took this image out to sea and sank it by attaching weights to 
it. Some time after there was a heavy storm, during which the image, or idol, was 
washed ashore. I am afraid to mention the name of the well on the island, but I 
have a dim idea that it was a holy well of St. Brigid ; however, ' Erris and Trelawuey,* 
a book by the Rev. Caeser Ottway, published about 1850, contains a very exhaustive 
account of that portion of the County Mayo. 

" In the Island of Inniskea, south of the Mullet, there is a still more curious super- 
stition, for here the object of reverence, having the power of calming the sea wheu in 
great storms the fishermen are in dauger, by being brought out from its flannel cover 
and carried to the sea, is a stone, now iu two or more pieces, called the ' knievogue,' or 
little saint, not even in the shape of a human figure. Popular tradition assigns to 
foreign aggressors, or to Cromwell's troops, the breaking of the image, and here again 
the clergy stepped in with an attempt to remove the knievogue, which was the really 
paramount object of worship on the two islands of Inniskea. The curate induced the 
islander in whose keeping the knievogue was, to hand it over to him, and, accompanied 
by his henchman, he set out in his boat across the harbour from the south to the north 
island, but during his passage a great storm arose, aud he was saved with difficulty. 
He concealed the image iu the north island, and went away. But he was watched by 
an old hag who could not understand his movements, and by whom the precious 
knievogue was found aud restored. Each year a new flannel covering is made for it. 
But this was all forty years ago, and I cannot say what iconoclasm may not have been 
introduced by that destroyer of folklore, the national schoolmaster/ 9 

So far in answer to my question ; but Sir Henry Blake adds the following informa- 
tion about another practice : — 

" Between BeJ mullet and Binghamstown is a large well to which women come to 
pray for the recovery of sick relatives. They go round the well seven times on their 
knees, while telling their beads. If at the conclusion of their devotions any living 
thing is seen in the well their prayer is answered, and they retire filled with the 
blessed elixir of Hope. I have seeu a poor woman kneeling for hours over the well 
with hands clasped, and gazing with agonised anxiety into the clear waters. I 
remember thinking how much appreheusion one might relieve by dropping a few 
worms into the well now and agaiu I I have not come across this particular superstition 
in any other part of Ireland." 

I do not wish to offer any remarks on Sir Henry Blake's letter, but I may say 
that after this remarkable instance of his interest in Irish folklore I shall probably not 
be alone in wishing him back in Ireland, however happy he may feel in the discharge 
of his duties at Hong Kong. J. RH^S. 

[ 13 ] 

190L] MAN. flfro. 12, 

Siam. # McCarthy. 

Surveying and Exploring in Siam. By James McCarthy, F.R.G.S., Director- ^^ 
General of the Siamese Government Surveys. London, John Murray, 1900. |^ 
8vo, pp. xii + 215. Price 10*. 6d. uet. 

Mr. McCarthy's work is an account in narrative form of his personal work in 
connection with the survey of Siam during many years. When first engaged by the 
Siamese Government the author had to begin work practically single-handed, and for 
some years was chiefly engaged in educating a staff of young Siamese assistants to assist 
iu the work of the survey of the country. 

The story of the triangulation of the Northern frontiers of Siam, as they existed 
before 1893, is a remarkable record of physical endurance and patient and monotonous 
labour of an exhausting character. 

The physical difficulties of the country, the absence of transport facilities, the 
scantiness of population — and consequent scarcity of supplies — and the violent character 
of the fevers which exposure in Indo-China is sure to induce, make it one of the most 
trying portions of the globe to travel in. When Mr. McCarthy began his work in Siam, 
moreover, the majority of the people inland knew very little about Europeans or their 
habits, and the chiefs regarded them with suspiciou and dislike. Moreover, the sextant 
and the theodolite conveyed a general idea of magic, which was uncanny to the ordinary 
hillman, and consequently, without doubt, viewed with disfavour by the spirits of the 
forest, the river, and the mountain, as well as by the hardly less numerous petty officials 
of the Lao States. With the most important landowners thus at first leagued against 
him, even official documents with the Royal seals of the Bangkok Court upon them 
failed to secure him from passive obstruction, and even active interference. Thus 
Mr. McCarthy's claim that his work was carried out under much discouragement is, in 
fact, not exaggerated, and no Gold Medallist of the Royal Geographical Society has ever 
better deserved the honour. 

It is a pity that a record of such a really fine piece of scientific work should be 
spoiled somewhat by the jerky style in which it is written, and a certain sense of incom- 
pleteness which characterises the information the author gives regarding the country 
in which he worked and the peoples inhabiting it. The ordinary reader will get a 
somewhat confused idea of the geography and ethnology of Indo-China unless he reads 
with care. He will be rewarded here and there, especially if he has travelled under 
difficult conditions himself, with some passages which refer to places which have hardly 
ever been described before, and which singularly appeal to the imagination. Such, for 
instance, are the descriptions of the uplands of the Chieng Kwang highlands, and the 
Bcenes from some of the highest peaks of Indo-China beyond the Me Kong. Indo-China 
is very rich in beautiful scenes, but its beauties are often hard to win. The surveyor or 
the miner, who must penetrate into the deepest recesses of nature, arc those to whom 
they are most open ; and among all the joys of earth there is none so keen as that of the 
traveller standing upon the verge of the lonely glories of Nature. These moments are 
evidently, from Mr. McCarthy's account, to be enjoyed in Siam, and fortunately too ; for 
the conditions of inland travel aro not too full otherwise of unalloyed pleasures. 

Undoubtedly the most interesting portion of Mr. McCarthy's work is that which 
deals with the very interesting races inhabiting the hill districts north of latitude 7°. 
While the Lao or Tai people generally inhabit the elevated valley lands, throughout 
the rough forest tracks among the mountains a number of tribes are found living as a 
rule a roving life, speaking different languages, and having different customs. Their 
number and variety are a puzzle to the traveller, and it is very difficult to classify them, 
or to come to any satisfactory explanation as to their relationship to one another. At 
the same time it is possible to distinguish a group of tribes, generally known to the 
Siamese and Lao by the prefix Ea, e.g., the Ka Yuen, Ka Hok, and some others, 

C M ] 

1901.) MAN. [Nos. 12-13. 

including the Lanten, who are a very primitive group wearing hardly any clothes, 
worshipping only the evil spirits in the nature round them, and cultivating burnt forest 
cleariugs with scanty crops of cotton, rice, or Indian corn. The other tribes are 
generally more civilised, and are expert in silver work or embroidery, with which they 
adorn themselves in the most quaint and picturesque costumes to be found in the Far 
East. Several of the latter show distinctly Chinese characteristics, such as the Mco, 
Yao, and others. To withiu the last six years a steady movement of these peoples has 
been apparent from the unsettled territories of the Chinese frontiers on the north 
and east to Siamese territory on the south and west. This movement has at present 
ceased, owing to the establishment of comparative security and peace around Tongkin, 
aud the extension of French rule to the left bank of the Me Kong. It will be interesting 
to see what the future of these liberty-loving shy-mannered mountaineers will be. A 
complete and exhaustive study of them has yet to be made, and will be of the greatest 
interest. Mr. McCarthy gives us much that is important regarding them, but he merely 
whets the appetite on a subject with which comparatively few writers have dealt. 

A number of photographs, and some pen and ink sketches, help to illustrate the text. 
A good index and triangulation charts, with the map constructed from the survey, add 
greatly to the value of the work. H. W. 8. 

Bunno-CMnese Frontier/ Government Report. 

Report on the Administration of tlie Chin Hills for the year 1899-1900. Ag\ 
Rangoon. 45 pages, price Is. 6d. 1900. 10 

Report on the North Eastern Frontier for the year 1899-1900. Rangoon. 21 pages, 
price ll|d. 1900. 

Report on the Administration of the Shan States for the year 1899-1900. Rangoon. 
112 pages, price Is. 6d. 1900. 

In these three reports we have a complete account of the measures which are 
being taken by the British Government to bring the wild tribes along the Burmo- 
Chinese Frontier under control. But, as is usually the case with savages brought 
under the influence of civilisation, the process of education is fatal to them. Thus 
Mr. Hildebrand notices that the population in the States of Naungpale and Nammekon 
has decreased 50 per cent, since 1899, and he goes on to say, "The chiefs and 
" people are aware of it, of course, and are somewhat alarmed at it. They ascribe 
" it to (a) the migration to Burma, (b) to tho many deaths among both children and 
u adults. I am absolutely unable myself to account for such a very sudden change 
44 from what was apparently a healthy community in 1875 to what is now evidently 
44 but the remnants of a race very quickly dyiug out. The migration to Burma can, 
44 I think, scarcely account for more than 10 per cent, of the vacancies. The next 
44 thing that strikes one is the change in the people themselves. From being a blustering 
44 set of semi-savages, all going about armed to the teeth with guns, dahs, and spears, 
44 they are now a shrinking, timid people, going about almost entirely unarmed. I 
44 scarcely saw a gun or a spear the whole journey through these States, aud I have 
44 formerly sat with hundreds of them standing round and wandering about my camp, 
4 * not one of whom carried fewer than three spears and possibly two da/is, and most 
44 of them also with a gun. From living, as they used to do, by raiding their neighbours, 
44 aud carrying men, women, children, aud their cattle into captivity, they are now 
44 mere plodders of the soil, with no more predatory instincts apparent than in the 
44 peaceful law-abiding Shan or Taungthu. Their reformation, for the time, at any 
44 rate, is complete, and it has been accomplished so suddenly that, accompanied as it 
44 is by so many deaths, it is rather painful to see it. They seem to have lost all heart, 
44 and I feel quite sorry for them." In fact, they are disappearing like the Tasmanians 
before the advance of civilisation, and will in a short time be extinct. W. C, 

[ 15 ] 

190L] MAN. [No. 14. 

American Negro.* Du Bols : Eaton. 

The Philadelphia Negro ; a Social Study. By W. E. B. Du Bow, Ph.D. +m 
Special Report on Domestic Service. By Isabel Eaton, A.M. (No. 1 4 of the 1^ 
Series in Political Economy and Public Law of Publication* of the University of 
Pennsylvania.) Pp. xx, 520. 

Dr. Du Bois, who is now the Professor of Economics and History in Atlanta 
University, records in this work the results of an inquiry into the present condition of 
the negroes of Philadelphia, mainly conducted in the seventh ward of that city. He 
hopes that his study will emphasize the fact that the negro problems are problems of 
human beings, that they cannot be explained away by fantastic theories, ungrounded 
assumptions, or metaphysical subtleties. The inquiry occupied fifteen mouths, and was 
undertaken by the University of Pennsylvania at the instance of Miss Susan P. Wharton. 
It is analogous to the work performed by Mr. Charles Booth, in his monumental 
volumes on the life and labour of the people of London. The negroes are growing in 
number more rapidly than the whites, and the proportion of women and of persons 
between the ages of 18 and 35 is greater among them than among the whites. Their 
death rate is high. The practical importance of a study of the present social condition 
of a race, which, though it dwells with others in a large city, is separate from them in 
almost every respect, is indicated by the observation that '• the class of negroes which the 
" prejudices of the city have distinctly encouraged is that of the criminal, the lazy, 
" and the shiftless : for them the city teems with institutions and charities ; for them is 
" succour and sympathy ; for them Philadelphians are thinking and planning ; but for 
" the educated and industrious young coloured man who wants work and not platitudes, 
" wages and not alms, just rewards and not sermons — for such coloured men Philadelphia 
" apparently has no use." Though race prejudice is not as great as it used to be, it is 
till powerful enough to keep down the progress of the negro, however capable and 
intelligent he may be. 

The method adopted was to select the ward of the city which contained the largest 
population of negro descent, in which they amount to nearly one-third of the whole 
population, and number nearly 9,000, or one-fifth of the negro population of the thirty- 
seven wards into which the city is divided, and to visit every house inhabited by them 
armed with six schedules of questions. This, it may well be believed, was a mission 
requiring great tact and judgment, as some of the questions injudiciously put might 
have raised feelings of resentment, and either answers might have been withheld or false 
answers given. It is, perhaps, not surprising, therefore, though it is disappointing to 
the anthropologist, that no anthropometric measurements or observations were attempted, 
and the inquiry was made exclusively a sociological one. The educational condition 
disclosed was relatively not unsatisfactory, 8l£ per cent, of the whole being able to read 
and write. The occupation of 61 £ per cent, of the males and 88^ per cent, of the 
females was that of domestic and personal service (as compared with 17 per cent, for 
males and 38 for females in the whole population of all colours). The negroes of the 
seventh ward group themselves into 2,276 families, of which 19 per cent, are so poor 
as to earn $5 and less per week on the average. Much valuable information is given 
as to their organised life, which mainly centres in the churches, almost wholly apart 
from the whites ; as to criminality, pauperism, and alcoholism among them, and 
generally as to their environment. Dr. Du Bois 9 general conclusion is that the negro 
is " here to stay," and that it is for the advantage of both races that he should make 
the best of himself, so that the white race ought to help him and not hinder him in 
doing so ; but that the negro race has an appalling work of social reform before it. 
A bibliography of books relating to the negro generally, and to Philadelphia negroes 
in particular, as well as one of books and pamphlets written by Philadelphia negroes, is 
appended. Miss Eaton's able Report pursues the inquiry further in the special direction 
of negro domestic service, and contains a great •number of valuable statistics and acute 
observations. E. W. B. 

Printed by Bybb and Spottiswoodb, Her Majesty's Printers, Bast Harding Street, B.C. 

lOOt] MAN. [No. 16. 

China. With Plate B. Read. 

Relics from Chinese Tombs. Communicated by C. H. Read, F.S.A., President «*p 
of the Anthropological Institute. 13 

A correspondent of mine in China, an English Jesuit missionary in the province of 
Sheu-si, sent home during the past year the contents of an early mediae val Chinese tomb. 
I fear that in the recent rising against foreigners, he, like many other worthy men, has 
fallen a victim to the deep-seated hatred of the Chiuese for the foreigner, and that this 
may be his last consignment. The objects he sent are, from several points of view, of 
high interest. They consist of two pottery bowls, a bottle or vase, and a mirror. 
The latter is of the circular kind, fairly thick, and with a raised design consisting, 
apparently, of animal forms, and an inscription on the back. It is of the 
usual white bronze, and unfortunately the back is much worn, so that the inscrip- 
tion is barely discernible, and has been declared to be illegible by all the Chinese 
scholars to whom I have been able to show it. This is the more to be regretted, 
as my correspondent states that it bears on it the name of an army leader of the 
Fu-Taug dynasty, and that the interment is thus dated within the limits of this 
man's life. There is a further difficulty that though the T'ang dynasty is well known 
as a historical period, the term Fu-Tang is unknown to my Chinese friends. It seems, 
however, probable that he refers to the T'ang dynasty, which dated from A.D. 618-923, 
as the character of the objects would suit very well for this period. 

The two bowls are of a dull buff clay very well made, in shape like a reversed 
shallow cone, the whole of the inside and the outside nearly to the foot of each covered 
with a thick dull red glaze, almost exactly the colour produced by the Meissen chemist, 
Bottger, in bis early essays at reproducing the Chinese ware, with the difference that 
here the colour is that of the glaze, while his colour was that of the clay itself. The 
vase is of a long oviform shape, with a small neck, of a grey ware, covered nearly to the 
foot with a dull brown or invisible green glaze, filled with minute specks of a light tint. 

Circular bronze mirrors of the kind now before us are very widely distributed over 
Asia, and even into Europe. They occur with early bronze remains in Siberian finds, 
where they are held to be objects of worship, they are found in Central Asia, are uot 
infrequent in the Caucasiau tombs, called by Monsieur Chantre " Scytho-Byzantine," and 
are often found in Southern Russia. In Japan they have been found by Mr. Gowland 
in the dolmens, which he assigns to a period that ended in the 7th century of our era. 
There is thus no reason, from the evidence furnished by the mirror, why the interment 
in which it was found should not belong to the T'ang dynasty. 

The vase, though of simple character and style, may equally be placed as far back. 
Apart from pieces of a known later date, when ancient forms were imitated, aud fanciful 
glazes in vogue, the only vase comparable with it is one in the British Museum from 
Corea, which had originally on it the dealer's label stating that it was " ten thousand 
years old." Making the necessary deduction for the hyperbole of the Chinese vendor, it 
may fairly be assumed that the vase, even if a comparatively modern copy, represented 
to him and his customers what would be considered a very old piece. If we find that it 
bears the same character in the make and general appearance as one that is found in 
circumstances beyond suspicion, the later may reasonably be placed as of some consider- 
able age. By itself, such evidence would justly be thought of little value, but in the 
present case we have the added testimony of the other objects in the find. 

The small red glazed bowls are of a type, as to manufacture and glaze, quite 
unknown both to me and to several collectors of knowledge and judgment to whom 
I showed them. It is but seldom, in my experience, that any of the ceramic 
products of China can be safely assigned to any of the dynasties so early as the Tang, 
though the Chinese writers boldly claim that incomparable porcelain was made during 

[ " ] 



[Nob. 15-16, 

that period. Dr. Bushell, id m Oriental Ceramic Art/ 1 hi* ma^mhVent worl 
collection of Air. Walters of Baltimore, gives dotal U&tfl of the jade-like and milk- 

whit* translucent wares of the Tang • 
Ho Br, that tea came Into 

ider clue that it. may be worth while to follow, The form 

iome of ti ira bowk of Japan, and of tie A the 

and valuable kinds ifl known afl /VflUProAtt, a typ< 
the Chinese Is it not possible that the bowls now iq question ifi 
Tang dynasty, buried with their owner in company n curroi and 

Dr. ! other statement, I ade with Chin 

* •hiring the eighth and ninth centuries." which maj to explain the wide 

tbution oi thi i \ pe of nh rot 01 i 

I link in the chain of eviden 
Owing to the strong p gainst excavations 

of disturbing their dep etnaine of ibis kind ai <lv 

to 1- d, and the probable death ol siouary correspoudetrl is, therefore, to be 

m other \h m tnds. 

The i the obj Follows: — Diam, of mirror, 4{ in. ; diam. ol 

bowls, 5$ in. ; height of H. liEAJJ, 

Obituary : Max Muller. Maodonell. 

Frkdrkh Mm MUUen born '>//> December 1888, died SBfA October \\^i hq 

Communicated by A. A. ICaedoosU, M.A., Bodeo Profeesoi of Sanskrit in the ID 

University of Oxford* 

Willi Friedrich Max HiiUer, who died towards the end oi ur, has pat 

away a personal it y that exercised ■ wider influence in ihe world of learning than perhaps 

any other scholar of the 19th century. The 

only son of Ihe distinguished poet Wilhelxn 

Muller mid of a daughter of IV von 

Basedow, prime minister of the small Duohj 

Anli- i«u he wa> bom =»' Deassn in 

I-S23. Losing his father when scarcely four 
i ducated in his native 
town till 1836, but spent the test E 
year- ot his school life at Leipzig. Having 
early shown a talent for music, he for a time 
Mirsly contemplated taking np music as B 
profession, but was dissuaded from doing so by 
Mendelsohn. He decided to adhere lo the 

study of the nlassical languages, and entered 
the University of Leipzig in 184L But even 
in bis first term he did not limit himself to 
Latin and Greek, as his lecture-hook (f 
lepien-Buch) shows. For, besides lectures on 
Demosthenes, Aristophanes, Properuus, and 
Sccqic Antiquities, under Professors Hermann, 
Llaupt, and Stallhaum, he attended no fewer 
than seven other courses, including the Tie 
ui Mimical Harmony, Hebrew Grammar, History of Old German Poetry, JSathi 
Pay chology, audi, what will l>c specially interesting to readers of this journal, AnthropoJ. 
under Lotze. The assiduity and wide range of his studie? !i sufficiently apparent from the 

[ 1« ] 

196L] MAN. Qfo. 1*. 

fact that he attended no fewer than 49 courses of lectures during the five terms of his 
University life at Leipzig. By the beginning of his second term, he was, however, persuaded 
by Professor Hermann Brockhaus, the first occupant of the recently-founded chair of 
Sanskrit, to devote himself to learning the classical language of ancient India. This 
was an extremely important step in bis career, for Sanskrit was the starting point of his 
work in four different branches of learning, in all of which he was destined to be a 
pioneer. The first result of his Sanskrit studies was his translation of the now well- 
known collection of fables, the Hitopadeia, which be published when only 20 years 
of age. Having graduated Ph.D. in 1843, he spent the greater part of 1844 at 
Berlin, where he attended the lectures, among others, of Franz Bopp, the celebrated 
founder of the science of Comparative Philology, and those of Scheiliug, the eminent 
philosopher. To the early influence of the former may be traced his studies in the 
subject which he represented in the University of Oxford for 32 years. To the 
teachings of the latter was doubtless due his interest in philosophy, which he maintained 
to the end of his life ; for the last book he published was an account of the Six Systems 
of Indian Philosophy (1899). 

Early in 1845 Max Miiller went to Paris, where he came under the influence of 
Eugene Burnouf, eminent not only as a Sanskritist, but also as the first Zend scholar of 
his day. At Burnouf s suggestion young Max Miiller set about collecting materials for an 
editio princeps of the Rigveda, the most important of the sacred books of the Brahmans, 
and the oldest literary monument of the Aryan-speaking family of nations. He accord- 
ingly began copying and collating MSS. of the text of that work, and, in pursuance of 
his enterprise, came over to England in 1846, provided with an introduction to the 
Prussian Minister in Loudon, Baron Bunsen. Receiving a recommendation to the East 
India Company from him and from H. H. Wilson, the first Professor of Sanskrit at 
Oxford, he was commissioned by the Board of Directors to bring out at their expense a 
complete edition of the Rigveda, with the commentary of Sayana, the great 1 4th century 
Vedic scholar. 

In June 1847 he visited Oxford to be present at the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, at which he delivered an address on Bengali and its relation to the Aryan 
languages. As the first volume of his edition of the Rigveda was now being printed 
at the University Press, he found it necessary to migrate to Oxford. Here he settled in 
1848, and spent the rest of his life. In 1850 he was appointed Deputy Taylorian 
Professor of Modern European Lauguages, succeeding in 1854 to the full professorship. 
In 1859 he published his important History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, as far as it 
illustrates the Primitive Religion of the Brahmans. Dealing exclusively with the 
Vedic period of Indian literature, this book contains much research on Sanskrit works 
at that time accessible in MS. only. 

On the death of Professor Wilson in 1860, Max Miiller became a candidate for the 
vacant chair, his claims being very strong on the score of both ability and achievements. 
He was opposed by Monier Williams, who had been Professor of Sanskrit at the East 
India College at Haileybury till it was closed in 1858. The election being in the 
hands of Convocation, came to turn on the political and religious opinions of the 
candidates rather than on their merits as Sanskrit scholars. Party feeling ran high, 
and large numbers came up to vote. Monier Williams proved victorious, with a 
majority of 223 out of a total of 1,433 votes recorded. 

There can be little doubt that this defeat was a bitter disappointment to Max 
Miiller, and exercised a very decided influence on his subsequent career as a scholar. 
It marks the second turning point in his intellectual life. Sanskrit studies had formed 
his main interest for almost 20 years. Had he been successful in the contest he would 
probably have limited himself almost entirely to his favourite subject, and would thus 
have produced, during the latter half of his life, works of more permanent value in the 

[ 19 ] 

IdOl.] MAN. tffo. Id. 

domain of research. Bat he would hardly in that case have acquired the world-wide 
fame which he so long enjoyed. 

His marvellous industry was now largely deflected into other channels. He began 
to pay considerable attention to Comparative Philology, which in those days was much 
more depeudent on Sanskrit than it is now. He according delivered two series of 
lectures on the Science of Language, at the Royal Institution, in 1861 and 1863. 
These lectures, which were afterwards published in an extcuded form and passed 
through a large number of editions, soon raised Max Miiller to the rauk of the standard 
authority on Philology in the estimation of the English public. Though much of what 
is contained in them is now out of date, there can be no doubt that they uot only for the 
first time aroused general iuterest in the subject of Philology in Euglaud, but also 
exercised a valuable stimulating influence on the work of scholars in the 'sixties and 
'seventies. As, however, the science of Comparative Philology has been transformed 
during the last quarter of a century, it would have beeu impossible to bring these lectures 
into harmony with the present standard of research without eutirely rewriting them. 
The fact that later editions have only been modified, has led to a good deal of confusion 
on the subject in this country. It was in these lectures that Max Miiller first displayed 
that power of lucid popular exposition and of investiug a dry subject with abundaut 
interest, which has more than anything else contributed to make his name so famous. 

Besides various essays on Language, which have appeared in a collected form in the 
third volume of his Chips from a German Workshop (last editiou 1899), Max Miiller 
also published in 1888 a philological work entitled Biographies of Words and the Home 
of the Aryas. Another work largely concerned with language is his Science of 
Thought, the main thesis of which is the inseparability of language and thought. This 
and most of his writings of a philosophical nature abound with clever and ingenious 
ideas, but he can hardly be said to appear as a systematic thinker in any of them. For 
his cast of mind was rather that of the poet than the philosopher. In 1868 Max Miiller 
was appointed to the Professorship of Comparative Philology which was founded for his 
benefit at Oxford. This chair he held down to the time of his death, though he retired 
from its active duties in 1875. 

Max Miiller was not only the introducer of Comparative Philology into England. 
He also became a pioneer in this country of the science of Comparative Mythology 
founded by Adalbert Kuhu with his epoch-making work, Die Herabkunft des Feuers, 
published in 1849. Beginning with his essay on Comparative Mythology, which 
appeared in 1856, he wrote a number of other papers on mythological subjects, 
concluding his labours in this domain with a large work entitled Contributions 
to the Science of Mythology (two vols., 1897). His mythological method, based on 
linguistic equations, has hardly any adherents at the present day. For most of his 
identifications such as Greek Erinys — Sanskrit Saranyus, have been rejected owing to 
the more stringent application of phonetic laws which now prevails in Comparative 
Philology. Nor does his theory of mythology being the result of a " disease of language " 
any longer find support amoug scholars. Nevertheless, his writings in this field also 
have proved valuable by stimulating mythological investigations even beyond the range 
of the Aryan family of languages. Max Miiller's linguistic and mythological theories 
in the first place suffered from his investigations being limited to the Aryans. Haviug, 
moreover, formed these theories before the appearance of the Origin of Species, be never 
modified them in accordance with the doctrine of evolution. 

His mythological work brought several essays on folk-lore in their train. The first 
of these, dealing with Popular Tales from the Norse (1859), was followed by others on 
the Tales of the West Highlands (1861), Zulu Nursery Tales (1867), and Myths and 
Songs from the South Pacific (1876). Another treated the subject of Folk lore itself 
(1863). One of the most interesting and important was On the Migration of Fables 

[ 20 ] 

ML] MAN. [Ha 16, 

(1870). It is based chiefly an the investigation* contained in Benfey^s epoch-making 
translation of the Sanskrit Panchctanlr* (l&39\ in which that great scholar traced 
the westward wanderings of that collection of Indian Buddhist fables from the 
6th century onwards and its far-reaching influence on the mediaeval literature of 

Allied to Max Mailer's mythological researches was his work on the comparative 
study of religions. Here, too, he was a pioneer ; and the literary activity of the last 
30 years of his life was largely devoted to this subject. This work was begun with 
four lectures on the Seiner of Religion at the Royal Institution in 1870. These were 
followed by a lecture On the Religions of the World delivered in Westminster 
Abbey in 1873. Five years later he inaugurated the annual series of Hibbert Lectures 
by a course on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated by the Religions of 
India* Later, he discussed, as Gifford lecturer at Glasgow during the years 1888 to 
1892, various aspect* of religioiu under the titles of Natural Religion, Physical 
Religion, Anthropological Religion^ and Theosophy or Psychological Religion. 

But of even more far-reaching influence than all these lectures was the great 
enterprise which Max Muller initiated in 1875, and to devote himself to which he 
relinquished the active duties of the Chair of Comparative Philology. This was the 
publication, by the Oxford University Press, uuder his editorship, of the Sacred Hooks of 
the East, a series of English translations by leading scholars of important non-Christian 
Oriental works of a religious character. This undertaking has done more than anything 
else to place the historical and comparative study of religions on a sound basis. Of 
the 51 volumes of the series all but one (and the two concluding index volumes) 
bad appeared before the death of the editor. Over 30 volumes represent the Indian 
religions of Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Jainism, being translations from Sanskrit, 
Pali, and Prakrit ; but the series also includes versions of Chinese, Arabic, Zend, and 
Pah la vi books. Max Muller himself contributed three complete volumes and part of 
two others to the series. 

Though debarred by his defeat in 1860 from officially representing Sanskrit in 
the University, Max Muller continued to promote Sanskrit studies in many ways. 
Besides finishing the sixth and last volume of his Rigreda in 1873, be published 
several important Sanskrit texts. Thus, he initiated the Sanskrit series in the 
Aneedota Oxoniensia with four publications of his own, partly in collaboration 
with pupils ; and the three other contributions which have appeared, were all 
undertaken at bis instigation. In 1883 he published a series of lectures on the 
value of Sanskrit literature, which he had delivered at Cambridge, in a volume entitled 
India, what can it teach us? The main importance of this book lies in the 
44 Renaissance Theory," which he here propounds. He endeavours to prove that for 
several hundred years there was a cessation of literary activity in India, owing to 
the incursions of foreigners, but that there was a great revival in the 6th century A.D. 
This theory, though now disproved by the evideuce of inscriptions, exercised a decidedly 
stimulating influence on Indian chronological research. 

Max Muller was, moreover, always ready to help students of Sanskrit informally. 
Thus, he gave up much of his valuable time to directing the studies of three 
young Japanese who came to Oxford on purpose to learn Sanskrit, in order to 
be able to read, in the original, Buddhist works which they knew iu Chinese 
translations only. All of these pupils published valuable work connected with 
ancient India uuder his guidance. One of them, Bunyiu Nanjio, translated, at 
his instance, in 1882, the Chinese catalogue of the many hundreds of Buddhist 
Sanskrit books, which were rendered into Chinese from the 1st century A.D. 
onwards. Another, Kenyiu Kasawara, published in the Aneedota Oxoniensia, a col- 
lection of Buddhistic Sanskrit technical terms. The third, Takakusu, at his instigation, 

[ 2t •] 

1901] HAN. [Ho. 16. 

translated from Chinese in 1896, the travels of the pilgrim I-tsing, who visited India 
during the years 671-95 A.D. 

It is known that in the 7th century, and later, Sanskrit was studied in Japan, 
where Buddhism had been introduced by way of Corea. But Sanskrit learning had long 
died out, and in 1879 there was no one in Japau who knew anything of the sacred 
language of ancient India. Now, Sanskrit is being taught at Tokyo and elsewhere by 
Max Miiller's Oxford pupils, and there is every prospect of these studies leading to 
important results which will throw light on the early history of the spread of Indian 
civilisation over the countries of the farther East. This is especially likely now that 
the news has arrived of a society having been founded in Japan to commemorate the 
services of Max Miiller. One of its objects is the systematic search for Sanskrit MSS. 
in Japan, Corea, and China. We know that hundreds and thousands of Sanskrit MSS. 
were taken back by the numerous Buddhist pilgrims from the East, who in the early 
centuries of our era visited India, the Holy Land of Buddhism. No trace of such MSS. 
had been found, till, owing to Max Miiller's persistent efforts, a Sanskrit MS. of the 
6th century, the oldest known at that time (1880), was discovered in Japau. A facsimile 
of it is to be seen in the Bodleian Library. Max Miiller constantly urged scholars and 
missionaries to search for rare and important MSS. in China, as well as in India. In 
this way he himself acquired a valuable collection of about 80 Vedic MSS. from 

Max Miiller did much to advance the interests of learning not only by his writings, 
lectures, and correspondence, but by his personal influence. Familiar from his earliest 
days with court life on a small scale at Dessau, and afterwards intimate with 
Baron Bunsen, the Prussian Minister in London, Max Miiller became acquainted with 
our own Royal family, and subsequently with many of the crowued heads of Europe. 
It was thus, also, that the King of Siam came to subsidise a new series undertaken by 
Max Miiller, under the title of the Sacred Books of the Buddhists, of which two 
volumes had appeared before his death. So, too, an Indian Rajah came forward to 
enable him to bring out a new edition of his Higveda. It was also to Max Miiller's 
personal influence that most of the European Sanskrit scholars who went out to India 
in the 'sixties and 'seventies owed their appointments. He thus did much indirectly to 
introduce scientific methods of research among the native scholars of India ; while his 
edition of the Rigveda and his writings on Indiau religion and philosophy led to a 
revival of interest, among the Hindus, in their aucient sacred books, the Vedas. His 
name, indeed, became more famous in India than that of any other scholar has ever 
been ; and his house in Oxford was a regular place of pilgrimage to all natives of India 
visiting this country. Max Miiller's personal influence also made itself felt by the 
prominent part he played as president of societies and of Oriental Congresses. 

His world-wide fame was largely due to his great ability, industry, and ambition, 
as well as to his literary gifts and the wide range of his writiugs ; but it was undoubtedly 
enhanced by a combination of opportunities, such as can rarely fall to the lot of any 
scholar. When he began his career, Vedic studies were iu their infancy, and he had the 
good fortune to become the first editor of the Rigveda, the most important product of 
ancient Indian literature. Agaiu, nothing was known about Comparative Philology in 
England when he came over to this country ; being the first in the field, he introduced 
and popularised the new science, and soon came to be regarded as its chief exponent. 
Moreover, be inaugurated the study of Comparative Mythology in this country. Lastly, 
it was not till the latter half of the 19th century that the necessary conditions were at 
hand for founding a science of Religion. Max Miiller was there to apply the stimulus 
with his Hibbert Lectures, and to collect the necessary materials in the Sacred Books of 
the East. Thus, there was a great opening in four highly important branches of 

[ 22 ] 



[Nos. 16-17. 

ruing 3 but tin taken adequate advantage of them all. had he not 

lieeu* a* Max Mullei was, 01 mi talented aod versatile scholars oJ ihe 

^h much in bis writings ami methods may already hs superseded, the far- 

hing inH hlch he bag exercised by his work?* and his personality in 

nlv nf muD in many fieKl^, will undoubtedly give bin bum la 

lb* gratitude rly. A liACDONELL. 

California : Basket-work. Dalton. 

a Specimen of Basket-work from Califo* I Sp (As +-• 

Btiti$k Bfueeum, Communicated bj u, ML Dalton. If 

An important addition has recently i teen mads to 6 tgraphlcal Department 

of the British Museum in th< collection, oh and 

hi ibe Rev. 8elwyn 0. Freer. The Funned pariti 

Mr* Freer himself, hut 
chiefly by his friend, 

sidn I iu J ho above* 

br i 

Dumber of year* as a 

nary. The collec- 
tion is especiall; 
able for its baskets, nod 
its stone implements ami 

is, The former of 

- is large 
ami rcpn- iii;d ive, fur- 
nishiiiL i vm I liable 

complement to the 

already iii the If o*< 
pari of which goes back 
to the dale of Vaaeoc 

( >ueof the moel 
remarkable objects is ■ 
flexible cylindrical baakel 

ascribed to the I'lmpta 

Indians (Jig » red ken . 

OQ i»im Bide human 
figures, »ml <m (lir others 
representations of In 
and other animals, all 
mwovoti iti brown upon 

■ buff ground* This 
specimen appears to be 
of con Biddable antiquity* 
and lias been prOHOUffl ) Mr. Wilcomb, of the Golden Gate Museum, 

Francisco, sad Professor Dorsey f of Chicago, to be a rate and ini- mple 

of a now extinct industry. The objects in stone comprise a fine set of the hemispherical 
mertarSj with cylindrical pestles, which wars sxeavated from graves in Baa Luis Obispo 
and SI f lance and arrow-heads of finely worked chert 

sod obsidian is very comprehensive, and includes several examples of remarkable finish. 

[ 23 ] 



[Nob. 17-18. 

Of the larger implements, some are very rudely chipped and have a certain resemblance 
to palaeolithic forms. 

Among other objects may be mentioned sinkers, hammer stones, shell l>eads, 
plummet-shaped stones supposed to be charms, and a few objects in bone. The 
collection further includes a number of ethnographical objects from the more easterly 
States of the Union, including a few fine Catlinite pipes. Collections of this kind have 
a special importance on account of the parallels which they furnish with the industries 
of the late palaeolithic and neolithic ages in Europe. We have here, continuing down 
to a comparatively recent period, the manufacture of implements and utensils which 
offer many analogies to those with which the later European bone caves, for example, 
have made us familiar. Implements of bone are far less numerous, but among objects 
of this material we may mention unpierced needles, small tuties or cylinders with rudely 
incised lines, flat implements for smoothing mats, and awls. In addition to the large 
stoue mortars, there are similar objects of smaller size, and red mineral paint, probably 
used for personal adornment. The peculiar skill shown by these Indians in the manu- 
facture of watertight and other baskets suggests we have here another parallel to a 
prehistoric industry*. The ingenious and artistic people who lived in Western Europe 
at the period of La Madelaiue may well have manufactured baskets of e^ual perfection, 
and equally adapted to take the place of pottery. 

Mr. Freer's generous gift has most opportunely enriched a section in the Museum 
which has hitherto been far from complete. O. M. DALTON. 


Stonehenge. Lewis. 

On the damage recently sustained by Stonehenge. Communicated by A. L. 4Q 

Lewis, F.C.A., Treasurer of the Anthropological Institute. 10 

The end of the 19th century has been signalised by — amongst other things — the 

fall of a part of Stonehenge, a misfortune which may not be without its compensating 

advantage if it should be the cause of 
the necessary measures being taken to 
preserve what is left of this unique 
monument in an intelligible condition. 

Stonehenge, it will be remembered, 
consists of a number of comparatively 
small stones standing in the form of a 
horse-shoe with the open end to the 
north-east, outside which were five 
" trilithons," or sets of two upright 
stones, each supporting a huge cross- 
piece ; these were the largest stones of 
all, and only two' sets of them remain 
complete, the last great change at Stone- 
henge having been the fall of one of 
in them January 1797. Outside these 
was a circle of small stones, and outside 
these again a circle of larger upright 
stones, joined at the top by cross stones ; 
both these circles are so defective, 
especially towards the south-west, that 
it has been doubted whether they 
ever were complete. It is one of the uprights of this outer circle (marked £ on the 
plan — No. 22 on Petrie's plan) that has now fallen inward, carrying with it the capstone 


- .•#& 





Stone now fallen. Jili. Stonrs 
which fell in 1797. 



[Wo. 18. 

whicli connected it with K !■•- adjoining stoue. and whtrb Urn* been broken in iw. 
striking in it* fall the remain* «.f tbe trilithon which fell i 

1 ■ b, perha}is fortunate that tbe*e stones have fallen in *t • a. I of tike remaining atone 
of the central trtlith*m, the downfall of <«i aovo» 

position, an occurrence which, if not prevented, will can** tnoeit more 


m mmtfilUm* UK ***** tch 

than La- hreu eait»e«l far at el i lint 

is to lie ilooe to prevent It S MM advocates * restoration 

■ABm 01 * MBB« • i" - ip;' •' the pin I - ol t:j let a Utcb Uave di-appi am! ■ hut, jnnannnct 

at tbe exact original poattiou ol almoM ever* i one, and 

tnasmocb at exact terrors have l«*ea mode and published both 8 lb -nrv Ji 

behalf of tbe Ordnance Surfer,* and by Professor Fliuders Petri ♦ lid be no 

objection to totting the leaning 'tones upright failing uu-l 

brea .i^Kni anil others, and to setting tip those that ai pt those 

that are too mneb broken to be capable ol being rank! 

be i r are, a* also should any the p» posit k m of wbid 

be ascertained. Next comes tbe qoostion of kee n ben 

they have been restored 10 I he beat way to do tins would be to dig out tbe whole 

interior down to tbe solid ebalk t on work was g 

and to IB it op with concrete, in the digging out it might b 

fo in I whirl* ini^lit throw light uu the date if uot on tbe purpose of the monu- 
ment ; but tbe piijatitbtl will no doubi l»e mm I liiiuk thai 
tbe concrete was part of tbe original work. Toil w koly to happen if the 
concrete wore rerered for it* letter pleatfffOtiou with balf-an- lie best aspbalte, 
each oa is used to paving the Loo»i i ah boxes II ftb document 
be btirierl for tbe benefit of any future excavators. 

• PI**m and Pk>t*jr«j>kj a/ Si.m'\fj* a*J </ TVcasseaea U fi# ItUmd s/ L*rU Me, 0^ I nance 
irrer ; Southampton, 18$7. 

*he*2* : Itain, Dtwtript .9*4, mn& Tk**rii*- flu. Lwloa : Stanford. 1 1 

190L] MAN. [Nos. 18-20. 

If it were possible to keep things as they are, it might l>e preferable from an artistic 
point of view to do so, but it is not possible. If something be not done to prevent them 
further falls will happen, aud where will be the poetry 'in a shapeless heap of broken 
stones ? 

It must, however, be remembered that Stouehenge, though an object of national 
concern, is private property. A. L. LEWIS. 

Folklore: Ireland. Hartland, 

On certain Wells in Ireland. (See MAN, 1901, 11). Communicated by ^q 
E. Sidney Hartland, President of the Folklore Society. \\j 

Professor Rhys will find in Dr. C. M. Browne's report on The Ethnography of the 
Mullet, Inishkea Islands, and Portacloy, County Mayo, in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Irish Academy, 3rd Series, vol. iii., page 634, au account of the well on Innis 
Gloria, or Inishglora, as Dr. Browne gives it, mentioned in Sir Henry Blake's letter. 
The well, it seems, is dedicated not to St. Bridget, but more appropriately to 
St. Brendan. The image referred to appears also to be of St. Brendan {see page 633). 
The image on the island of Inishkea, also referred to by Sir Henry Blake, is now no 
longer there, having been thrown into the sea by the parish priest. Dr. Browne, however, 
gives an interesting account of it. 

May I take the opportunity of calling the attention of anthropologists to 
Dr. Browne's reports on the small islands off the West Coast of Ireland ? At least 
six of them have been published in the proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, and 
they are full of interest in all departments of the science. In many respects they are 
model reports. The first of them — that on the Aran Islands — is by Dr. Haddon and 
Dr. Browne. The work begun in collaboration has been continued by Dr. Browne 
alone. E. S. HARTLAND. 

Palmistry. Keith. 

The Anatomy of Palmistry. Abstract of a lecture delivered by Dr. Arthur 
Keith (of the London Hospital Medical College) at the Whitechapel Museum and Ofl 
Free Library. January loth, 1901. "** 

Under the title given above, the lecturer dealt with results which he had obtained 
during a recent investigation into the physical meaning, development, and comparative 
anatomy of the lines of the baud. 

He showed : (1) that the lines which are present in the hand and the creases which 
occur at the knees of trousers and elbows of coats are of the same nature, and have 
equally a physchological meaning ; (2) that the lines of the palm were developed 
towards the end of the second month of foetal life, and were the result of retention of 
the foetal form of skin along these lines ; (3) that the foetal lines, although in the main 
corresponding exactly to the position in which flexion folds were required in the fully- 
developed hand, did not correspond to it exactly in some hands ; (4) that the lines iu 
the hands of apes correspond to those in man — in many cases with great accuracy — the 
so-called " marriage line," " line of fate," " circle of Venus," &c, with all the evidence 
of divorce and unkind fate, being present in the simian just as in the human hand ; 
(5) that certain lines present in the human foetal hand and lost in the adult represented 
simian lines ; (6) that the phrenological interpretations put by palmists on the various 
conformations of the lines of the hand broke down absolutely when put to the test of 
practical experience ; (7) that the evident success of palmists wos due to a play on the 
complex and equivocal characters of the events which make up human life. 

[ 26 J 

190L] MAN. [No. 21. 

Folklore : South Africa. Hartland. 

On some Problems of Early Religion, in the light of South African Folklore. g\A 
Abstract of tho Presidential Address delivered by Mr. E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. £ I 
at the Annual Meeting of the Folklore Society, January 16th, 1901. (To be published 
in full in Folk/ore, Vol. XII., 1901.) 

After a tribute of sorrow for the losses sustaiued by anthropological science during 
the year, iu the deaths of Lieut. -General Pitt Rivers, Miss Kingsley, Dr. Ulrich Jahn, 
Professor Max Muller, and Mr. Frank Gushing, Mr. Hartland turned to the outlook of 
folklore at the opening of the twentieth century. A hundred years ago Brand was 
apologising for his investigation of the causes of " vulgar rites and popular opinions." 
Before his words were published Scott had issued the Minstrel sy of the Scottish Border, 
and the brothers Grimm the first volume of their Kinder und II aus marc hen. With 
these two works and Brand and Ellis' Observations on Popular Antiquities, the founda- 
tions of the science were securely laid, but nearly two generations were to elapse before 
Maine, Maclenuau, Morgan, and Tyler began to build upon them. In view of the 
results of the researches initiated by these distinguished men we needed little encourage- 
ment to anticipate an early solution of the great enigmas of human civilization and the 
history of religion. He was content to believe that iu good time all the important issues 
would be determined, though that would have to be preceded by arduous inquiry, 
perhaps iu directions hitherto unthought of. Not uutil our own time had it been possible 
to enter on the inquiry into the beginnings of religion in a scientific maimer. Hypothesis 
after hypothesis had beeu framed, only to ha destroyed by criticism This should uot 
discourage us, nor should it obscure the portions of truth they contained. 

After referring to Mr. Lang's liook on The Making of Religion, Mr. Hartland 
took up Mr. Marett's paper ou Pre-animistic Religion, which had appeared during 
tho past year in the Transactions of the Society {Folklore, XI., 162 if.) and, ex- 
pressing general agreement with the theory of Teratism there put forward, proceeded 
to an examination of the evidence afforded by the Bantus of South Africa as to their 
belief iu a Supreme Being. He dealt successively with Callaway's Religious System of 
the Amazulu, the evidence of Moffat and other missionaiies to the Bechuaua and 
Basuto, and M. Junod's recent work on the Barouga, arriving at the conclusion the 
Bantus had no distinct belief in a Supreme Being, and that the evidence pointed to 
the gradual growth of a belief in a god, a process not yet complete. Judged by 
Mr. Payne's canon {History of the New World called America, I., 276 fF.) the Bantus 
had all emerged from savagery and were on the lower stage of barbarism. They 
must have developed from wandering hordes of savages, and their religion must have 
uudergone a corresponding evolution. Remains of tot em ism and mother-right were 
to be found increasing iu volume from the more advanced to the less advanced members 
of the race. These were examined at some leugth, and the question was then put 
how it was that ancestor-worship had developed and supplanted totem ism. This he 
attributed to the growth of the patriarchal system, acting on the beliefs already 
prevalent in the coutiuued existence of the dead and in transformation and imperma* 
nence of form ; and he proceeded to explain the mode in which it was possible the 
change had come about. This, of course, was a mere hypothesis. He did not pretend 
to have solved any of the problems he had touched, but simply to suggest some ways 
in which the folklore of South Africa might contribute to their solution. 

Most of his illustrations had beeu t.tken from tribes in British territory. The 
opening of the new century found us in a position iu South Africa which was unique iu 
its opportunities for the advancement of anthropological science. The Anthropological 
Institute and the Folklore Society had combined to urge upon the Government to seize 
those opportunities in the two States lately added to the Empire. This was essential, 
alike in the interests of government and of anthropological science. Other nations, the 

C 27 ] 

190t] MAN. [Ko». 21-23. 

Indian Government, and even our own colonies, were recognising the theoretical import- 
ance and practical value of anthropological inquiries ; and surely the mother-country 
would not be content to be left behind. The urgency of the case was all the greater, 
because the evidence was gradually being effaced by civilization. The same considera- 
tions touched everybody. The same duty to preserve the evidence of our past lay upon 
all of us individually. We could wait for the framing of hypotheses ; we could not 
wait for the collection of evidence which was so rapidly passing away. 

Mr. Hartland concluded by urging upon the Society and upon individuals to 
ascertain and record the facts as the most important duty l»efore them, iu view of the 
nr.irch of civilization and the changes which have proceeded so rapidly during the 
nineteenth century, and which the twentieth is certain very soon to complete in this 
country, if not elsewhere. 

Wales : Ethnology.* Rhys and Brynmor-Jones. 

The Welsh People. By John Rhys, M.A., Principal of Jesus College, and f*f* 
Professor of Celtic in the University of Oxford ; and David Brynmor-Jones, ££ 
LL.B., M.P. 1900. London, F. Unwin. Second and revised editiou. 8vo., pp. xxvi, 
678. Price 16*. 

This is a valuable and instructive volume. One hardly knows whether to call it a 
book ; it is rather a collection of chapters or essays on various subjects connected with 
the Welsh people. Thus, the first two chapters are devoted to the ethuology of ancient 
Wales and to the Pictish question, and set forth Professor Rh^s's views as to the 
non- Aryan character of the language of the Picts, whom he sometimes speaks of as the 
Aborigines. One of two interesting maps represents the supposed ethnological status of 
the British Isles in the first century A.D., the aborigines (or their language), being 
shown as occupying almost the whole of Scotland beyond the Forth, and the greater 
part of Ireland, though small portions of the latter country are set down as Goydelic, 
and Wexford and Wicklow shires as Brythouic or Gallobelgic. Physical anthropology, 
by the way, is entirely neglected in this volume ; otherwise the prevalence of blond 
coloration in the county Wexford might have been used to support the Galatic 
attribution of the district. The presence of what we provisionally call Iberiau types in 
the British Isles was recognised by somatologists before philologists began to fiud 
traces of pre-Keltic speech ; and I still hold to my prediction that some day the Ugrian 
or Mongoloid types which occur in Wales will be correlated by the philologists with 
vestiges of Ugrian language, and that when they succeed in doing this they will show 
little gratitude for the hint. 

Great stores of learning and ingenuity are developed and utilised in the Pictish 
chapter ; I note especially the argument from uame-systems which occupies the terminal 
portion of it. Professor Rh^s seems to omit all mention of the bronze-using race. At 
least, he dates the advent of the Goydel about the oth or 6th century before Christ, 
though with the qualification, " or perhaps earlier." Now the date of arrival of the 
bronze men is generally (I do not say whether rightly or not) put much earlier than that. 
He identifies the Fir Domnaan with the Goydelic Damnonians. 

A great part of the book is taken up with the political history of Wales ; and the 
naive and candid partiality of the writer of these chapters is sometimes amusing. The 
ruling race produced some very creditable specimens, such as the good Howel Dda, the 
lawgiver, and the gallant Gruffydh ap Llewelyn, whose head his traitorous subjects sent 
to Harold God win sou, and such as the last two Llewelyns ; but on the whole it was 
a Stock of valiant, sanguinary, treacherous, and poetical ruffians, from the Gildas- 

[ 28 } 



[Nob, 22-23. 

a bo hi itia ted Maelgwn to David the Last, the trebly-dyol traitor who deservedly swung 
on the Shrewsbury gallows, but with whom the author evinces a little misplaced 

The elaborate and dUcrimiDfttiyfl character of bis fellow countrymen drawu by 
fiiraldus is, of course, quoted ; and though some of the virtues and vires alleged by 
hitn may have been fairly attributable to local and temporary circumstances, there is no 
doubt that, in the main, the picture is correct, even it the present day. Thus, the 
eloquence, the savoir /aire, the poetical and musical talent, the quick and lively temper, 
are still there. I have nut Gtraldus at my elbow, I nit I think the author of this chapter 
misquotes him somewhat. He says, M Thej were immoderate in their love of food and 
intoxicating liquors." What (iirahlus did say was, I think, that they did not \\ 
their substance iu feasting, as the English did ; that they were temperate from habit ami 
MOBOmji but would gorge themselves at another's expense. 

One cannot help having some doubts, which are not altogether unshared by the 
authors, as to whether rlie elaborate code of Ilowel Dda was ever put thoroughly into 
force. And the land system of Wales, though it bore a general resemblance to that of 
other so-called Aryan peoples, was so peculiar and complicated that it must have been 
difficult, to carry out in troublous times. PfofeiMOf Khys, by the way, after stating thai 
the Aryan, by which he means the dolicbo-bloud, type, is rare iu Wales, prooeedl to 
I \u Hid ihe MSefttOU to England generally, wherein 1 think he i- 

Professor Hhys's view as to the non- Aryan character of the aboriginal language, 
and its influence on the idioms of the Neo-Keltic tongues, is carried out further in a uiom 
interesting appendix by Professor Morris Jones, lb- has no hesitation or difficulty in 
tracing much of the popular Welsh syntax to a Hainitie, Berber, or Egyptian connection ; 
and this applies also to Gaelic* 

It may be noted that the authors put the probable population of the 13 Welsh 
counties, from the llth to the end of the [dtb <rniiny 4 at something under 150,000. 
This means much less than 20 to the square mile ; and I am inclined to think it an 
insufficient estimate. Firstly, on the analogy of other pastoral countries ; secondly, 
considering the necessity of a large population to supply men for the .-avuge and deadly 
warfare, both intestine and external, which was constantly carried on; and, thirdly, 
because the evidence of surnames shows that siuce the days of Bosworth Field, jitid • 
earlier, the descendants of the mediieval Welshmen have been continually migrating into 
England, where their representatives now amount to several hundreds of thousands. 



Arabia.* Bent. 

Souttirn Arabia, By Theodore Bent and Mrs. Bent, London, Smith, Elder 
1 I o«) 1900 (xii + 46o } portrait, maps, and illustrations). 

The interest of this liook consists iu the Hadhramut chapters. Tbooe 'baling 
with Bahrein and Mascat might have been omitted, for they add nothing to what 
is known from better equipped travellers. The excavations in the island were fruitless ; 
and the descriptions of scenery ami life both there and iu Oman are not above tourist 
level. The aeeoiiuts of Dhofar and the (tarn country, and of the Eastern Sudan, I 
worth rescuing from magazine pages, since tttioifl of the ground is new and it is pretty 
thoroughly covered, though not of much ihlcicsi. The chapters on Sokotra and the 
Fadhli and Yafei oases, near Aden, it is impossible to efiftieiae IU face of the pathetic 
appeal which closes them, 

Theodore Bent will always be remembered as the second European traveller, and 
the fir it Englishman, who ever got into the main Hadhramut valley. In attaining 
his end he showed immense energy and courage. He and his wife assumed no 

[ 29 3 

ldOl.] MAN. [Nob. 2S-24. 

disguise, — the better plan, a« many recent Arabian travellers, Pelly, Doughty, the Blunts, 
Hubcr, von Euting, and Baron Nolde have fouud. Mr. Bent visited the upper towns, 
Eoton and Shibam, but did not, like his predecessor Leo Hirsch, reach Siwun and 
Terim, nor the reputed natural wonders of Bir Borhut. Indeed, three quarters of the 
great Wady have yet to be explored. Mrs. Bent was able to see a little harem life, 
closed to Hirsch, and, with their photographs of Koton and Shibam, the English 
explorers have advanced our knowledge. Considering, however, the peculiar advantage 
they enjoyed in being under the protection of a Sultan duly impressed with the British 
raj in Aden and India, and in having with them a Moslem Indian surveyor and his staff, 
and considering their own natural pluck and enterprise, it is the more pity they went up 
so ill prepared in the language and knowiug so little of previous Arabian travel. In 
both respects they are far behind Hirsch, and their book, beside his, has little value. In 
the preliminary uotes ou the population on p. 79, the Bents perhaps show acquaintance 
with the standard treatise on the Hadhramut, that issued in French by the Javanese 
Dutch official, van deu Berg, iu 1886, but they uever allude directly to it, aud never 
seem to follow the obvious aud useful plan of checking its hearsay statements by 
personal observation. Had a scholarly method of comment ou Niebuhr, Wei Is ted, 
Von Wrede, van den Berg, aud Hirsch (whose book appeared in 1897) been adopted 
as the basis of the narrative, this section of the book would have itself acquired 
standard authority. As it is, the travellers apparently had not realized what it was 
essential to observe and record, and what, on the other hand, is commonplace of all 
Arabian travel ; and the trivialities of caravan life, already rendered more than familiar 
by Burckhardt, Palgrave, and Doughty, to mention only the greatest names, fill 
two-thirds of the account, suggesting iu every paragraph unfortunate comparisons with 
the deeper knowledge, the truer sympathy, and the sense of style that inspired those 
brilliant narratives. 

Petty mistakes in Arabic, and even in Greek, serve as warnings against implicit 
faith in the anthropological evidence recorded. The most valuable savage lore is 
contained in the account of the naked Gara tribe, who encourage the milk pro- 
duction of their cows by giving them a stretched calf-skin to lick. What is said 
of jinns, afrits, and relics of stone worship, evinced by Bedouiu behaviour to tomb- 
stones, is- not new, but may be compared with Doughty passim. The list of Mahri 
words in use in Sokotra is welcome, so little being known of what is probably a last 
relic of the Sabaean tongue ; but it must be accepted with reservation. The Sokotra 
camel marks are a very useful addition to our knowledge of primitive Arab script, but 
the explorers came on very few Himyaritic monumeuts iu the Hadhramut, the best being 
the altar facing p. 145. It remains to be seen, however, whether the rest of the Wady 
will not materially add to the collections of Halevy and Glaser. One would have 
liked to hear more of the megalithic monuments and the rites at Kabr Houd and Kabr 
Saleh ; but these folklore and religious questious of the interior seem to have appealed 
less to the explorers than the identifying of Ptolemy's harbour iu the Frankincense 
country. H. 


Egypt: Sesostris/ Sethe. 

Sesostris. By Dr. Kurt Sethe. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Alter- 
tumskunde Aegt/pteas, Baud II. Heft. 1. 1900. 

Egyptian history, in the traditional form which passed current among the Greeks, 
possessed no better known name than that of Sesostris. Round that name clustered 
legends as numerous as those of the Arthurian cycle. Yet, in modern times, 
Egyptologists have always been in doubt as to the identity of the king who bore it. 
Manetho, indeed, assigns him to the 12th dynasty, in the place which has been given by 

[ 80 ] 

19011 HAtt. flfos. £4-2$. 

science to the kings generally known as Usertsen II. and III. Most Egyptologists 
have, however, rejected this view, because of the dissimilarity of the names Sesostris 
and Usertsen ; and have iu alined towards an identification with Rameses II., the name 
of that monarch being sometimes writteu in a way which was considered to represent the 
ancient form of Sesostris. In an admirable study, Dr. Set he shows Manet ho to have 
been correct, as indeed he usually proves to be. Usertsen should be read Sen wosret, 
the element " Usert" or " wosret " being the name of the goddess, and therefore beiug 
placed first iu the hieroglyphs, honoris causa. The degeneration of Sen -wosret into 
Sesostris is next traced. The success with which this is done is the best confirmation 
of the soundness of the philological method which Dr. Sethc himself has done so much 
to establish. 

From the name, Dr. Sethe turns to the legends, aud, after sifting and compariug 
these in their various forms, seeks to trace them to their roots. In most cases he finds 
in the actual history of the kings called Sen-wosret the germs from which the legends 
sprang. It is impossible here to deal with the details of the investigation ; it may, 
however, be noted that the stories of conquests in Asia, are, according to Dr. Sethe, due 
to confusiou with legends of Sheshouq. Of the book as a whole, it may be said that 
the main thesis is convincing and final, and the detailed elaboration is full of new aud 
suggestive points. A. H. GARDINER. 


Mesopotamia : Archaeology.* Sayce. 

Babylonians and Assyrians, Life and Customs. By the Rev. A. H. Sayce. 
London, J. C. Nimmo, 1900. 8vo, pp. vii, 273. Price 3s. 6d. 

This is the first volume of a series, to be edited by Professor Craig of the University 
of Michigan, which will be felt by the large section of the reading public to supply a 
real want. " The Semitic Series, 11 as it is to be termed, will consist of at least thirteen 
volumes, and will deal with all the branches of the Semitic race in a popular but 
scientific manner. 

Professor Sayce seems to have taken his task much too lightly, with the result that 
the work may in some respects be held up as au example of what no one, not even a 
writer who knows his subject, should put before the public — a piece of book -making, and 
a bad one at that. We find the same examples doing duty more than once ; but let that 
pass. The errata are remarkable ; we read of u an inscription in uniform characters.' 1 
The word " cuuei " occurs in the middle of a seutence, where it has no earthly meaning. 
On p. 266, under superficial measures, we read :— " Time was reckoned by the double 
hour, aud in early times the weight was divided into three watches. 11 Of course, the 
sentence as originally written referred to measures of time. The carelessness which 
allowed such au incougrnity to pass without correction is characteristic of the whole 
book, so far as manner goes. 

The matter is fortunately more reliable. Some of the views on mythology are 
perhaps hardly what we should expect in a work dated 1900. Tammuz, for example, 
is rent by a boar's tooth, and the reader is given his choice between two explanations of 
the myth — the boar is either the winter or the parching heats of summer. Dr. Frazer 
has evidently lived in vain, so far as Professor Sayce is concerned. 

The idea of the series is an excellent one, and we trust that the editor will insist on 
a reasonable standard of typographical accuracy in future. N. W. T. 

[ 31 ] 

IdOl] MAN. £No. 2d, 

Religion : Asia/ Porlongr. 

Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions, embracing all the aa 
Religions of Asia. By Major-General J. G. R. Forloiig, F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., ZO 
M.A.I., &c. (Quaritch.) 

The title of this work would seem to be unduly modest, inasmuch as it consists of 
xxviii 4- 663 large and closely-printed pages. It is only in refereuce to the magnitude 
of the subject of which it treat© that it can be described as "short." In an equally 
modest preface the author explaius that it is rather for the general reader than the 
specialist, aud is intended to help him to some definite and useful conclusions on the 
whole quest iou of the origin and development of religion, and on its parts. A very 
useful part of the work, from this point of view, consists in three sets of chronological 
tables which General Forlong has constructed. The first sums up the results of his 
first study on Jaiuism aud Buddhism, prehistoric and historic, commencing with the 
Chiuese patriarchal King Fu-hsi in 3370 B.C., following the development of Jaiuism in 
India and Bactria from the 21st century B.C., through varying circumstances, to its 
full establishment throughout Upper Iudia in 526 B.C., and giving contemporary 
records of the eveuts in other countries bearing upon the development of religion, and 
the dates when other teachers preached Buddhistic doctrine, to its comprehension in 
Greece iu the 4th century B.C., until Asoka became the Emperor of Magadha, and 
virtually of Northern Hindostan, iu 259. Here a subsidiary table gives the chronology 
of the events of his reign from his conversion to Jaiuism iu 256 to a life of piety, mercy, 
aud tenderness to all having life, to the edict of 232, which describes his former religion 
as sin, and proclaims Buddhism as the religion of chief excellence. This was a time of 
great Buddhist missionary activity, leading to its adoption in China in place of Jaiuism 
about 200. In 169, Jews brought back from the East a knowledge of Eastern faiths. 
In 70, a lingam is worshipped in Bactria as a tooth of Buddha. For 500 years the 
mythology of Buddhism goes on increasing. The dispersion of Buddhism becomes 
accelerative early in the Christiau Era by the efforts of Brahmanism to expel it from 
India, until finally the translation of Buddhist scriptures and commentaries becomes 
active at about the same time that the Christian gospels are disseminated. This brief 
summary shows what a wide expanse of the World's religious history is comprehended 
in the first study. Its conclusions are confirmed by the interesting lecture on 
" Coincidences," delivered some time ago by Professor Max Miiller. 

The second set of chronological tables is appeuded to a study of the historical and 
religious development of the Indian Archipelago aud adjacent States, called Trans- 
India, commences with the occupation of Tonkin in 2357 B % C, proceeds rapidly to the 
development of the wealth and civilization of India in 500 B.C., the civilization of 
Trans-India by the Hiudoos in 100 B.C., the embassy from Rome to Cochin China iu 
222 A.D., the failure of Theodosius's cruel attempts to suppress paganism in 384, the 
acceptance of Buddhism by Japan in 552, the peaceful spread of the Indian faiths in the 
7th century, the attempt to efface them iu Tonkin in 767, the concession of home rule 
there iu 875, to our owu times. 

The third table treats mainly of Mazdean times, beginning with Turanian migrations 
towards India in the 24th century B.C., and leading through the teaching of Pythagoras 
in 545, the building of the second temple at Jerusalem, in the 4th century B.C., the 
foundation of the Parthian empire in 261, its extension by Mithradates II. in 127, its 
conquests in Syria, Bactria, and the Punjaub in the 1st century B.C., to the commence- 
ment of the Christian Era, the siege of Jerusalem, the foundation of the Sasanian 
Empire in 228, the conversion of Constantine, the growth of the Romans, the claim to 
papal supremacy, the Mahamadan hejira, and the end of the Sasanian dynasty in 650. 
This table illustrates the Trans-Persian Zarathustra or Zoroaster and his faith in Ahura 
or Aurhra Masda, one supreme God, giver of life and wisdom. E. W. B. 

Printed by Eyre akd Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, E.C. 





190L] MAN. [Nob. 27 28. 

Australia. With Plate O, 1-2. Balfour. 

A Swan- tuck Boomerang of unusual form. Communicated by Henry Balfour, jm 
M.A., Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. L I 

I am anxious to draw atteution to the implement shown in Plate C, fig. 1, in order 
that I may ascertain whether any similar l>oomerang exists iu other museums or collec- 
tions. The specimen is in the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford, having formerly been in Mr. 
Norman Hardy's collection. Instead of being cut out of a single piece of wood specially 
selected for the purpose, as is the case with the swan-necked boomerang as usually seen 
(ouc of which is figured for comparison, Plate C, tig. 2), this example has been apparently 
made from an ordinary boomeraug having but slight curvature, and the spur at the end 
is formed by fixing with gum a flat piece of wood to the boomerang head. The spur 
is painted in red aud white patterns, and the boomeraug is coated with red ochre. The 
spur is protected with a sheath of melaleuca bark. The hook-like spur is 6\ inches 
long. This specimen was procured from natives of MacArthur River, Gulf of Carpentaria, 
N.T., 8. Australia. I should be curious to ascertain whether others of similar construction 
have been recorded, and also whether this example is to be regarded as intended for 
ceremonial use ; the paiutiug seems to suggest this. The specimen of ordinary type 
figured with it is from the tableland between the Roper and MacArthur Rivers. II. B. 

Australia. With Plate 0, 3-5. Balfour. 

Three Bambu Trumpets from Northern Territory, South Australia. Column- f)Q 
nicated by Henry Balfour, M.A., Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. £0 

I have recently been able to secure for the Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford three 
examples of the trumpets made by natives of Northern Territory, South Australia, in the 
region between Ports Essiugtou and Darwin (Plate C, 3-5). Though characteristic of 
this particular region, comparatively few of these instruments have found their way into 
museums. They are of interest as being of very limited range, and as being wind 
instruments of music, a class which is very poorly represented among uativc Australians. 
Wooden tubes, ilpirra, hollowed out by white ants, were obtained by the mcmWs of the 
Horn Expedition in Central Australia. These were used for singing through, and not 
for blowing as trumpets (Spencer and Gilleu, p. <>07). W. E. Roth mentions emu 
calls consisting of hollow logs, 2t to 3 feet long, which are blown into to produce a 
sound, as being used throughout North-West Central Queensland (Ethnological Studies, 
p. 97). Unless one includes the '* bull-roarers" as wind instruments, as one should do, 
I do not recall any other wind musical instruments in Australia excepting the bambu 
trumpets of the Northern Territory. Coppinger (" Voyage of the * Alert,' " 1883, p. 204) 
saw in a camp of the Larikia tribe, Port, Darwin, " pieces of hollow reed about 4 feet 
u long, which they blew like cow-horns." R. Etheridge describes and figures 
(** Macleay Memorial Volume," 1893, Linn. Soe. N.S.W.) three bambu trumpets 
obtained by Mr. II. Stockdale from the Alligator tribe, Port Essington, varying from 
3 feet to 3 feet 3 inches in length, and from quite straight to strongly curved. All are 
engraved on the surface. J. E.Partington figures ( u Album of the Pacific," I. ser., 
353, fig. i.) a straight example from Port Essington, called ebcro, which is iu the British 
Museum ; also (III. ser., pi. 136, figs. 2 and 3) a specimen (37 inches) from the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, oolomba, " blown like a bullock horn," aud one from Western Queensland 
(8 feet 6 inches), of which it is said, u the performer sings into one end." Both these 
instruments arc iu the Adelaide Museum. Of the specimens which are figured here 

[ 33 ] 



tNos. 28-29, 

(Plate C), initnlier 1 is of sum 1 1 size (HI] inches), very slightly- curved, reddened all 
. end Boratehed and dolled over the surface. Number 8 is of large size (3 feet 
I D$ I nr bes across the 01 strongly curved, aud tapers somewhat from end to end. 

The surface is scraped, reddened! and finely engraved in places, figures of the dngong 
and turtle being discernible ; Uaek guna 1ms been smeared on the larger end. The native 
name is given as mam~ma~tie* Both these were procured by Mr. *T. V. Parkes, Inspector 
Of Mines, in 1891, near Port Essiugton, and were in the collection of Mr. Normau 
Hardy recently presented to the Kti Rivera Museum hy Mr. K. Pi Wifltins. 

The third specimen (No. 3) is nearly straight, 4 feet 3 J inches long, tapering 

slightly. The silicious cortex is scraped away iu hands at the nodes, the intervening 
-paces being roughly engraved in zi^ The lower end has been coated with 

41 blackhoy " gum, I purchased this specimen from an English dealer, and it probably 
comes from the Port Kssiugtou district. 

In all the specimens the ends are cut off square, and the nodes have been broken 
through, so that the instruments are merely plain tube- trumpets. II, R. 

India ; Madras. Fawcett, 

Xohs ntt ike homhs of Jet/pur % I'izagapatam District^ Madras Presidency, Afl 

Coiumiiuicutcd by F. Paweett, Loeal Correspondent of the Anthropological fcil 

The Dombs are an outcast jungle people, who inhabit the forests on the high lands 
fifty to eighty of O&e hundred miles from the east coast of India, about Vizagupatam. 
Being oulcast, thev at* oevei allowed to live within a village, but have their own little 
hamlet adjoining a village proper, inhabited by people of various superior castes. 

It is (airly safe to say that the Dombs are akin to the Finds of the adjoining 
Khond country, a pariah folk who live amongst the Khonds, and used to supply the 
humuu victims tor the Mcriah sacrifice-. Indeed the Khonds, who hold them iu ituc 
leuiptuuus Inferiority, call them Combos as a sort of alternative title to Pauds. The 
Paid is, of the adjoining 8a vara or SaOfl country are also, doubtless, kinsmen of (be 

In most respects their condition is a very poor one. Though they live iu the beet 
part of the Presidency for game, they know absolutely nothing of hunting, and 
cannot even handle a DOW and arrow. They have, however, one reepeotabk quality, 
industry, and are the weavers, traders, and money-lenders of the hills, being v.rv 
useful as middlemen between the K bonds, Savras, Qadabeu, and other hill-people, on 
the one baud, and the traders of the plains on the other. I am informed, on good 
authority, that tie ma Dombs who rise higher than this, but cannot say whether 

these are, or are uot, crosses with superior races. Most likely they are ; for most of the 
Dombs are arraut thieves. 

It was this propensity for thieving, in fact, which had landed some hundreds of 
them in the jail at Yizagapatam when I visited that place lately, and gave me the 
opportunity of recording their measurements, and of making some notes of their 
customs ; and these measurements and notes I now submit lof what they may be 
worth, as bearing on the Dravidian problem of Sou t hern and Central India. 

Tribal Divisions* — Willi one exception, all the individuals in the tabular list given 
below*, are Paidi Dombs, The one exception is No. 22 in my note>, who i* an Augnia 
Dunb. Between Angola pud Paidi Dombs there is no intermarriage, and the Augnia 
are reckoned inferior ''because they cat frogs/* Roth, on the other hand, I 
which, it is hardly necessary to say, is eaten in Southern India by none but those on the 
lower- 1 riOf) of the social ladder. No doubt there are other tribes of Dombs also besides 

[ 34 ] 




the Paidi and Aagnta : bat these an? the oqIt tribes with which I have eome in 

Amikropnwetrie 0&*rrr*i/*>Af . — The tabular analysis which follows £ivo$ the results 
i in ceotimenvs « of my mca«ureaieut£ of the Dornhs in the jail at Yitacapatam : - 








to Ho:£ht 

{in cent-merrvs*. 

*i 10. 

of 25. 





Stature - 

16 > 



152 * 3 



Height, sttiiu; 

79* ; 







„ knteling 

117 4 







S|aa - 


171 8 



1 76 * 5 



Chest measareb*nt 

7> *2 



74* I 




Shoulders, width 




36 2 




Left cubit - - 



48 • 5 



44 1 


M hand, length 



19 4 



17 5 


., ., width 

7 *5 






w M midfiuger 


10 • 9 






Hips, width* 

25 8 



22* 7 




Left foot, length* 





25 * 8 



„ width - 



9 • 3 




Cephalic length 



20 * 





„ width - 



14 9 




„ index 


75 * 6 


70 * 2 



Bigoniac length 


10 8 

11 4 



10 * 5 

Bizygomatic length 



14 2 

12 5 

13 * 6 



M axil lozygonia tic index • 

82 • 1 



75 * 6 

S3 -3 

79 * 2 

Nasal height 



5 1 




a " 

„ width - - - ; 








„ index - - 1 

85.- 4 



64 • 7 

92 • 5 


Vertex to trairns - - \ 


12 6 


11 5 




„ chin - - | 

18 * 2 

185 : 

19 -8 




11 4 

Mid finger to patella 


11-5 j 

15 2 

6 • 


9 • 6 

7- 1 

Weight (lbs. avdp.) 


103 7 . 

121 '2 

86 • 5 

112 5 

99 • 5 

* N.B. In seven individuals the left foot was longer than the hips were wide. 

Colour of the Skin. — Of the total number, 34*9 j>er cent, wen' Iwtween Nos. 28 
and 43 of Broea's colour-types ; 21 • 7 per cent, were of No. 28 ; 21 • 7 per cent, of 
No. 35 ; 21 * 7 per cent, of No. 43. 

Colour of the Eyes. — Of the total number, 4 per cent, were darker than No. I. of 
Broea's colour- types ; 32 per cent, were of No. I. ; 28 per cent, were between No. I. and 
No. Jl. ; ami 36 per cent, were of No. II. or lighter. 

General Physical Characteristics. — 1 append more detailed description* of ti\e 
individuals, taken at random from the first dozen in my list, as follows : — 

No. 1. — Glabella and orhital ridges prominent ; nasal notch deep. Hair on the 
head plentiful ; no hair on the cheeks ; slight moustache and heard ; none on (be 
chest ; none visible ou the arms ; moderate hair on the legs. Kar IoI>cm and 
helix of left ear pierced ; this applies to all the individuals examined. Seeond toe 
slightly longer than the big toe. 

[ 36 ] 



[No. 29. 

No. 2. — Orbital ridges fairly promiuont ; nasal notch deep. Hair on the head 
plentiful and somewhat grey ; none on the cheeks ; slight moustache and l>eard ; 
none on the chest ; hair scarcely visible on the arms ; moderate to slight on the 

No. 3. — Glabella and orbital ridges not apparent ; uasal notch slight. Hair 
on the head plentiful ; none on the cheeks ; slight moustache and l>eard ; none ou 
the chest or arms ; slight on the legs. Tattooed on the right fore-arm. 

No. 5. — Glabella and orbital ridges scarcely apparent ; nasal notch deep. Hair 
on the head plentiful, aud mixed with grey ; none on the cheeks ; very slight 
moustache and beard ; none on the chest and arms ; a few hairs on the calves of 
the legs. Tattooed. 

No. 8. — Glabella not apparent ; orbital ridges very slight ; nasal notch very 

slight ; nasal line slightly depressed (this is unusual) ; nasal spine not apparent. 

Hair on the head plentiful and greyish ; none on the cheeks ; slight moustache 

and beard ; no sign of hair on the chest ; scarcely apparent ou the arms ; very 

slight on the legs. 

Some of those who were measured subsequently were more hairy than these. 

No. 19, in particular, was abnormally hairy in the armpits, and rather thickly covered 

ou the abdomen and legs. But he was fair of colour, aud probably a cross. The 

blackest individuals, on the other hand, seemed to have diverged least from a common 

type, and these, as a rule, had little or no hair on the cheek, slight moustache and beard, 

no hair on the chest or anus, and very little on the legs. 

I have noted that these Dombs are uncommonly like the ordinary Madras Pariah, 
but slightly fairer ; all had, like the Pariah, a very strong and uupleasant odour. They 
were an ill-made and poor-looking lot of men ; one only, out of 25, being really well- 
shaped aud sturdy. One only showed signs of incipient balduess. The teeth of all 
were excellent. 

Tattooing. — This is done by Gojjias, or rather by the women of that people. 
The native name for the tattooing is bana. The patterns, of which examples are given 
below, are extremely rude. No. 1 measured 7 cm. from top to bottom, the strokes 

** • • 
• • • 


V 4 • • 



9 t 




[ 30 ] 



190L] MAN. [No. 29. 

represent a scorpion, and the dots jasmine flowers. No. 2 represents " flowers." No. 3, 
on the left forearm, represents a scorpion and some stars. No. 4, also on the lefc 
forearm, represents the moon and stars. No. 5 is known by the name Kattari, but I 
could not discover what it is intended to be. No. 6, of uncertain significance, was 
fo ttooed (10 x 7 cm.) on the left forearm. No. 7, which closely resembles No. 3, and 
measures 4 x o cm., on the right forearm of the same individual. Nos. 8, 9, and 10 are 
unexplained. No. 10 is sometimes ornamented also with dots. No. 11, tattooed on the 
left deltoid, represents a man, the moon, stars, and a necklace. No. 12 was tattooed on 
both shoulders of one man. Its elements closely resemble those of No. 11, and represent 
a mau and a woman, several moons, the sun, a necklace or chain, and more stars. These 
patterns were said to be, one and all, purely ornamental, and not in any way connected 
with totems or tribal emblems. 

Personal Names. — The following were the names of individuals who were 
examined : — Korkori Bahama, Batra Billai, Takiri Bondari, Kosalia Bhimadu ; other 
family names noted are Kura, Bago, Thala, Bishan, Nagabu, Benkiti, Ghoru, Mandi, 
Cheli ; other persoual names are Niro, Budra, Bakida, Sukkumon, Porya, Dhimabhandu, 

Marriage Customs. — The Dombs observe the general rule of Southern India. The 
children of a, brother and sister may marry, and always do so, if it can possibly be 
arranged, as this is the " proper marriage " ; but the children of brothers, or the 
children of sisters, never intermarry. A man may marry the widow of his elder brother, 
but not of his younger brother. The family name already mentioned is called vamsha ; 
and no persons of the same vamsha can marry. The tribe, however, is endogamous ; 
a Paidi, for example, must marry a Paidi. The girl joins her husband's vamsha; 
inheritance is through the father; and it is his name that the children bear. 

There is no limit to the number of wives ; and a man may have as many as he can 
support ; but the first marriage alone seems to involve a real ceremony. The head man 
of the caste people in the village arranges the marriages, and gives his consent ; and 
receives two new cloths after the ceremony from the father of the bride. Marriages 
are always arranged by the eldrrs. The bridegroom takes a mat, a fan, and some 
saffron, and, followed by some of his relatives, goes to the bride's house. There the 
headman sees what he has brought. A new cloth is put on the bride, aud her bauds are 
joined in those of the bridegroom. A feast follows in the bride's house. Then all go 
to the bridegroom's house, where they wait until they have had three square meals. 

The marriage of a second or third wife is sufficiently marked by a simple feast to 
the caste people. The bride may be older than the husband, but her age is not 
considered ; nor is it of any consequence whether she has attained puberty. 

Fertility. — It was noted, in the case of individual No. 13, that there was an 
average of four children in the families of No. 13 himself, and of his three brothers and 
sisters. The largest family consisted of nine children, seven boys and two girls. 

Religion. — 1 could learn but little of the religion of the Dombs. Their chief god — 
probably an ancestral spirit — is called Kaluga. There is one in each village, in tie 
headman's house. The deity is represented by a pie-piece, placed in or over a new 
earthern pot, smeared with rice and saffron powder. During worship, a silk cloth, a 
new cloth, or a wet cloth may be worn ; but one must not dress in leaves. Before 
mangoes are eaten, the first fruits are offered to the moon, at the full moon of the month 

Taboo, — Monkeys, frogs, and cobras are taboo, and also the sumari tree (Cassia 
fistula)* which bears a flower very like that of a laburnum. The big lizard, cobras, 
frogs, and the crabs which are found in the paddy-fields, and are usually eaten by jungle 
people, mav not be eaten. 

[ 37 ] 



[Nos. 29 30, 

Dtitth Ctremoni\ tbeea also 1 could learn lmr Tit * 1 • . TI. itber 

buried, or, in the tat* man, i.ttrtil : in li n tO 

the nation ri 

■ father, a mother, oi n wife, the Lair nti the h 
moti- I off on tlie iilxth, twelfth d»? ;i 

dent It. 

■ fttjH>.— 1 h< Itunjtttt. or -mall clolli In hv t li- Dg lilt 

Hin-i worn among the DAmbc i'v n 

The hair it worn long but bairofl the faoeonl^ 

Men an tftid i<» shave alto 1 1 * * * parte about t Ij « k 
India, F. FA VN < III 

New Zealand. 

Edge- Partington. 

y<,ft tut tin 3fatMoionffQ n* th> Art <;<///<//,, Auckland, New Zealand* t\f% 

-Partingl 0U 

AlUODg tti»' many rolhviion* in i he late Sir . and g 

to vi all bat very fa i in the A, N.Z. Tfaja n'lkrtii.ii contains perha)» flu g -I of all Maori h 

(fig. 1-2). It is a figure landing abort sixte* n inohti btgb, re pr o oo nting i human 

form in a squatting position, with band* upon the l>ivn>t. f am indebted to Jf?. 

Joei&h Martin ikland, for the following note* 

Tin WatwUonga, or repraeentatlon of tht reproductive powers ol 

nature, ami ! from a retl volcanic stone I Zealand , It 

given to Sh Grey by the old tnlttnnjn. or pr'n-i, of T 1 1*^ Island of Mokoiu, 

on Lake Rotorua, under tin follow umBtanoeei The old man, finding that hi^ 

[ 38 ] 



[Nos. 80-81 

wherealKHits becoming known, it was disinterred by some Europeans ; but by the order 
of the Government it was returned to the Maoris and reburied in its old site on the 
Island of Mokoia. J. E.-P. 

Tatuing: Pacific. Woodford. 

Note on Tain -patterns employed in Lord Howe's Island. By C. M. Woodford. Q4 
Communicated by C. II. Road, F.S.A. I 

The following is an extract of a letter from Mr. C. M. Woodford, dated Tnlagi, 
Solomon Islands, 5tb November, 1900 : — 

• 4 1 have lately paid a visit in H.M.8. Torch to Lord Howe's Group, or Ontong 
Java. I went there to hoist the flag, as it has been ceded to us by the Germans. I 



send you herewith a sketch of the usual pattern ot' tatuing employed there. I sketched 
it from life, and it agrees almost exactly with a similar sketch I made fourteen years 

[ 40 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 32-33. 

New Hebrides. Edge-Partingfton. 

Feathered Arrows from Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. Communicated by AA 
J. Edge-Partington. **^ 

Some years ago I purchased from a missionary resident in the Loyalty Islands 
some feathered arrows which he had obtained from a vessel trading in the New Hebrides. 
A selection of these I figured in my Ethnographical Album, 2nd Series, Plate 72. In 
the Catalogue of the Museum Godeffroy, Plate XXII., Fig. 9, r. feathered arrow is 
figured as coming from the New Hebrides (?). I have lately been in communication 
with Mr. Charles Hedley, of the Australian Museum, Sydney ; he has kindly furnished 
me with a short copy of a paper read by our Fellow, Mr. Norman Hardy, before the 
Linnaean Society of New South Wales, when he exhibited feathered arrows which he 
had himself ob mined on the island of Espiritu Santo. He considers that these arrows 
are an indigenous production and without any foreign suggestion. The shafts, he says, 
are formed from a reed (Phragmites communis), the feathers are those of the common 
fowl and are set parallel to and bowed from the shaft, and are lashed on by narrow strips 
of smooth fibre, probably from the stem of the banana plant. J. E.-P. 

Ontario. Boyle. 

Archaeological Report, 1898. Being part of Appendix to the Report of the. A A 
Minister of Education, Ontario. Printed by order of the Legislative Assembly. UU 
Toronto, 1898. 8vo, pp. viii, 211 (including index). With 19 plates and 24 illustrations 
in the text. 

Archfpologiral Report, 1899. Being part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister 
of Education, Ontario. Printed by order of the Legislative Assembly. Toronto, 1900. 
8vo, pp. iv, 199. With plans and illustrations in the text. 

These Reports are the two -latest of a series compiled by Mr. David Boyle, the 
curator of the museum at Toronto. They are records of the objects acquired from year 
to year by the museum, which under the wise policy of the Hon. Dr. Ross, formerly 
Minister of Education and now Premier of the Province of Ontario, and the skilful 
management of Mr. David Boyle, is rapidly becoming one of the most important on the 
North American continent. It is particularly rich in objects illustrating the culture of 
the Canadian aborigines. The systematic exploration of prehistoric sites under the 
direction of Mr. Boyle and a competent staff* is not only increasing the wealth of the 
museum, but is adding year by year to our knowledge of the predecessors of the present 
population of the Province. The more remarkable of the objects obtained by these 
explorations are figured, with plans of the sites and views. These illustrations greatly 
augment the value of the Reports. 

During the last two or three years a further step has been taken. Following the 
example set by the Bureau of Ethnology and several of the museums in the United 
States, an effort has been made to acquire and embody in the Report information as to 
the present state of the aboriginal populations in tiie Province. Mr. Boyle himself 
undertook the study of the pagan Iroquois. With the assistance of Mr. Brant-Sero, a 
Mohawk, and Ku-uis-hau-doii, a Seneca chief, through whom he was enabled to get a 
large numl>er of details ami ascertain the meaning of ceremonies he witnessed, he has 
produced in the Report for 1898 a most valuable monograph on the religion of the 
Iroquois as now practised. Iroquois paganism is not to-day what it was three centuries 
ago, l>efore the Jesuit missionaries had penetrated into the Canadian wilds. Prophets 

[ 41 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 33 

had at various times ere then appeared ; hut they had effected little if anything towards 
raising their fellow-countrymen in faith or morals. The teaching of Christianity, how- 
ever, proved a new and potent influence. Mr. Boyle adopts the view — and it is, I 
believe, the better opinion — that the Great Spirit, the Master of Life, was unknown to 
the American tribes until the white man set foot on their shores. The acceptance of the 
idea of the Supreme Being has introduced a new force into aboriginal religion. A 
succession of prophets has arisen in various tribes during the last two centuries, all of 
whom " have been consciously or unconsciously indebted to the white man very 
considerably for the tone and tenour of their teachings." 

The pagan Iroquois of whom Mr. Boyle writes follow the teachings of Ska-ne-o- 
dy-o, who received his revelation in the year 1790. The object of these teachings is to 
preserve the Indians free from contamination with white men. Mixed marriages, cards, 
drink, and European musical instruments and medicines are forbidden. Gambling 
according to native fashion is, however, encouraged. Certain religious festivals are 
enjoined. Stress is laid upon marriage, hospitality, and a high general morality ; so 
much so, says Mr. Boyle, " as to make one sometimes doubt the propriety of applying 
" the term 4 pagan ' to them [the Iroquois], although this name does not necessarily 
" imply anything disreputable." 

The author gives a detailed description of the Midwinter Festival, at which the 
White Dog is burned. The reason for the sacrifice of the White Dog is unknown. 
Mr. Boyle discusses the question without coming to any satisfactory conclusion. As at 
present observed, the animal is strangled and then thrown on the fire with a quantity of 
tobacco as a sacrifice to the Great Spirit, with prayers for various blessings, of which 
health, abundance, and content are the chief. Other festivals here described are the 
Spring Sun Dance, the Green Corn Dance, and the Feast of the Skeleton. An account 
of the important Society of the False Faces is also given, together with the myths 
relating to it. Nor are these the only important subjects dealt with. Among others may 
l>e mentioned as of special interest, the Gentile organisation and government of the 
Iroquois, their music, their personal names, and the origin and meaning of Niyoh, the 
word now used for God. 

Iroquois music is further described in the Report for 1899. Graphophone cylinders 
have been used to take down the songs. These have been reduced to our notation by 
Mr. Cringan, and are given, to the number of 47. Still more interesting is Mr. W. E. 
Connelly's article on the Wyandots. It contains a careful account of the clan system 
from the oldest records to the present day, and of Wyandot government and proper 

This bare enumeration by no means exhausts the interest of the Reports. It is 
sufficient to indicate their value to anthropologists. Special reference, however, should 
also be made to the excellent reproductions in the Report for 1898 of photographs of the 
Iroquois, both individuals and groups, and of their dwellings. They are a fine, intelli- 
gent looking people, some of them even handsome according to European standards. 

In the publication of these valuable Reports the Government of Ontario is giving 
a lead to the Colonial Office of the Imperial Government. Enlightened statesmanship 
demands something more than the annual publication of statistics of trade and police. 


[N.B. — By the courtesy of Mr. Boyle, and of the Honourable Richard Harcourt, 
the successor of Dr. Ross as Minister of Education in Ontario, a limited number of 
copies of these Reports have been placed at the disposal of the Anthropological 
Institute, and may be obtained by students on application at 3, Hanover Square, 
Loudon, W. — Ed.] 

[ 42 ] 

190L] MAN. [Ho. 34. 

Asia. Futterer. 

Durch Asien, ErfahrungcH, For sr hung en und Samndungen (Band 7. Q J| 
Geographische Charakter-BUder). Von Dr. K. Futterer. With 203 Mas- vT' 
trations in the Text, 40 Plates, two Coloured Plates, and Map. Berlin, Reiraer. 1901, 
pp. xxv, 545. Price 20 marks. 

Dr. Futterer, Professor of Geology and the allied studies in the Grand-Ducal 
Technical High School at Karlsruhe, gives us in this stout volume of 57C large octavo 
pages, the first fruits of the great Asiatic expedition of 1897-99, which was conducted 
by his friend Dr. Holderer of Heidelberg, and in which he took part as geologist, 
geographer, anthropologist, and general historiau. Even the natural history department 
fell largely to his share ; most of the floweriug plants from the Gobi Desert were 
collected by bim ; the unbroken record of daily meteorological observations from 
Russian Turkestan to Shanghai, together with numerous determinations of altitudes 
and latitudes are amongst the more important results of his untiring energy, 
and of a fortunate arrangement with the leader of the expedition, by which our 
author was enabled to devote most of his time to exclusively scientific work. 
The rich and extremely diversified materials thus collected along a route extend- 
ing from the Caspian Sea to the Pacific Ocean will ultimately form the subject- 
matter of three uniform volumes, the contents of which are thus distributed : 
I. Geographical descriptions, incidents of travel, natural history, and ethnographic 
details, illustrated by numerous reproductions of photographs, nearly all taken by 
Dr. Futterer himself ; II. Geological observations aud the discussion of the more 
important general problems suggested by them ; III. Essays on the meteorological, 
pakeontological, zoological, and botanical results of the expedition. 

Of this encyclopaedic programme most of our readers will be mainly interested 
in that section which has already appeared, and is comprised between the two covers 
of the volume under notice. Here has been brought together a great quantity of 
valuable ethnological matter carefully collected from regions which are seldom visited 
by good observers, although presenting many points that are attractive to the 
anthropological student. This will bo at once apparent when it is stated that the 
route followed by the expedition traversed the whole of Western (Russian) and 
Eastern (Chinese) Turkestan, skirted the northern and more thickly inhabited districts 
of the Tarim (Lob-nor) basin, penetrated eastwards to II ami (Khainil), crossed the 
Gobi wilderness from this place in a south- easterly direction to the Kuku-Nor 
province of North-eastern Tibet ; here struck again eastwards over the Ala-sbau range 
into Kansu ; thence to Si-ugan-fu, earliest sent of the Ctiinese race in the Wei -ho 
valley, and so on through the heart of China (just before the present troubles) to 
the great city of Han-kow, and down the Yang-tse-kiang to Shanghai. Thus were 
offered and largely utilized endless opportunities of studying in their homes a great number 
of peoples, such as the Turkomans, the Usbegs, the Tajiks, Sartes, Galchas, Kirghizes, 
Dungans, Tarauches, Kashgarians, Kalmaks, Eastern Mongols, Tanguts, and Chinese 
peoples, showing collectively almost every imaginable shade of transition between the 
two great Caucasic and Mongolic divisions of mankind. Unfortunately, owing to the 
lack of interpreters, and the coyness or superstitious fears of the aborigines, especially 
in the more remote eastern lands, the attempts to procure anthropometric data mostly 
proved abortive. Hence the accurate measurements, which are here conveniently 
tabulated in the appendix, are mainly confined to the Central and West Asiatic 
peoples, including various groups of Kirghizes, Sartes, and Kashgarians. But 
these measurements extend in some instances to such miuute details — colour of 
exposed and covered parts, cranial and pelvic indices, length of the extremities, of 
femur, tibia, digits, nails, texture of the hair, shape, positiou, and colour of the eye, 
and so on — that th«y may be fairly described as exhaustive. In fact, so far as 

[ 43 ] 

190L] MAN. [Hob. 34-35. 

regards their physical characters certain natives of Chinese Turkestan are now better 
known to science than perhaps any single inhabitant of these islauds. In other respects, 
also, the picture is often very complete, and we learn, for instance, that the term Sart 
appears to have no ethnical value, though this was no doubt already known in a 
general way from other sources. The information on this subject embodied in the 
text is supplemented in a note by further particulars from F. von Schwarz's 
valuable work on Turkestan (Freiburg, Baden, 1900). Although not without historic 
significance, Sart denotes at present little more than the settled as distinguished 
from the nomad populations in Ferghana and surrounding lands. Those more 
specially so designated are the mixed Aryan (Galcha) aborigines of the secluded 
upland valleys of the Ox us, many of whom, as we learn from Ch. de Ujfalvy, 
still speak archaic forms of the old Aryan stock language. But the word has a 
wide range, and now comprises not only the majority of the inhabitants of the towns and 
villages in Russian Turkestan, but also numerous communities in the Tarim basin, in 
Kashgaria, Bokhara, North Afghanistan, aud Semirechinski-krai. Most of the so-called 
Usbegs, who have abandoned the nomad life and intermingled with the primitive Aryan 
peoples of these regions, are scarcely to be distinguished from the Sarts and the closely- 
allied Tajiks of Persian speech. But miscegenation of long standing prevails every- 
where in the Western and Central lands, where the Mongol element is chiefly betrayed 
by the almond-shaped oblique eyes, while u the farther they recede eastwards the nearer 
** do the tribes approach the genuine Mongol type, indicated by a lower stature, broader 
" face aud mouth, flatter nose, and scantier l>eard." The same phenomenon, which is 
here well illustrated by reproductions of several of the photographs taken by the author, 
was observed by Captain Younghusband, who, advancing from the opposite direction, 
remarks that u as I proceeded westwards I noticed a gradual, scarcely perceptible, change 
u from the round of a Mongolian type to a sharper and yet more sharp type of 

u feature As we get further away from Mongolia we notice that 

%i the faces become gradually longer and narrower" {The Heart of a Continent, 
p. 118). Hence, when the expedition reached the Koko-Nor district of North-east 
Tibet, it found itself surrounded by races of distinctly Mongol type. Here the 
dominant people are the Tanguts, who are fully described and recognised 
with Prjevalsky and Rockhill to be a characteristic branch of the Tibetan family. 
Amongst these wild predatory tribes Dr. Futtercr met with a more friendly reception 
than most of his predecessors. They willingly accompanied him in his frequent excur- 
sions oft" the main route, took au active part in the work of collecting, and became quite 
expert in discovering geological specimens, even in localities where the explorer has 
himself failed to find any. 

Students requiring to consult this storehouse of anthropological lore will be grateful 
to the author for a more copious index than is usually supplied to German works of this 
character. A. II. KEANE. 

India: Bibliography. Campbell. 

Iiirler- Catalogue of Indian Official Publications in the Library of the British g*p 
Museum. By Frank Campbell. 1900. London, Library Supply Association. 0%) 
4to, pp. . Price 42*. nett. 

The size of the catalogue, which has been compiled by Mr. Frank Campbell (late 
of the British Museum Library), and represents the labour of 13 years, is a fair 
indication of the enormous mass of Indian literature which now exists, as it is also a 
measure of the difficulty which besets any ordinary " reader " in extracting the special 

t « ] 

190L] MAN. [Nob. 35-36. 

document which he may require to illustrate any particular subject, unless he is fully 
posted l>oth in the name of the originating department and in the exact title of the work. 
It is hardly necessary to emphasize the value of the assistance thus afforded by 
Mr. Campbell's catalogue, although it is (necessarily) incomplete, and does not claim to 
represent even the whole of the British Museum collection. What it does claim is to 
provide a reference for "the more modern portion of the collection of Indian official 
" publications issued in India subsequent to the mutiny, so far as the documents have 
%i been deposited in the library of the British Museum." * 4 Reports issued as ' English 
k * parliamentary papers ' are not included except in rare instances, but there is a 
" considerable representation of Departmental Report* issued in London in connection 
" with the India Office." Works of a semi-official nature have also been included in 
certain instances. From a casual glance at the contents it would certainly appear that 
Mr. Frank Campbell's work is sufficiently comprehensive to be a most valuable index to 
Indian literature generally, and that he has earned the thanks not only of the casual 
reader, but of many Indian officials for a work which will lighten their labour 
considerably. T. H. HOLDICH. 

New Guinea. Fellows : Le Hunte. 

Despatches from His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor of British New g\g\ 
Guinea. No.28 (14th April), No. 35 (25th April), No. .36 (1st May), and UO 
No. 44 (21st June) of 1900. 

The first of these despatches (No. 28) encloses the following account by the 
He v. S. B. Fellows, of the Kabilula — Atouement or Peace-making Ceremony — of the 
Natives of Kiriwiua (Trohriand Group), who were lately at war. 

'"Atonement or J'cacc-making Ceremony of the Natives of Kiriwiua. — Taolu came 
to ask me to accompany him on the morrow to the Kabilula. We arranged to meet 
at the inland village of Obweria. I was there early, and about 9 o'clock Taolu 
arrived with a numerous retinue, all fully armed with spears and shields and long 
knives. Taolu carried no weapons, but I noticed that in addition to the ordinary 
ornaments by which a Guiau is distinguished, he was also wearing the sacred 
emblems of royalty — the armlets and wristlets previously held by Eiiamakala and his 
predecessors for many generations in the office of supreme Guiau in the ruling Labai 
family of Kiriwiua. As Obweria was the first village in Tilatuula territory entered 
by Taolu, he was here formally received by a Tilatuula chief. This man, named 
Kunoi, rushed into the centre of the village, and gesticulating like a madman, never 
once looking at Taolu, but addressing him, and him only, all the lime. In effect, he 
said : * Taolu, we are glad to see you. We acknowledge you as our Guiau, in 

* .succession to Knaiiiakala. We have had enough of fighting, and everything is ready 

* for making the atonement to-day. All the Tilatuula chiefs are waiting for you at 
4 Kabwaku. Let us go and make peace. Then come back and live in your village, 
4 Omarakana, and rule I he country as a Guiau should. Make peace and keep the 
' peace ; put away all the spears so that there be no more war.' Then striking his fore- 
head with the palm of his hand — the usual pledge of a chief, that he would defend from 
danger — he made a leap to where Taolu stood, grasped his hand, and drew him to the 
path leading to Kabwaku. As a dramatic performance, Kunoi's action was perfect ; 
its effect on the men standing round was electrical. They simply roared out their 
acclamation to the Guiau, and shouldering their spears, they crowded pell-mell into 
the narrow r track after their leaders. Beyond the village the procession was marshalled. 
A band of warriors took the lead, headed by a sorceror, who, with his continuous 
incantations, cleared our path of all evil &pirits. Following these came about twenty 

[ 45 ] 

1901] MAN. [No. 36. 

women, carrying on their beads the appeasing gifts for the Kabilula, then the chiefs 
with more warriors, and behind came the crowd. 

" Going in single file the column stretched out to a great length. At frequent 
intervals a wave of cheering ran dowu the line. The excitement increased as we went 
along, and reached its climax in deafening acclaim as we entered Eabwaku, where 
Taolu was welcomed by Moliasi in fine dramatic style. This was a proud day for so 
young a chief as Moliasi ; and he was equal to the occasion. In the Kabilula, equal 
presents are given and received on both sides, but the defeated chief, after seeking and 
receiving permission, has to come to the village of his conqueror, and there make his 
offering of atonement. 

" A clear space was quickly made in the middle of the village in front of Moliasi's 
house. The multitude of armed men with their spears in their hands eagerly crowded 
round. At one end of the rough circle stood Moliasi, stern and silent, surrounded by 
other chiefs of his side ; at the other end Taolu and his friends were busy unpacking 
their things. The proceedings were opened by Taolu rushing into the ring and 
carrying aloft a valuable armlet which he laid on the ground, at the same time crying 
out in a loud voice 'Kam lula, Moliasi ' (thy atonement, Moliasi). He immediately 
turned and retired, and the armlet was instantly snatched up and handed in by one 
of Moliasi's men. Again and again Taolu repeated this performance, each time 
bringing only one vaigua (article of wealth) and calling out the name of the chief to 
whom he was giving it. Some of his friends also did the same. In this way between 
thirty or forty different vaigua, consisting of armlets, old stone tomahawks, necklaces 
of native money, &c, &c, were presented and received. Then Taolu ran in and made 
a speech to Moliasi and his people, simulating furious passion as he sprang from side 
to side of the circle, and swung his arms about in energetic gestures. He addressed 
them as Bodagua (my younger brothers), and said, * I am weak to-day through the 
' death of my elder brother, Enamakala. Had he been alive to-day he would have 
4 brought more vaigua than you have men. I have brought you my own vaigua as your 
1 lula ; let that suffice. We are living in the bush, permit us to return to our villages. 
* Put away your spears and let us work at our gardens that there may be plenty of 
4 food for ourselves and our families.' Then Moliasi and other Tilataula chiefs began 
to present the return lula to Taolu. In the same manner, one by one, article for article, 
they laid down the exact equivalent of the vaigua they had received. After this they 
made their speeches, all of them definitely accepting Taolu as their Guiau. 

" One old chief, Mosituli, told Taolu that this had been a young men's war and so 
the Kabilula was held in a young chiefs village. A young chief, Meiosovalu, the right- 
hand man of Moliasi, said that though he was young when Enamakala and his men had 
driven his people out of their village, he remembered the death of his relatives and the 
burning of his home. It was to take the mapula (payment) for this that he had fought, 
but the present Kabilula settled all. 

" An attentive hearing was given to my address, but the uuited yell at the end 
might easily have startled anyone not used to the noisy style of Kiriwina natives. I 
pleaded the claims of law and order aud religion. 

"Then Taolu made his way into the midst of Moliasi's men, and, holding high a 
stick of tobacco, he called out, ' Which of you will take this tobacco and distribute 
it so that we may smoke a pipe of peace together ? ' Twenty eager hands were 
stretched out to grasp it. With the acceptance of this tobacco the Kabilula was 
completed, and the ceremony concluded." 

No matters of anthropological interest are coutaiued in despatches No. 35 and 44, 
but No. 36 contains the following : — 

" Notes on the Tribes of the Morehead River. — The tribes met with on the Upper 
Morehead are named Sauaua, Tugari, and Pirara, after the names of their villages. 

[ « ] 

1901] MAN. [Nob. 86-37. 

They are apparently subdivisions of the Babiri tribe. Indications point to the probability 
that their populations were comparatively much more numerous than at the present day. 
Without doubt their numbers have been diminished by the frequent onslaughts of the 
Tugeri tribe from Dutch New Guinea ; but these depredations have forced them to 
scatter, and it was not possible to arrive at so much as an approximate estimate of the 
population during a flying visit. 

" In stature these natives are of a slightly taller average than the so-called Bugi 
tribe (see below). Their muscular physique is also superior to that of the latter people. 
The men, for the most part, go stark naked, but some of them wear a grotesquely large 
pubic shell, which, however, is as ofteu to be seen hanging at the side or at the back as 
in its proper position. The hair is curly, and generally worn in thin plaits, iuto which 
is woven some vegetable fibre. These fibres extend below the limit, of the hair and 
depend gracefully more than half-way down the back and over the shoulders. The hair 
is shaved from off the upper part of the forehead. There septums of their noses are 
invariably pierced, and many of them in addition (particularly the Pi rani natives) have 
large holes punctured vertically through the nostril. There was a noticeable scarcity of 
body ornaments among them. In no case that came under notice was anything worn 
in the nose. They vary in colour from a dark copper to black. Their facial features 
differ to such an extent that no characteristic type could be detected. Some have 
pinched crabbed features, while others have a fine and gentle yet strong countenance, 
and between these two several others approaching one or the other extreme were 
observed. The older men wear beards, which are neither trimmed nor cut. 

" The women, of whom only three were seen, wore petticoats of grass. Their hair 
was cut moderately short. 

" A short vocabulary of their common language was taken, which may be useful as 
an addition to that taken by Sir William MacGregor. The name given by these people 
to the Morehead Itiver is Totogaba." 

N.B. — The Bugi tribe (above mentioned) consists now of the remnants of the 
original mainland tribe of that name, the Wasi tribe from Strachan Island, and others 
whose persecution by the Tugeri invaders has induced them to gather together for 
refuge at Bugi, where they have protection under a small detachment of armed native 
constabulary. S. H. RAY 

France : Reindeer Period. Girod and Massenat. 

Les Stations tic V Atjv. du lienne dans Its Vallies de la VSztre vt dv la n^ 
Corr&ze. Documents recueillis et publics par Dr. Paul Girod et Elio Masseuat. Of 
Laugerie- Basse ; Industrie, Sculptures, Gravures. Paris, J. B. Bail Here et h'ls, UKK). 
4to, pp. viii + 101, with 110 plates and 42 pp. of explanation. 

For some fi ve-aud-thirty years M. Massenat has been a diligent explorer of the 
caves and rock-shelters in the valleys of the Vezere and the Correze. Preliminary 
notices of his work have appeared from time to time, but no detailed and systematic 
account has yet been published. His very extensive collection is now in the care of 
Prof. Girod, of Clermont Ferrand, who has co-operated for many years with 
M. Massenat. They believe that the time has come for the preparation of a complete 
work, dealing exhaustively with the subject ; and they accordingly propose to issue 
a series of monographs describing all the stations which they have explored and all 
the objects which have been collected. The volume before us is the first of the series. 
It is devoted to the statiou of Laugerie-Basse, a locality of singular interest, inasmuch 
as it presents a typical illustration of the life and industry of the Magdalenian age. 

[ 47 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 37-38. 

As this is the first instalment of the great work which it is proponed to publish, it 
contains some preliminary matter of a general character, including a brief survey of 
the prehistoric remains throughout the valleys of the Vessere and the Correze. About 
1860 Jouannait found worked flints in certain caves iu Dordogne. But as far back 
as 1842 the College of Brive had acquired the natural history cabinet of the little 
College of Azerac, and it was found that this collection contaiued a number of objects 
worked in Hint and in reindeer-antler, together with reindeer bones, evidently of local 
origin, but without any record of their discovery. A new epoch in the history of 
archaeological work in Pcrigord was opeued up, however, iu 1862, when Edouard 
Lartet had his attention directed to the Dordogne caves through some specimens seut 
to Paris by Abel Lagauue, of Les Eyzies. Everyone . knows how Henry Christy 
threw himself into the work, conjointly with Lartet, and how the results were eventually 
given to the world in the famous Reliquia Aquitanicct. 

It was about 1865 when M. Masscnat commenced his researches by investigating 
some stations on the. Correze, whence he proceeded to the stream of Plauchetorte, where 
his work was carried on partly iu association with Philibert Lalande. Passing on to 
the Vezere, he set himself to explore patiently and systematically many of the stations 
which had previously been subject to only hasty examination. From his wide know- 
ledge of the relics of the so-called " Reindeer Age " he is led to recognize three epochs 
corresponding with those of de Mortillet, but named according to the typical stations. 
Instead, therefore, of the terms u Magdalcuiati," " Solutriau," and " Mousteriau," he uses 
respectively the terms "epoch of Laugerie- Basse, 1 ' "of Cro Magnon," and "of Le Moustier." 

The station of Laugerie-Basse was originally explored by Christy aud Lartet, and 
by de Vibraye ; but M. Masscnat has perseveringly continued the work in a most 
detailed and careful manner. The results are fully set forth iu the present work. The 
wealth of material discovered at this station is illustrated by no fewer than 110 quarto 
plates, lithographed by Dr. Girod, representing a great series of implements in flint, 
quartz, ivory, and reindeer-antler, together with a number of interesting engravings aud 
sculptures of the Reindeer Age. F. W. RUDLER. 

Savoy : Ethnology. Pittard. 

Note Prclimhiairc sur /' Ethnologic de la Savoie v.t de la Haute-Savoie. QQ 
Eugene Pittard. (Extract from Le Globe, Geneva, Juno 1900.) ^O 

This note is inteuded to indicate the present state of the author's investigations 
into the Ethnology of Savoy, anil to express the conclusions he has so far arrived at, 
subject to revision in a larger communication to be subsequently made in collaboration 
with Dr. J. Carret. M. Pittard shows that pala>cthuologists have found that a 
brachyceplialic group inhabited the lake dwellings of Savoy in the early polished stone 
period, and were displaced in whole or part by a dolichocephalic people who also lived 
as lake dwellers. Towards the end of the Bronze Age, this part of Europe was invaded 
in force by a braehycephalic population from across the Alpine passes. The author 
describes the ethnic distribution in Savoy as based on Lagneau's researches, deals 
briefly with the Burguudian invasion of the 5th century of our era and with the 
Saracen occupation, and passes on to crauiological evidence. M. Pittard having studied 
165 skulls from this neighbourhood, finds they fall into two definite groups, a 
dolichocephalic of 15 and a braehycephalic of 126 crania respectively. The 
braehycephalic skulls being also leptoprosopic and leptorhine are closely allied to 
those of the Yalais, the Grisous, aud Auvergne. The dolichocephalic group, relatively 
so feebly represented, is regarded as Burgundian. At first sight it would seem that 
among the present population of Savoy brachycephaly is associated with short stature 
and with relative blondness. F. C. S. 

Printed by Bybk and Spottiswoodb, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, E.C. 

1901.] MAN. [Hob. 39-40. 

East Africa. With Plate D. Sharpe. 

A Carved Stool and other objects from British East Africa. Communi- QA 
cated by Alfred Sharpe, C.B., Assistant Commissioner of Uganda. W 

The three objects described below were obtained by Mr. Alfred Sharpe, C.B., 
Assistant Commissioner of Uganda, were exhibited on his behalf at a meeting of the 
Anthropological Iustitute on November 27th, 1900 ; and have been presented by him to 
the British Museum. The following brief account of them is compiled from the objects 
themselves, and from memoranda supplied by Mr. Sharpe : — 

No. 1 is a stool of soft white wood, artificially blackened ou the surface. It is 
25 inches high, and consists of a squatting female figure resting on a plain, solid, 
circular pedestal, and supporting with upraised arms a plain circular seat, the upper 
surface of which is slightly concave. The female figure is remarkable for the elaborate 
representation of prominent cheloid ornaments ou the flanks and abdomen, and for the 
peculiar treatment of the hair, which is well shown in side and back view. (Plate D.) 

The stool comes from the district immediately west of the Luapula or Lualaba 
river, immediately after its exit, towards the north, from Lake Mweru. ' The natives 
there constantly make these stools, of different sizes and patterns. Mr. Sharpe adds that 
he has seen some beautifully carved ones at the trading station of the African Likes 
Corporation at the north -east corner of Lake Mweru. 

No. 2 is a double gong, 16} iuches high, of peculiar form, hammered together out of 
two thick sheets of soft iron. It has no clapper, aud was, apparently, intended to be 
struck from without. It comes from the town of Kazembe, just south of Lake Mweru. 
Kazembe'8 is one of the oldest known " dynasties " iu the southern half of Central 
Africa. Dr. Livingstone, when at Kazembe's, traced back a number of generations of 
" Kazembes," each succeeding chief beiug called by the same name. A Kazembe was in 
full swing at the time of Lacerda's journey in 1797 (see Burton's Land of the Cazcmbes, 
p. 4) ; and when there in 1890, 1892, and 1899 Mr. Sharpe saw abandoned sites of 
several old towns of the Kazembe's. Kazembe, the present chief, told Mr. Sharpe that 
his ancestors came from Mwata Yamvo. on the Kasai. Many of the customs at 
Kazembe's are more similar to those of the west of Africa than to those of the eastern 
half of the continent. The natives say that these bells are not made now, and that they 
are very old. Mr. Sharpe saw two or three of them. 

No. 3 is a perforated stone object like the head of a hammer or mace. It is 
6£ inches long, 3 inches broad, aud \\ iuches thick. This object comes from the 
4 * Mainbwe " country, which lies near the south end of Lake Tanganyika, 2,000 feet 
above the lake, and .5,000 above sea level. The natives find these objects in the ground, 
but do not kuow their origin, and call them miala ya mlunga, i.e., " Stones of God," 
meaning "supernatural stones." They are sometimes round, iustead of oval, and 
sometimes larger, sometimes smaller, than this example. Similar stones were found by 
Theodore Bent at Zimbabwe, and there are similar stones iu the Gizeh Museum at Cairo, 
which were takeu from Egyptian tombs of early date. Mr. Sharpe knows of no other 
localities in Africa, except those mentioned above, where these stones are found. 

Egypt: Prehistoric. Randall-Mad ver. 

A Prehistoric Cemetery at El Amrah in Egypt: Preliminary Report of mfk 
Excavations By D. Randall-Mad ver, M. A., Lay cock Student of Egyptology at T*U 
Worcester College, Oxford. 

The village of El Amrah lies alxmt six miles to the south of the famous .site of 
Abydos, where Professor Flinders Petrie has for the past two seasons been engaged in 

[ 49 ] 


M \ \ 

[No. 40. 

availing file Jiffldlh In :. known f0T -miiw 

- thai vuluaMr p| i In 1 1 • * n- 

qU hardly be appl toldl 


thonv Willciti ami I, to whom Prof«w*oi I .misted this part of the 

OOUCN i In him l.y tlw |)(fniTim<nt of Aniin DOed 0111 BOOB) 

- . Sr»l ! i 
plum released veil have lx** 

I. I urn happ) ■. however, to ' thai ein bui 

1 our modest >ii> 4 and 

whii'h will - puhii&hod In Pull in the official memoir of the 

f»t Exploration Ftrad, al who** ilm work \< I ducted. 

Tli- in « bioh w« ii .«i»»n 

on rhn tab 

lu-tu Willi 

valley* which run 
from rim 
up pel deserl u 

JirttHll •! of 

Kl Amnih. llm 
;i tim 

of Itrokeu 
ground i< 

the uuplilll 
to till 

♦»r piK 

ItUCterS. \f llu- 

f*OUth-WC«l CO 

of broken 
pollei v showed thai 

i lie -I 

prehtstoi &nd if wee al thi> point thai wo begat) i<> excavate on December 22nd. 

1 1 soon became evident thai o 

large Dumber of graves had 

not boon opened, while oth< 

had been LttaufKieiently cleared. 

After a month's work three 

hundred graves IiimI been fully 
i from o pieoi of 

ground measuring only about 

15,000 square yards. This 

proved to be (he eutin 

of :i siuiill bill highly inlnn -I 
jllg prehistoric niiirfciv, whirh 

may have originally contained 
some 600 or 700 graves. In 

ii ranged from * 
ear I leal " New Race M I in 
through the entire middle 

period down to the beginning of the ".Late Preliiatoii Phi graves yielded not enh 

reat quantity uf the objecti familial to all who have studied this period (pottery, 

t M ] 

U ,i 01 mm; 


[No. 40. 

1 ■ 

ivories, ifote pnlettee, now In charm 

mosl interesting which l»*':i r directlj ttpou t I ■ * - life of 

in the country at fhiit time. In the rubbish of | plunder Qieill 

winch evidently represented 
m booee, the next day m 

ed out which 
tit well together and almost 
tiplete Hi- whale. I 
-liown in titf. I 

Iriuu the base ii ml recin 

at i hr !<»|>. Kroui [ti form ii 
be unppoeed that it was 

rattle and rond ; ai one and is depleted a door (prohnblj of wood), aud at 
other tiro small windows* No roof wm found, but ir it is : lu to judge fi 

i in Donnti r grovea which oeew • it mum bave aonafated of 

wmi k of 1 v\ -|. : J with IM I : 

The M (fen I: at . M bad prohnhly 

I hah 

the m for there 

doubt that the country was for more 
swamp] then than El u now a It is 
thought that some of thee 

united on their well-known 
"deeo In our Hr^t. 

of tWO| If 00! three, different I 

i, hi thej do not 

■ a bunting people 
hoc known from their 

J from i oocw in the 

Hut it miiM now torol poop ii UO lew than ti. 

wore found poti ipd <d lune. Tin rom which th< ^upoame 

Kit ..i u i Uchl in Ilia baud ■ model baton »>f « sinvj rh. stem of 

which WOi painted with a spiral red hand 

like a leather thong, while tie I ii 

• ted 
with Idaek linOd I BOOM line pottery cniu- 
[deled In- tonih-funntiirr Ol weapon* 
and the elm II will ^w 

fuir idea. The hreccia a\e the 

mace-beade (figs, I -6), and the forked 

bant 'lint ( figs. 7— It) r 

from tie rave, which, indeed, wm- 

OUtfil at a time when they uiibt have bet II The ,,„! 

implement! in th Copper ta olwt tliough 

oecu d n> the enrlfa >i the pn I Ki#. 1 2 m n 

type of copper dagger found iii a plundered g middle Prehistoric pel 

Flint boptplemeoM ftl one edooa or another occur in aln 


F if*. 1*2. 



[No. 40 

specimens are, of conn mutton. I been 

td lying between die hands and bead; nod on and variety 

of the ftakee md implements found 
in it, would aeetn to fa 1 that 

< :t i flint-knapper« 
Other craft* arc » -1 by 

i<> wrap 
round tb< v heaketi 

those ^Iiowii in A| 
by clay bu*»*s whifdi probably served 
in tfae unnnho hi" Willi 

14, KVMvl.l>, f ,j t<| ,| 

cemetery ■! a considerable 

ncunbei of DOT iw and one quite n- 

The dolls shown in figs. 16 and H> may be feat ant Mm* Inhabitant* 

the country, to inch extent al leael ae thi 
artistic nkill ooold interpret kbor own con- 
oeptioos, I* \& worth remarking thai 

peculiar "sheath" which 1 1 1 « ■ v wem, .uml the 
strongly-curled hair, are the essential feature? 
of the figures carved on the splendid p 

dynastic slates {Jmuu Atithr, Inst^ xxx, 

PL B., C, D 

After this cemetery was finished, another 
was started some two or three hunt! red p 
ro the east of it. The ground bet we. 
full of 18th dynasty burials, and it appears 
at the moment of writing as if the two 

ues were quite separate and 

The eastern rrmeterv is of very compre- 
hensive character. It begin! with burin 
almost, if not quite, the earlier type, and 
continues down to the 1st or Hud dynasty, 
In comparison with the other cemetery it 
has not been much plundered. Up ro the 
date on which this is written (February 17th) 
rather more than [00 new graven have 
opened. I to* of these bai produced the i 

valuable find of the season, namely, a slate 
palette which is conclusively dated, by the 
pottery and stone \:i^es occurring with it, no less than by itfi own < haraelei i>h. 1 
to the middle period of the Prehistoric (f>0 in Prof. Fetrle'i seqni 
datings). It bears in relief upon the face the brief inscription given 
in fig. 17, aud is thus by far the earliest example \i\ found of the 
A hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphic writing has been known to exist 
in a well-developed form uy early n> the 1st dynasty, but this 
belongs to a period considerably before Ifenea, till Jir i the 

I -l A 

An especially interesting point in connection with the nasftujj 
cemetery i* that the Ring* and variety of the burials have made it 
possible to trace the evolution of all the types of early Bomb-oonstanetim The bodies 

[ M ] 

FlGS. 15-16. CLAY I 



Fig. 17. 

1901.] MAN. [No. 40. 

are invariably buried in a contracted position, and the stages through which the tomb 
developed may be provisionally stated as follows : the .first stage is the only one which 
has not yet been noted in this part of the ground, though it is of frequent occurrence in 
the western cemetery : — 

1 . The earliest burials of all are iu very shallow round graves. The body was 

generally wrapped in the skin of a sheep or goat. 

2. These are succeeded by graves several feet deep, and of a roughly oval or 

oblong shape. The body was commonly wrapped in cloth and laid ou a reed 
mat, which was then folded round it. Sometimes the reed mat was further 
laid on a tray of twigs, and very rarely on a wooden dug-out bier. 

3. Graves of the same depth as the last, in which the beginnings of a slight 

recess occur, in which the body is laid ; while the larger pots are outside the 

4. Graves 5 or 6 feet deep, with a well-marked recess cut out for the body. The 

recess is sometimes fenced .off by upright wooden baulks. 

5. A regular pit, about 6 feet deep aud 2 to 3 feet in width, with a recess bricked 

off from it. The recess contains a clay, a wooden, or a pottery coffin, either 

oval or oblong, and one or two pots, which are almost the only tomb furniture 

found with this class. Such graves are very late in the prehistoric series, 

approachiug closely to the period of the 1st dynasty, or even entering 

into it. 

From this poiut the solutiou branches off into two distinct lines. The pit with 

chamber becomes the regular well with chamber, a type which prevails from the IVth 

dynasty onwards all through Egyptian history. On the other hand the bricked recess, 

considered in itself apart from the well or pit, becomes the brick tomb which forms 

our sixth stage. 

6. Four-sided tombs, consisting of brick walls sunk a few feet below the desert- 

surface. At first these contain a coffin either of mud or of wood. Some- 
times the coffin is replaced by a plank lining fastened against the walls ; this 
feature has been found also iu Prof. Petrie's Royal Tombs of the 1st Dynasty. 
Sometimes, again, there is no coffin, but the body is wrapped in cloth and laid 
on a reed mat as in the earlier graves. 
N.B. — The burials under inverted pots which frequently occur in this cemetery do 
not fall naturally into any stage of the tomb development. They should perhaps 
be regarded as cheap varieties of the pottery coffin. 

The first stage in the history of this brick construction is a plain four-sided 
enclosure, larger or smaller according to the importance of the grave. The smaller 
graves are covered with mud bricks supported on more piles of bricks built up from 
the floor. For the larger a regular roof is made of unbarked boughs or trunks of trees 
of 2-4 inches diameter laid across the width of the grave. On these is then laid a 
wattlework of twigs or reeds, and the whole then covered with' several inches of 
plastered mud. 

7. A natural development of such graves as those of the sixth class ensues when 

niches are walled off to receive the offerings put with the deceased person. 

First of all a small dividiug wall is built at oue end or the other, thus barring 

off a small section of the whole length. 
Next, this section is itself divided by a small cross-partition, so as to form two 
niches. A greater elaboration still is reached when more niches are inserted in other 
parts of the tomb, and thus a uatural progress is made to the complicated arrangement of 
the Royal Tombs of Abydos. The most detailed arrangement that has yet been found at 
£1 Ainrah was that of a large brick tomb which has just been worked. It was a 
large room about 5 feet deep and 5 feet below the surface of the ground, with two 

[ » ] 

1901.3 MAN. [ITos. 40-4L 

chain hers at the south end for offerings, aud a third chamber at the north-east corner for 
the body of a cow. A staircase 24 feet long gave entrance to the tomb from the 
western side. From this tomb, which had been plundered very recently, we obtained 
fragments of fine stone vases, and half of a beautifully- in scribed steatite cylinder. 


Siam : Celadon Ware. Lyle. 

The Place of Manufacture of Celadon Ware. By T. H. Lyle. M + 

The following are extracts from a letter from Mr. T. H. Lyle, 1st Assistant, ■■ 
Consular Service, Siam, to Mr. Thomas Boyntou, F.S.A., of Norman House, Bridlington 
Quay, Yorks. The letter is dated " II.B.M. Consulate, Nau, vid Moulinien, May 12, 

u I have not been entirely forgetful of my promise to try to obtain for you a 
perfect specimen of Celadon ware. I am sorry to say that my efforts have been 
unsuccessful ; but having had the opportunity to inspect the kilns where this ware 
was manufactured, I fancy you may be interested to have an account of my visit. 
These kilns are situated in a province of Siam, known as Sawankalok, possessing 
a capital of the same name, on the River Mee Yome, distant north from Bangkok 
more than 200 miles. This Sawankalok, according to Siamese history, was an old- 
time capital of Siam, and must have been possessed of a highly cultured and artistic 
population, as the imposing ruins of numerous magnificent temples testify. A friend 
aud myself rode together from Sawankalok up the River Mee Yome for a couple 
of hours before arriving at the district which we desired to inspect. The road was 
simply a track through jungle and forest, and followed the course of the river. At 
a convenient shallow, we crossed to the west bank, and plunging straight into the 
jungle, were conducted to a large mound, 50 or 60 yards from the river bank. 

" The whole district is a mass of forest aud undergrowth, and as — at first sight — 
one perceived merely large trees aud vegetatiou springing from a slight rise in the 
ground, one's natural impulse was to ask * Where are the kilns ? ' That question 
speedily solves itself. These mounds, which average 20 to 30 feet in height, and vary 
from 60 to 100 feet in circumference, consist of bricks, pipes, earth, debris, and broken 
pots. Everywhere the ground is strewn with fragments of pottery ; one could gather 
sufficient to macadamise the roads of all Bridlington, but there is hardly a piece as big 
as this sheet of paper- [5 ins. x 7 ins.], and a perfect specimen does not exist. The 
mounds or kilns number several hundred ; many of them are so overgrown as to be 
almost unapproachable. They stand in a close double line, at intervals of 20 to 40 
yards, for over four miles. The hundreds of people who, at one time, found employment 
in these manufacturies are vanished ; countless fragments of pottery are the only relics 
of this once high-class industry. We had a number of men with us, and diligently 
hunted and dug amongst one or two of these * scrap-heaps,' though our efforts were only 
partially successful. One or two badly-damaged specimens aud wasters came to light, 
the most perfect find being three or four white glazed tiles. Local officials, learning of 
my desire for this pottery, gave me one or two pieces in fair condition which I now 
have by me. 

44 The manner of digging, no less than the tools employed, and the lack of 
enthusiasm amongst the natives, render it very difficult to do any systematic excavatiou 
in these mounds. Each man scrapes away with his hands, after loosening the earth 
with a * spade ' rather bigger than a tablespoon. My visit took place in the hottest of 
the dry weather, when the ground is parched and burnt almost to brick, and several 
battered specimens were hopelessly cracked and spoilt in attempting to draw them out 

[ 64 ] 


M \Y 

[No. 41. 

ol ih»- bard «n\\ end ujljedded. Altogether, with l<> or 

12 men working til day, the total amount of earth actually esoavated eqnaUed ihm 
t> one British navvy oonld up with o pickaxe m in mi q tit 

M hi tii. the one qi inch to n bich 

month and roof appear t<» have noil ol the i 

than to fault . otlon. W'lui. n bo 

■i> earth when taki upon them dtti inj 

fa f-» datt 'i-iiiim- whether the rool baa given way, I stronglj Bnapeei 
Dttfic im ■ >ild tind many of the kiln- practically complete, to mn* 

n«>ti ol Mm mot nrai " and [ was struck erith 

the kiln nras evid< ,t arch h n all at i 

' hi r irai ratbor ;• period dame, on the beehive plan. 

^ pn&sled I time i" < jeeturethc datyol tbeuiuni 

* ]Mj wti around. The ptf in oolonr, j d on the 

ride; one ilderobly. They are ol all leii| Diw 


largi which J brought away with mo measure*) 22 length 

broki diatnati narrow end] imatl oai 

hum ght, 1 iitofa at tops ,u,| l I j •! baas, tie conjecture 

we doubl thai these plpei wets tht i> which tin* raw 

intwh, sYe« 9 had boon placed within the kiln*-. >wts were 

pinked np win tlai mark plainly visible where they bad rested upon the att 

efl the lopol the Bland hail broken off and remained ad baring to the bottom 

of the dp i"> had Imiii Lnjlr \ ;■ < tirular 

roil. of the process are plainly manifest — and mv 

friend and I earns i<» the concl ad in 

w Ths fragment* ol pottery exhibited roue pattern, in k ink,' i 

Bower pattern itle grooves* and monlding in rt tally 

plentiful. Of ehi i Bpeeimenj I procured, I endeavour here to give yon an id§n 

of tl None of these specimens an intent, ail of them are tlemef 

mil chipped, Borne badly. Manv t>f tl I bav< <•:' foipi 

[ 65 1 



[Wos. 41-42. 

bowls, like the one to the left in the photograph, which have collapsed and fused 

" I have come to the conclusion that an absolutely perfect bowl, with moulding in 
relief, like that I gave to the British Museum, is not to be procured, or rather is not in 
existence. Whether I shall ever find myself in that district again I do not know, but 
if ever a chance presents itself of again visiting these wonderful kilns, I shall surely 
avail myself of it." 

Georgia : Folklore. Thomas. 

Animal Folklore in Georgia. Collected by M. Sakkokia ; communicated by M f\ 
N. W. Thomas. *\L 

Among the answers I have received to my questions on Animal Superstitions 
the following are of some interest : — 

1. If a cow or a bull bellows at someone, they say in Mingrelia that the person will 
soon die ; to prevent this they kill the animal ; the more economical spirits only pull out 
a tuft of hair and put it under their foot. This means, " May the animal be killed and 
" his hide be used to make my boots ? " 

2. After New Year's Day certain birds and young animals have the power to 
44 conquer '* human beings, if they are seen on an empty stomach. The way to prevent 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

this is to eatfa little bread on getting up, and then, when you see a sucking pig, &c. 
for the first time, you say " I have conquered you." If you are conquered by a goat, 
your tongue will speak against your will the whole year ; a fowl will cause hunger 
and a feeling of discomfort ; a thrush, cold in the head ; a yellowhammer, grief ; and a 
sucking pig will cause you to be dirty. 

3. On the first Saturday in Lent, called in Mingrelia " the Saturday of prayer for 
44 domestic animals," the peasants make cakes in the shape of cows, sheep, goats, &c, 
and put them in a deep woodeu bowl. After the prayer the members of the household 
eat these cakes without using their hauds. The basin is put on the ground and each 
person goes on all fours, imitating the animals in movements and cries. In Georgia the 
cakes are made at New Year. 

[ 56 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 42-43. 

4. In Miugrelia Turks are said to appear after death in the form of young dogs. 

5. To protect the houses and gardens, skulls and stones with holes in them are put 
on poles (Fig. 1). For this purpose a cross of wood is also put up on July 20th and 
August 15th, when the witches hold their assemblies ; a long pole is taken and .split at 
the top ; a cross piece is put in the split, and a crown of thorns hung on it (Fig. 2). 

6. If a dog tries to jump over a paling between two houses, and sticks on the top 
with his body more on one side than the other, death will visit the house in the garden 
of which the greater portion of the dog is. 

7. If the cuckoo is heard in the mountains on March 25th the mountaius will yield 
a better harvest than the plaius. 

8. Catch a tree frog when you hear it for the first time in spring, and in doing so 
prevent it from utteriug a sound ; it should next be buried uutil only its bones remain, 
and then should be dug up and throwu into water ; those that float should be charred ; 
a little of the resulting powder throwu on the person or dress of the lady you love will 
prevent her from loving anyone more than yourself. The bones of the wagtail have the 
same magic power. 

Religion. Frazer. 

The Golden Bouqh: A Study in Magic and Religion. By J. G. Frazer, ^|J 
D.C.L., L.L.D., Litt.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. London, Mac- mO 
millau, 1900. Second edition, revised and enlarged, 3 vols., 8vo, pp. xxviii, 467 ; 
x, 471 ; x, 490. Price 36*. net. 

Wheu the first edition of The Golden Bough was published in 1890, it was obvious 
that, whether the author's theory of the meaning of the succession to the Ariciau 
priesthood, which it was written to expound, were proven or not, an important con- 
tribution had been made to our knowledge of savage rite and savage myth. The 
criticisms bestowed on it were of the most various description ; but, however they 
might differ, they were at one on this. Dr. Frazer attempted no immediate answer to 
objections. He wisely refrained from controversy. Taking note of the different points 
to which exception was taken, he bided his time until, with his uuri vailed industry and 
the discoveries continually made, he should nave an opportunity of restating his position 
and buttressing his arguments by further evidence. The time at length arrived ; and 
he has now put forth a second edition double the length of the first, and strengthened 
on many points by illustrations often drawn from sources little known to English 

What is the result ? Hardly any part of the work has been left untouched. 
Paragraphs, pages, whole sections have been interpolated, and much has beeu rewritten. 
But while a great deal of valuable matter has thus been introduced, and clearer expression 
has beeu given to many of the author's ideas, the argument for the main theory has 
hardly beeu advanced at all. We seem to be no nearer the decisive solution of the 
riddle. And if Dr. Frazer's explanation holds the field, it is rather because no other 
explanation, intelligible on the known principles of savage belief aud custom, has been 
offered, than because of its own cogeucy. 

On many of the side issues, however, an advance has been made. Additional 
illustrations and fuller argument have thrown a brighter search-light upon many customs. 
Even where we cannot accept the author's conclusions, the additions to his collection of 
facts are helpful, and his arguments set the point under discussion in sharper relief. 
True, the very wealth of his antliropological learning impedes the hasty reader, who 
" cannot see the wood for the trees." But the book is not for the hasty reader. The 
author of set purpose has multiplied his evidences, and courted the discussion of side 

[ 67 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 48. 

i 88068. Recognizing the hypothetical nature of much that he baa put forward, he 
expressed tbe hope that though his hypotheses be superseded, his " book may still have 
its utility and its interest as a repertory of facts." This hope at least will be realized. 
And Dr. Frazer is so candid and courteous in the presentation of his argument and the 
discussion of doubtful points, that perhaps I may be excused for taking advantage of 
the opportunity to mention one or two points on which I find myself unable to agree 
with him, and which consequently I must for the present consider as at least doubtful. 

The first relates to the essential distinction between magic and religion, and the 
priority of the former in the order of evolution. Is there any evidence of this priority 
beyond the practices of the strange tribes of Central Australia ? The " primitive " 
character of these tribes does not seem to me so fully established as Mr. Frazer thinks. 
Further information on their beliefs, the meaning of their rites, and the influences to 
which they have been subjected is highly desirable. In any case the foundation seems a 
small one on which to build so large an inference. Magic is not more widely prevalent 
in the world than' the savage interpretation of external phenomena in the terms of 
human consciousness, and the doctrine of spirits. The practical application of the 
interpretation and the doctrine in question is what Dr. Frazer calls religion (i, 63), and 
I see no reason to suppose that it came into existence later than magic. I use the words 
magic and religion in Dr. F razor's sense, as opposed to one another. It is convenient to 
do so, because, at least in their developed forms, there is an ideal distinction between 
them. But in fact, magic interpenetrates all religious, and the antagonism, frequently 
so pronounced, doubtless as the author sees, " made its appearance comparatively late in 
the history of religion." Moreover, this very antagonism is often rather the hostility of 
a State religion or a popular worship to an unpopular oue, than the opposition of really 
irreconcilable principles. The author has given examples of the mixture of religion and 
magic in the cults of ancient India and Egypt, and even among the peasantry of Europe. 
But without trenching on ground it is desirable in these pages to avoid, I may point out 
to him that magic, as he defines it, is by no means to be confined to the peasant classes 
or to the non-official forms of Christianity, while the relations of the witches of Europe 
to the devil, as they appear in folk-tales and in the witch-trials, assuredly come within 
his definition of religion. The savage, it is admitted, knows no distinction between the 
natural and the supernatural. The beings whom he imagines, whether we call them 
gods or spirits, have powers over the forces of nature which only exceed his own, if they 
do exceed them, and do not differ in kind. While he invokes these beiugs for help, he 
also tries his own powers in the same breath. The finest gradations divide prayer from 
spell, the act of worship from the rite of imitative magic. " The functions of priest and 
sorcerer " are " not yet differentiated from each other," because magic and religion, 
growing from the same root, have not yet bifurcated. 

Dr. Frazer has honoured me by devoting many pages of his third volume to the 
confutation of heresies of which I have been guilty. I am happy to confess that he 
has brought forward a mass of evidence as to cairns and the practice of adding to them, 
which will necessitate reconsideration of my theory ou the subject. With regard to the 
practice of hammering a nail into the Cella Jovis, which I treated as analogous, I do not 
think he has been quite so successful. He has neglected the important point that the 
wall into which the nail was fastened was that of a sacred building. The knocking of 
nails into sacred buildings or trees, or into the statues of gods, cannot have been 
intended simply to transfer some evil to them. There is often no evil to be got rid of. 
There is none, for iustance, in the marriage-rite at MontbeTiard. The Lapalud near 
Angers, and the Stock im Eisen at Vienna are not sheathed with nails for any such 
purpose. The petitions implied by the pins in the statue of Saint Guirec, or the nails in 
a West African idol, have often nothing to do with the removal of any definite ill ; still 
less are they intended to stick the ill into the object of worship. If I understand 

[ w ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 48. 

Dr. Frazer correctly, be assents to the analogy of these practices with the Roman 
custom, thongh unable to accept my general explanation of them. But he himself 
offers no explanation which will cover them. 

Again, we are at issue on the meaning of the u Sin-eater." Here the attack was 
mine, for I had ventured, somewhat rashly perhaps, to question his application of a 
similar rite reported by Dubois. In a note (iii, 18) he mentions the divergence of 
interpretation, and refers to certain customs as bearing out his view. But he does not 
discuss the Bavarian custom of making and eating Leichen-nndeln, in which the 
declared intention was the exact opposite of sin-eating, and other customs to which I 
had ventured to call attention. 

In these cases it may be that neither of us took into account the possibility that 
more than one train of savage reasoning has converged on the same or the like ceremony. 
I think Dr. Frazer has forgotten this possibility again in his explanation of the practice 
of passing a child through a split ash-tree. It is idle to deny (and I have not denied) 
that many medical prescriptions in favour among the peasantry of Europe contemplate 
the transfer of the disease to a tree, or to some other human being, or one of the lower 
animals — in fact, to any convenient object. But it seems impossible to account in the 
same way for all the prescriptions which at first view seem alike. And I endeavoured 
to explain the practice in question as a mode of uniting the sick child for his or her 
benefit with the healthy young tree. Dr. Frazer contends it is a case of transfer of 
disease, and adduces in illustration a number of cases from savage life of passing through 
cleft trees and other symbolical apertures for the purpose of getting rid of dangerous 
spirits or of disease. We may admit the meaning of all of these examples to be what is 
here attributed to them, and yet we shall be none the nearer the explanation of passing 
the ruptured child through the tree. For all the examples omit the essential condition 
of the success of the rite, namely, that the tree shall reunite and flourish, because the 
child's life is henceforth bound up with it. The suggestion (iii, 397) " that with the 
" disease the sufferer is supposed to transfer a certain vital part of himself to the tree, so 
" that it is impossible to injure the tree without at the same time injuring the man," does 
not meet the difficulty, since in undoubted cases of transfer of disease or riddance of 
spirits we do not find this essential condition. We cannot, therefore, refer the rite at 
the split ash to the same origin as the latter. Different trains of thought have produced 
similar rites. 

It may be true that none of the side issues to which I have referred are essential to 
Dr. Frazer's main argument. Yet they seem to me to exhibit a weakness whi<di runs 
through much of the work. It is forgotten that we cannot assume that the same 
motives have iu all circumstances led to actions which bear an outward likeness to each 
other, or that one action or rite may be due to the concurrence of more than one line of 
reasoning. The section on Lityerses contains an example of a mistake of the same 
kiud, namely, the confusion of two distinct and disparate, though similar rites. After 
comparing, I think rightly, the story of Lityerses with certain European harvest-customs 
wherein the pretence is made of putting a man to death, and after showing that in the 
modern customs the victim is treated as an embodiment of the corn-spirit, he goes on to 
say (ii, 237) : — " it is desirable to shew that in rude society human beings have been 
" commonly killed as an agricultural ceremony to promote the fertility of the fields." 
But of all the cases he cites, with one doubtful exception, the Mexican is the only harvest 
custom. It may be conceded that in all the others the promotion of the fertility of the 
fields is beyond question the object. It does not follow that that is the object of the 
European harvest customs, or that it was the object of the hypothetical Phrygian 
custom which is handed down to us in the story of Lityerses. Rather we may presume 
it was thought that the harvest was not properly reaped unless the spirit of the corn was 
secured aud slain with it. The slaughter of the spirit of the corn in its full strength 

t M 3 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 43-44. 

may have been a necessary preliminary to its rising again in undiminished vigour the 
following year. All that Dr. Frazer says about the parallelism of Lityerses and Attis 
(ii, 250) may be perfectly accurate. His interpretation of both may be accurate too. 
But it does not seem to be assisted by the examples he has given of savage rites 
practised at or near seed-time. Lityerses was not a Meriah. 

Few anthropologists, I imagine, are in the habit of reading the Analecta Bollan- 
diana. It is therefore to be regretted that Dr. Frazer has omitted to give us the date 
and other particulars of the manuscript of the Acts of Saint Dasius. If this account 
of the martyrdom of a Roman soldier be in the main authentic, it throws an unexpected 
light on the Saturnalia. But the evidence for the authenticity is not before us. 
A priori the story does uot seem very probable ; while on the other hand the untrust- 
worthy character of mauy of the " Acts " of early Christian martyrs is well known. I 
regret the omission all the more because the section on the Saturnalia, which is entirely 
new, coutains some of the most suggestive speculations of recent years, and the story of 
Saint Dasius is not the least important link in the chain of evidence in support of them. 

I trust I have not successfully concealed in these brief and discursive remarks my 
great admiration for The Golden Bough. If I cannot accept all the author's conclu- 
sions, if I hesitate to admit that his main theory is proven, I am none the less ready to 
acknowledge his mastery of anthropological problems, his skill in their discussion, his 
fertility in suggestion, and his almost boundless industry and learning ; I am none the 
less ready to acclaim the value of the contribution which these have enabled him to make 
here, as elsewhere, to anthropological studies. The new edition has greatly enhanced 
the debt which all students owe to him. And insensible must be the ear in which the 
music of many an eloquent page does not ring and ring again long after the book has been 
closed, and doubts as to this point or the other have been busy in the mind. 


Folklore. Rhys. 

Celtic Folklore : Welsh and Manx. By John Rh^s, D.Litt., Professor of mm 
Celtic, Oxford. Two vols., 8vo. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1901. Pp. xlviii, T'T' 
718. Price 

A suggestive book, containing not only a quantity of new and old material 
carefully recorded and commented on, but also a deal of new thought on matters 
anthropological and even historical connected with the traditions referred to. The 
pleasant and unaffected style make its perusal agreeable, and the learning and ingenuity 
of the writer are as evident as ever. 

. The topics treated are Welsh " Undine " stories ; Welsh ideas respecting the 
Tylwyth Teg or Fair Family, and their descendants, fairy wives and cattle, changelings, 
dances, mermaids, afancs, or lake Kelpies, a set of Rip-Vau-Winkle tales, the Wild 
Hunt, familiar spirits, auguries, All-hallows' customs, Toni-Tim-Tot stories, the March- 
M in 6s legend, phantom funerals, and other death portents. Chapters IV., V., are 
concerned with Maux folklore — fenodyree [brownies], sleih beggey [little folk or fairies], 
witches, sacred days, healing wells, qualtagh [first foot], &c. Chapters VI., VII., deal 
with the sacred springs, the drowned lauds of Wales, water horses and water gods, 
the Welsh cyhiraeth and mourning spirit [ban-shee], and the identification of Seithennin, 
son of Seithyn Saidi, with the name of the TLevTavrfav people of Ptolemy [Septaiitte 
they would be in Latin], Goidels driven west, of whom the greatest hero was Sctantit 
beg [the little Setantian], Cuchulind himself ; the parallelism of Donwy with Danubios 
[Danube], of Brim de Morois with the King Gwyn ap Ni.ft and of his steed Du y 
Moroed with Percival's demon charger. 

[ 60 ] 

190t] MAN. [Nos. 44-46. 

Chapter VIII. discusses the Welsh Cave legends, and unfolds a curious history, in 
which we find Owen Red hand, Froissart's Yvain de Gales, becoming a Welsh Sebastian 
or Barbarossa or Holger danske, and actually ousting Arthur himself, who had replaced 
the Kronos sleeping, as Demetrius told the Emperor, with his mighty vassals round 
him in the keeping of Briareus. Chapter IX. treats of the great legendary Hunting 
of the Magic Boar, a story which belongs, as Dr. Rh^s proves, to the Goidels 
originally, and helps with much other evidence to show that the Goidelio tribes, of 
what is now Wales, were gradually absorbed by the adoption of the Brythonic speech 
among the surrounding Britons. Anglesey, Snowdon, Bedgelcrt, are Goidelic districts, 
and the Goidels seem to have kept their speech and nationality down to the 7th century 
in spite of their defeats. The early British ideas of a soul and its persistence through 
transformation and transmigrations are treated in Chapters X. and XI., as well as the 
remains of Nou- Aryan beliefs connected with " Druidism," the Shamanism that prevailed 
in Hibernia, where it still persists in a slightly altered form, aud in the far west of 

The evidence in favour of pre-Celtic races, one of dwarf kiud, another with Berber 
affinities, is marshalled as far as it can be drawn from the folklore of the country, 
e.g., the Coritani-Coraniaid are dwarf magician people to the bigger people about 
them, as the Eskimo are to the red man. As soon as accurate measurements have 
determined the chief typical strains surviving among us to-day, the evidence of linguistic 
and folklore as to the strong non- Aryan elements in the population of these islands, 
will, we can hardly doubt, be abuudantly confirmed. But, of course, we are too poor a 
nation to utilize our abundant opportunities, to pursue Galton's experiments, or make 
anthropometric investigations on a scale beyond private means. 

The excellent bibliography and list of Welsh folklore books arranged by counties, 
the full index, and careful references, greatly enhance the value of these well printed and 
handsome volumes. F. Y. P. 

Morocco : Language. Stumme. 

Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt : Qrammatik, Lesesfucke, Gcsprache, m r 
Glossar. Von Dr. Hans. Stumme, Privat-docenten an der Universitat, Leipzig. iO 
Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1899. 8vo. pp. vi, 249. 12.80 marks. 

Dr. Stumme is well known to students of the dialects and folk-literature of North- 
West Africa, aud has laid them now under still further obligations by this learned, 
scholarly, and compendious treatise on one of the most interesting of African languages. 
Three branches of the Libyan group of speech are commonly spoken within the 
political boundaries of Morocco ; and are named respectively after the Riffs of the coast- 
land, the Berbers (in the narrower sense) of the interior, and the Shluhs of the south. 
These branches differ from each other about as widely as do the Romance languages of 
Southern Europe ; and, like these, each includes a number of local dialects which are 
often so strongly marked that the speakers are barely intelligible to one another. 

In the case of the Shluhs, needless confusion has been introduced, in addition, by 
the fact that their name was originally merely a word of contempt (silh) applied by the 
Arab invaders to any Libyan or Berber marauders who harried their settlements ; and 
has only gradually become restricted to certain tribes who have resisted Semitic 
influences most obstinately, and clung longest to their ancestral speech. Even so, many 
of the so-called " Shluhs " of Tripoli, and even of Southern Tunis, are unintelligible, 
both to one another, and to the Shluhs of Morocco ; with whom they seem to have little 
more in common than the Kabyles of Northern Algeria have with the Riffs of the 
Moroccan coast. 

The subject of the handbook under review is the special dialect of the district of 
Tazerwalt in Southern Morocco, which has attained a wide distribution outside its own 

t 61 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 45-46. 

country, partly because' Tazerwalt is the headquarters of the troupes of travelling acrobats, 
who wander all over the East, and have been known to perform in Europe, and even in 
America ; partly because the Tazerwalt Shluhs have accumulated a very considerable 
literature of ballads and other poems, and of the proverbial sayings of the acrobats 9 
patron-saint, Sidi-Hamd-u-Musa, whose tomb is shown and venerated at I leg in the 
Tazerwalt country. These numerous compositions have attained a wide celebrity 
among Libyan -speaking peoples, and have provided the materials for a sort of koine 
dialektos between tribe and tribe, so that a knowledge of the Tazerwalt- Shluh dialect 
is of great importance to anyone who travels or trades among the peoples of Southern 
Morocco, and of the hinterland of French Africa and Tripoli. 

Many of the poems and folk -tales of the Tazerwalt- Shluhs have been published 
already, for the most part by Dr. Stumme himself ; aud it is greatly to be hoped that he 
may be able before long to add yet another instalment from the great store of material 
which he has collected. 

His present work is an important contribution to the study of the language itself, 
and consists of : (1) an elaborate grammar (pp. 1-128) with a series of short exercises in 
Tazerwalt-Shluh appended ; (2) a very practical phrase-book for the use of travellers, 
traders, aud medical men (pp. 131-154) ; and (3) a full glossary with etymological notes 
(pp. 155-246), which iucludes a complete vocabulary to the author's previous publica- 
tions already mentioned, and omits only such groups of words — plant names, insect names, 
and the like — which only a specialist requires, and which a specialist will inevitably 
discover at first hand for himself. The Shluhs themselves use the Arabic character 
— the Tuareg script apparently not going so far north-west ; but this mode of transcrip- 
tion not beiug sufficiently accurate for phonetic study, as the sample printed in section 21 
will show very clearly, Dr. Stumme has wisely printed in Roman character throughout. 
Even so, diacritical marks, not a few, were perhaps inevitable ; and perhaps even more 
might have been done to facilitate, for a beginuer, the pronunciation of words like 
adagddhtntfkt (p. 9), or glb$adan (p. 147). 

We may, perhaps, be permitted to regret that Dr. Stumme has not seen his way to 
include in his Handbook more frequent comparisons of the Tazerwalt-Shluh with other 
branches of the Libyan-Berber group ; which would have made his work of importance 
to a larger circle of readers. But perhaps we may regard the extreme care which he 
has taken to confine himself to the special dialect under consideration, hs a hint that the 
comparative study of it is only deferred for awhile. 

In conclusion, may we congratulate Dr. Stumme on the statement, made in the 
preface, that he has lectured for two terms on Berber languages to an eager audience in 
the University of Leipzig. Truly the Germans know that business is business ; and 
that if you are going to study or trade abroad, it is as well to make yourself understood 
to the people of the place. There is plenty of room for all, however, amoug the 
Tazerwalt-Shluhs, and we heartily recommend Dr. Stummc's Handbook to the 
" Commercial " if not to the u Philological " Faculty of any British University. 

J. L. M. 

Language : Assam. Hamilton. 

An Outline Grammar of the Dafla Language as spoken by the Tribes Mfi 
immediately South of the Apa Tanung Country, By R. C. Hamilton, Indian w\J 
Civil Service : Shillong, Assam Secretariate Press, 1900. 8vo. 127 pages, price 1 rupee. 
We have here an excellent grammar of a language closely allied to the Miri and 
Cachari. The author has added an interesting collection of phrases and short stories, 
with a complete vocabulary. W. CROOKE. 

• [ 62 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 47-48. 

Melanesia: Ethnography. Foy. 

Tanz-objecte vom Bismarck- Arc hipel, Nissan ^ und Buka. By W. Foy. m^f 
Pp. viii, 40. Seventeen plates, and two blocks in the text. Fonniug Vol. 13 of ■■ 
Publikationen aus den K. Ethnographischen Museum zu Dresden. Price £3 15s. 

Ethnologists owe a deep debt of gratitude to Dr. Meyer and the Dresden Museum 
for this sumptuous series. It makes accessible to the world by means of photographs 
the most interesting aud importaut objects in the Museum, and elucidates them by a 
descriptive text which is coucise and yet sufficient. In the volume before us this is 
preceded by a geueral introduction, in which the author rejects as premature all attempts 
at interpretation which are uot founded on au exact knowledge of the individual tribes. 
The mere occurrence of similar motives in ornament is in itself no more a proof of 
intercommunication betweeu the parts of the world where they arc found than is the 
occurrence of similar customs ; the connection can only lie established by exact studies 
dealing with larger areas than any man can cover single-handed. Conclusions based on 
facts gathered in one field are too often recklessly applied to explain similar elements in 
other fields, which, when they are more closely examined, are shown to belong to quite 
a different circle of ideas. Thus, the assimilation of the Duk-duk costume to certain 
Africau costumes is readily proved to "be fallacious by the undeniable fact that the 
Duk-duk costume is intended to represent a gigantic cassowary. It may be true that the 
African mask -costume has developed from the " Huttenmaske " ; but to derive Oceanic 
mask -costumes from the same source is a mere speculation, which, so far from being 
based on facts, runs couuter to much that we kuow. Our material is everywhere so 
incomplete, that a single new discovery may overthrow the most carefully built-up 

Most ethnological museums coutaiu examples of the very remarkable and elaborate 
masks and dance oruaments that come from Northern Neu-Mecklenburg (New Ireland), 
and it is very convenient to have a number of these extremely varied objects carefully 
described. In connection with these objects the author has given a valuable essay on 
the fish-motive, which is so constantly present. They are illustrated on Plate xiii. 
There is another study on the variations and the development of the depending birds 
which are represented under and over the mouths of many of the figures and masks 
from North Neu-Mecklenburg and elsewhere. Plate xiv. illustrates this thesis. 

The body of the book is taken up by descriptions of masks aud other objects used 
in dances in North Melanesia, and its value is enhanced by discussions on the ethno- 
graphical relatious prevailing in the islands, by invaluable bibliographies, to which au 
appendix will be found in Globus, 1901, p. 97, and by the reproduction aud description 
of similar objects from other groups for purposes of comparison. Those who know the 
publications of the Dresden Museum, roost of which are, in whole or in part, from the 
pen of Dr. Meyer, will be fully prepared to believe that it is worthy of its predecessors. 


Folklore : England. Oomme. 

Old English Singing Games. Collected by A. B. Gomme, illustrated by Edith M Q 
Ilarwood. Londou, Allen, 1900. Crown oblong, pp. 55. Price, 5*. T*0 

Mrs. Gomme has in this book presented the public with a children's book of games 
and tunes which may be read by older people too. In England the development of 
children's games is not officially promoted as it is iu Germany, and it is a matter for 
regret that au occupation which educates as well as amuses should not receive more 
attention iu England. This l»ook will give those people some material to work on, who 
would l>e glad to do something in this direction. The little people for whom it is 
intended will only regret that it is not longer. N. W. T. 

[ 63 ] 

190L] MAN. [Nob. 49-60. 

India. Waddell. 

Among the Himalayas. By Major A. L. Waddell, LL.D., F.L.S., &c. Mf% 
London, Constable (Philadelphia, Lippencott). 1900 (2nd edition). 8vo, "rJJ 
pp. xvi, 452. Maps and many photographic illustrations. Price 6s. 

Major Waddell's hook gives an interesting account of that part of the great 
Himalayan system which is included within the little State of Sikkim. If he has struck 
out no very new or original line of his own, he has at least illustrated a subject well 
which must ever possess a strong fascination for the mouutain-climhing Englishman. 

The geographical position of Sikkim on our Indian frontier, which invests it with 
the command of the most direct approaches to Lhasa, renders it 'important both 
politically and strategically, and Major Waddell appears to have made a fairly exhaus- 
tive enquiry into the general physiography of the State with a view to future 
possibilities iu the matter of a great high road northwards. His first excursion was 
from Darjiling by the Tibetan trade route to Gantok, and thence to the quaint native 
capital of Sikkim (the residence of the King), Tumloug. This took place about ten 
years ago. Meauwhile this route has developed rapidly, and it will not be long before 
a cart road conuects Silligori (the terminus of the Northern Bengal Railway) with 
Gantok, if indeed it has not already done so. The existence of such a road would 
naturally discount any other proposed line of trade route outside Sikkim territory. 
From Tumlong he passed by the Lachun valley to the glacial regions of the Donkia 
pass, and then returned southwards over the Hue taken by our troops uuder Geueral 
Graham when they turned the Tibetans out of Sikkim into Chunibi in 1887. 

It is, however, amongst the glaciers and snows of the north west, lying in the cold 
shadow of Kanchenjunga and its kindred peaks, that the attraction of Major Waddell's 
story chiefly lies. Kanchenjunga is barely 1,000 feet lower than Everest. (29,000 feet), 
and its dominant position facing the forest clad slopes of Darjiliug invests it with 
peculiar grandeur. Everest lies on the borderland between Nipal and Tibet in a 
position so remote as to be practically inaccessible to European exploration, and it is 
only doubtfully visible from the neighbourhood of Darjiling. Major Waddell enters 
into the question of Everest's claim to be considered the highest peak in the Himalaya, 
and his conclusions appear to be those of Indian surveyors, i.e., that the claim is justified 
by the great mass of existing evidence. 

The book is well illustrated. Major Waddell is something of a geologist and 
botanist as well as an artistic observer ; nor has he altogether neglected the claims of 
anthropology. There are some capital photographs illustrative of the distinctions in 
dress and feature between the Lepchas, Nipalese, and Tibetans whom he encountered, 
and the result is a useful contribution to our general knowledge of the physical 
characteristics of these people. . T, H. H. 

Language: General. Sweet. 

The History of Language. By Henry Sweet, M.A. Loudon, 1900. (The pa 
Temple Primers : J. M. Dent & Co.) OU 

This little book forms an extremely useful introduction to the principles of 
Comparative Philology. The earlier chapters deal with the definition, scope, methods 
and development of language generally. In those following, the author gives a brief 
sketch of the structure of the Aryan or Indo-Germanic Family of Languages and a 
discussion of its affinities to other Families, especially the Altaic and Sumerian. The 
concluding chapters refer to the Individuality of Language and the connection between 
Language and Nationality. Considering the condensation required to bring such a 
wide range of subjects withiu the limits of a small primer the author has succeeded in 
making his statements very clear and in adequately illustrating them. S. H. RAY. 

Printed by Bybk and Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, Bast Harding Street, E.C. 

\TZ E- 





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[No. 51. 

New Hebrides. With Plate E. Balfour* 

Mm unit Beadi in ih% P<tt-R<rers ttmssum* By Hoary Balfour, II. m 

A considerable uumber of the beads detached from the grotesque effigies set I 
up */* mcmortam of departed relatives by natives of the island of Malekula, New 
Hebrides, have reached the various European museums, and of these many have been 
figured and described. It might appear unnecessary to figure one of these in this journal, 
were it not for the fact of itl presenting a feature which 1 have not hitherto notice 
other examples. As usual this particular example (l'lale K. Figs* 1 and 2) consists of a 
human skull exhibiting well-marked artificial deformation, the facial portion overlaid with 
a composition chiefly of vegetable matter in such ■ manner as to reproduce the human 
features, colour being Applied in a bizarre fashion as though the face were painted for a 
dance ceremony. Although it would probably be difficult to find two of these heads 
which resembled each other at all closely, still the features are as a rule treated in a rude, 
grotesque, and conventional manner, but little suggestive of any attempt at portraiture. 
[nutaiiftflfj however, occur in which it seems likely that there has been a deliberate 
attempt to reproduce, as far as native skill would allow, the characteristic features of the 
deceased. The present specimen is a good instance in point. Allowing for the difficulties 
necessarily encountered by the native artist in the reproduction of the human face in 
plastic materials, one may well admit a considerable success in this example, the real ism 
of which is far more apparent in the specimen itseli than in the photographic reproduc- 
tion. If one may still be inclined to doubt that there is exhibited an attempt at 
portraiture, one interesting feature may surely dispel the scepticism. The pei 
represented evidently suffered from the form of malformatiou known as hare-lip, and 
this has been most faithfully represented in a very realistic manner in the facial 
reproduction which embellishes the skull of the deceased. This certainly seems to point 
to an attempt to make the face of the e^^y recall the peculiar features of the deceased to 
whom the figure was erected. Hitherto, I have not come across any similar instance of 
the representation of a malformation in these Malekulau heads, but others may exist, 
and a comparative study of the available heads would undoubtedly prove of interest. 
This specimen, as well as the two about to be deseril>ed, was collected by Mr. Norman 
Hardy, and is one of some nine or ten of these Malekulau heads in the Tit t -Hi vers 
Museum at Oxford. 

The two beads represented in Figs. 3-6 belong to a class which is less often to be 
seen in museums. They are, in fact, distinctly rare* Like the Malekulau heads they are 
memorial effigies, and the skull of the deceased person so honoured forma the basis upon 
wliiHi the tealurei arc built up in a hard black composition. These heads from 
Babiaoa, Solomon Islands, are more elaborately finished than those from the New 
Hebrides, considerable, ptini being taken in inlaying them with small shaped pieces of 
pearl shell. Tin- eves are of white shell with black eem the hair is represented 

b] a kind of irig of vegetable fibre. That shown in Figs. A and -i exhibits a somewhat 
grofc atmenl of tbe features, in which may be m Leo! reprcseutatiou of 

the human form which characterise! the little grotesque heads which me attached to the 
prows of cauoes, commonly referred to as " canoe prow gods,' 1 in which a stereotyped 
traditional style is manifest, a Meeting much of the art of the northern islands of the 
Solomou group. The other head (Figs, o aud 6} exhibits a for less conventional 
treatment, the features being realistically represented with considerable skill, suggesting 
that in this example there has been an attempt at making a portrait study of the 
deceased. The whole work has been effected with more care and skill, and it appears to 
be the work of an artist of far greater capability than is the case in the other head. I 
am unaware how many of these memorial heads from Rubiana are preserved in museums, 

[ 65 ] 

1901.] MAN. t*os. 51-53. 

but I believe that they are few, and is is to be hoped that they may all be figured 
together for purposes of comparison. Portraiture in savage art is a subject well worthy 
of comparative treatment, and this class of objects would form most useful and 
instructive material. HENRY BALFOUR. 

JEgea.ii Soript. Herzogr. 

On the Survival of Pre-Hellenic Signs in the Island of Kos. By Dr. Rudolf PA 
Herzog, Docent in the University of Tubingen. Vfc 

In searching the island of Kos for inscriptions in the summer of 1900, 1 had the 
opportunity of making a careful study of the Turkish castle in the town of Kos 
(Stankd). This castle was built by the Knights of St. John, and its walls are 
constructed for the most part of ancient stones. The occurrence of other blocks of the 
same kind scattered about tiie circuit of the town makes it practically certain that 
they are derived from the town and harbour wall, which according to Diodorus, XV., 76, 
were built in 366 B.C. to protect the newly-founded capital. The blocks in question 
bear large, boldly-cut masou's marks or quarry marks, which represent for the most part 

single letters, or ligatures, of the Ionic alphabet, of 
the forms which suit the date of the wall. Some of 
the signs, however, cannot be explained from this 
alphabet ; the most important, which are represented 
by many examples, are represented in the figure, and 
may very well have maintained themselves as fossil survivals from the Pre-Hellenic, 
i.e. (in Kos), the Karian period of the island. The first sign may be explained with 
certainty as the Karian " double-axe " (Xa/fytf), and occurs also in the Pre-Hellenic script 
of Crete (Evans, Journal of Hellenic Studies, XIV., p. 349 (22), XVII., p. 386 (19)). 
The second sign also is found in Crete (/.c, XIV., p. 349 (9), XVII., p. 386 (16)). The 
second, third, and fourth signs might in themselves be brought into connection with 
Hellenic alphabetic signs. 

I prefer not to attempt to interpret the signs, or to make any further inferences 
from their discovery ; but perhaps the record of it will be a distinct contribution to the 
burning qu3stiou of the Pre-Hellenic script in the southern islands of the JEge&n. 



Religion. Oumont. 

Note on the Acts of St. Dasius. By Franz Cumont. Communicated by £Q 
J. G. Frazer. 00 

The following note on the authenticity of the Acts of St. Dasius has been written 
by Prof. Franz Cumont, who edited them, in reply to the suggestion made by 
Mr. Hartland in the review of the Golden Bough (Man, 1901, 43). 

Je comprends d'autant mieux les doutes exprimcs par M. Hartland dans le Man 
que je les ai d'abord partages moimeme. C'est une serie d'observations d'un de mes amis 
qui m'a converti et m'a fait attribuer aux Actes de St. Dasius une autorite* que je leur 
refusais d'abord (cf. Leon Parmentier, Revue de Philologie, t. XXI, p. 143, ss.). Les 
manuscrits qui nous racontcnt le mar tyre du saint ne sout, a la verite, pas anterieurs 
au Xi e siecle, mais il existait deja a cette 6poque plusieurs recits differeuts et leur 
source commune doit etre beaucoup plus ancienne. Des indices serieux tendent a 
prouver que la redaction grecque de ces actes remonte au V e on Vi e siecle, et l'original 
latin, dont cette traduction derive, est certainement encore sensiblement anterieur. 
St. Dasius est uomme dans le martyrologe hieronymien et il est demontre que les 
donnees de ce document hagiographique qui sont relatives a l'Empire d'Orient, derivent 
d'un martyrologe grec redige* a NicomeMie eotre 362 et 411. La mort du martyr qui 

[ 66 ] 



[Nos. 53 54. 

eut lieu u le 20 novembrc 303 ap, J. C. uu saincdi, a la quatrieme hcure, le rifigt- 
" quntricrae jour de la lime" tt'eaft done pas Men eloignee du plus ancieu texte 
Sii-inrique qui en fasse mention. 

»T'ai lougtemps hesite a adraetfcre qu'au IV* siccle de not re ere uoe victims humaine, 
fut-ellc volontaire, ait. pu ctre immolee aux dieux. Mai ft la per*istauce de pratiques 
aussi cruellest est attestee jusqa'a la fin du pagan isme par de uombreux femoignnges. 
Im collection de textes la plus complete n cte reunie par Cbwolsohn dans lot] livre »ur 
Its Knbiens (Die Ssnbier* t. II, p. 142 8 §, Ubcr Mvnsvlicnapfer in dcr spiitrrru Zett des 
Hctrfrittums). Elle poiirrutt encore ctre enrichie de nouveaux exemples. En cc qui 
concerue specialement Saturn- Empirieus au II" sieele de tiotre ere (Hypof. 

Ill, 208 et 221) uous dit ponitivenient qu'on "immolait un horn mo a Kronos," et 
St. CyrilJe {Adv. Jttltntt, p. L28 I>) nous ruconto qu'a Rome mcnie, le jour des 
Saturualee, on livrait au Forum uu combat de gludiateun; et que le sang du champion 
vuiucu coulait a travera des dellei p flfO& H de trous sur un personnagc place au-dessous 
daus unc fosse et cense represent ar Siituruc. IVetait evuleinmeut une sorte de sacrifice 
analogue au taurobole, et si uue pareille Immolation a pu avoir lieu au ceenr de Rome, 
je ne vois aueun motif pour refuser de eroire que la soldatesque des garnisons du 
Da mil io ait pu mettre a mort u le rot des Saturuales." Remarquousde, ce roi se 
•levouait lui meme, et la d< ratio s toujours etc consideree dans l'antiquit6 com me un acte 
humble, en particulier dans Tarmee. FRANZ CUMONT. 

China* BushelL 

Relic* from Chinc*c Tomb*. (See Man, 1901, 15.) By Dr, S. W, Bushell, m M 
C.M.G. ' 01 

Mr, C. H. Read has described, in a most interesting article published in the 
February number of Man, the contents of an early Chinese tomb sent to him by an 
English Jesuit missionary from the province of Sheosi, which he has since presented to 
the British Museum. One of the bowls and a vase of glazed pottery are well figured 
in Man, 1901, Plate B, together with a bronze mirror dug up with the earthenware, 
which is of special importance as an aid to fix the date of the interment. Mr* Read's 
missionary correspondent states that it bears on it the name of au army leader of the 
Fu-Tang dynasty, who would have lived towards tlie close of the period A.D, 618-934, 
I have been permitted to examine the mirror, which is unfortunately so much worn 
that the inscription running round the field on the back, outside the raised animal forms, 
is almost entirely defaced. The animal forms are of astrological character, representing, 
probably, the four quadrants (Cf Mayer's Ckinett Reader'* Manual \ p, 307), or 
divisions of the twenty-eight constellations of the lunar zodiac ; the serpent culled round 
the tortoise and the dragon being comparatively distinct, while the phceuix aud the ti^or 
are obliterated. The only two characters ol* the almost illegible inscription winch I am 
able to decipher are **u paring ([Dj ^), the fc * four quarters" of the world ruled by 
the above zodiacal signs. The inscription would appear to be astrological rather than 
personal. The style of the writiug seems to be that of the Han dynasty (B,C. 206 — 
A.D. 220) with its curved outlines, the strokes being more angular during the T'ang 
dynasty and more like those of the modern characters. The archaic ornamental scrolls 
of the borders round the rim of the mirror point also to the Han dynasty, as may be seen 
by a glance at the figures of similar mirrors of the period included in the Po Ku T*ou 
and other illustrated Chinese books on bronze antiquities. 

With regard to the pottery, there is no reason, as far as I know, why it should not 
be attributed to the same early period. The vase, with its stippled brownish-black 
glaze shot with invisible green, Mopping short in an irregularly curved line before it 
quite reaches the foot, would certainly be referred by a Chinese collector to the Han 
dynasty. The material generally used in the production of the colour being an impure 

t 67 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 54-56. 

native cobaltiferous ore of manganese containing iron, the iron gives a brownish tinge 
to the black body and changes the cobalt to green. 

The small red glazed bowls are of a much rarer type, and I have never seen their 
like in any Chinese collection. Of finished technique, they exhibit a smooth glaze of 
remarkably uniform colour, due, doubtless, to iron peroxide, one of the earliest pigments 
used in Chinese ceramics. Are they not, by the way, wine cups, buried with the 
owner's wine vessel ? The wine cup of the Han dynasty was usually fashioned of 
glazed earthenware, replacing the bronze, jade, aud horn cups of earlier times ; under 
the T'ang, wine cups were made of gold, chiselled silver, carved rock-crystal and other 
hard stones, glass and porcclaiu, and under the Sung (A.D. 960-1279) self-coloured 
porcelain came into general vogue, such colour being selected as would enhance the 
natural tints of the wine or tea for which they were intended to be used. 

The prevailing colour of the pottery of the Han dynasty was a bright green 
monochrome tint, produced by the addition of copper oxide to a siliceous flux. A dull 
black comes next, being that of the lac-black circular dish described in the Tao Shuo, 
the well-known Chinese book on pottory, as having been discovered in the tomb of the 
Empress Tao Hou, a consort of the celebrated Wu Ti (B.C. 140-87) of the former Han 
dynasty. From the evidence of this recent find it seems that we may venture to add 
a pale vermilion to the brief list of self-coloured glazes of this early period. 


New Zealand : Maori Art. Haddon. 

On the Origin of the Maori Scroll Design. By A. C. Haddon, ScD., F.R.S. pp 
It looks as if Mr. Edge -Parting ton V efforts to get at the origin of the Maori VV 
scroll design are likely to be crowned with success. In the last number of the Journal 
of the Anthropological Institute (Vol. XXX, Plate E), he figures two old Maori carvings 
with the manaia design. In the accompanying text (J. A. /., XXX, Miscellanea^ No. 40) 
he speaks of this as a " mythical monster " ; but the manaias which he figures appear 
to me as if they might very well be degraded and conventionalised representations of 
birds. If this should prove to be the case, we have not far to seek for the origin of the 
bird, for the sacred bird of the West Pacific, that which possesses /nana (spiritual or 
magical power) in an emineut degree, is the frigate bird (Fregctta ar/uila). Assuming 
this identification to be correct we have a further argument in favour of a Melanesiau 
element in the population of New Zealand. A. C. HADDON. 

Pacific : Forgeries. Edge-Partington. 

Note on Forged Ethnographical Specimens from the Pacific Islands. mf% 

Communicated by J. Edge-Par tington. UU 

As the number of collectors of ethnographical specimens from the Pacific Islands 
increases (as it is evident that it does, to anyone who attends the sale-rooms) so also 
does the supply of objects. It is evident, therefore, that a large proportion of this 
supply must consist of forgeries. Mr. Basil Thomson in his handbook to Fiji, published 
by the Canadian- Australian R.M. Steamship Line, draws attention to this in the 
following words : — 

" Fijian weapons are, moreover, nowadays generally forgeries. A year or two ago 
a Government official, passing through a remote and primitive village at high noon, when 
all the inhabitants were away in their plantations, peeped into a house, and saw rows 
upon rows of clubs and spears suspended from the roof. For the moment he thought 
he had discovered a secret plot against the Government, but au aged crone who sat 
blinking in a doorway enlightened him. They had been made the week before, and had 
just beeu dug up from the black mud of the marsh* where they were dyeing for the 
white tourists in Suva. The commonest forgery is the cannibal fork." 

[ 68 ] 



[Nob. 56-57. 

At ft recent *»nte the emost obvious forgeries from New Guiucn Feted ami 

rlj bought I had ooouion a short time Ago to write to Mr, Iledley, of the 

Austral i;iit Museum, Sydr infunuation as to feathered arrows from the New 

HeMdak In hlfl reply, Mr. Iledley -ays & — tk We found out the locality for thoft 
UTOWti I am told thai yon collectors liave en eh a demand thai 

11 they arc being matte for trade already." I hope this maybe a note of warning to 
many collector. J. EDGE-PARTINGTON. 


W. Africa. Dalton. 

On Caned thorporti from the WM Coast of Africa. By O. M. Dahou, 

M.A„F.S A 

The Appended photograph repre- 
sents two modern doorposts obtained 
by Mr, F\ Rohrweger, CM.G., iu 
the int i he north of Lagos, 

the precise locality not having 
been ascertained up to the time 
of writing. The carving iv iu the 
style characteristic of this part of 
Africa, and offers several points of 
ethnographical interest. The design 
in each case of three tiers of 
human figure* separated from each 

other by discs, the whole being 
from the solid block. In Fig. A all 
the figures but one have the IS 
trihal cicatrices upon their faces, 
throe vertical marks on the forehead, 
and three horizontal on the oh» 
The one exception is the prisoner in 
the middle tier, who has no mark* 
on the forehead, while those on hia 
cheeks are vertical instead of hori- 
zontal. This difference of marking 
suggests that the prisoner i« of u 
different tribe to his captor, and recall* 

Hilar ditr'erences in ittoh of the 
ii in bronzes as represent 

of capture. In Fig. B (though the 
photograph unfortunately does not 
show it), the marks on the cheeks are 
both horizontal and vertical, wit)) the 
exception ol those of the lowest figure, 

which reeetnhle those of Fig. A. The 

ohj. I by this figure, as aho by 

the man in the bottom tier of Fig. A, Ifl 
a dl ponded from the shoulder ; 

iu the middle aud upper tiers of 
Fig. A, two of the men carry gun*. 
rheee doorposts are now in the Brit bfc 
Museum. I >. M. DALTON. 

[ « ] 



[No. 5a 

South Africa: Bushman. Beddoe. 

Description of a Bushman Skull. By John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. p q 

The skull which is the subject of this note was presented to Dr. Beddoe by 3D 
Major Ryder, who obtained it in the neighbourhood of Eenhardt, where the " wild " 
Bushmen have been extinct many years, though some of those surviving in a " tame " 
condition may be pure-blooded. There are many Bushman drawings, or rather sculptures, 
on the rocks about Fietrooisberg, Dear Eenhardt ; in these the animals are represented, 
Major Ryder says, with wonderful accuracy and spirit, but the human figures are 
apparently conventional, mere things of dots and lines. The Bushman graves are 
regarded with superstitions dread by the Bastaards and other natives. 

The skull is perfect, only wanting the mandible. In the vertical aspect it is 
phsenozygous and sphenoid, with smoothly rounded prominence of the occiput ; in the 
occipital broad and flat ; in the lateral low, flattened, with rather low but vertical 
forehead, and prominent occiput with lambdoid flattening. The orbits are low, squarish ; 
the nasal notch almost absent, the nasal opening short and broad ; there is considerable 
alveolar prognathism. The palate is elliptic ; the teeth are much ground down, but 
without decay. Frontal and coronal sutures obliterated ; sutures generally simple and 
uncomplicated. Bones posteriorly rather thin and light : weight 18 ounces. I am not 
sure about the sex. 


Lengths - Glabello-max. - 175 Fronto-inial - 170 

Glabello-inial - 166 Ophryo-max, - 175 

Nasio-alveolar - 52 Basio-nasal - 95 

Basio-alveolar - 95 

Stephanie - - 105 
Auricular (meatus) 86 
„ (fossa) 104 
Asterial - - 102 
Interior orbital - 98 

Breadths- Fronto-minimuin 95 
Bijugal - - 104 
Bizygomatic - 118 
Maximum - 131 (to) 
J/flftJ.vP^ Mastoid - . ill 

£****W Exterior orbital 111 

Arcs - Circumference - 496 

Sagittal arc, 132 f + 111 p + 75 + 40 + 34 f + 95 = total 487. 
Transverse arc, 288 + 109 = 397. 
Inferior frontal arc, 264. Occipital arc, 258 ?. 
Superior „ „ 277. 0. Thomas's arc, 107 to 100. 
Orbit, 38-30. Nasal, 34-29. Foramen, 32-28. 
Indices - Latitudinal, 74 • 85. Altitudinal, 66 • 28. Orbital, 79. Nasal, 85. 
Capacity - Estimated (Topinard) 1176. J, BEDDOE 

[ 70 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 59. 

Sweden: Physical Anthropology. Retzius. 

Crania Suecica Antigua, eine Darstellung der Schwedischen Afenschen-schddel, PA 
aus dem Stcin-zeitalter y dem Bronze-zeitalter, und dem Eisen-zeitalter, $c. By WW 
Gustaf Retzius. With 100 pages of photogravures, and other illustrations. Stockholm, 

" Exegit mouumentum fere perennius," may be said of Gustaf Retzius ; but he 
has erected the monument at least as much to tho memory of his illustrious father, 
Anders Retzius, as to the credit of his own labour and accuracy and scientific 

This is a sumptuous work, fit to be compared to the fluent pieces of anthropological 
literature that our own country has produced, the Crania Britannica, to wit, of Barnard 
Davis aud Thuruam, and the Excavations of Pitt-Rivers. It contains, besides maps and 
other illustrations, 100 plates, every one comprising two admirably executed photographs 
of crania, of the natural size, and as viewed from a distant focus, so as to obviate almost 
wholly the usual error of foreshortening. One result of this improvement in method, by 
the way, is an apparent increase in the proportion of phtenozygous crania, the zygomata 
standing out further than they would do in photographs taken in the ordinary way. I 
will return to this point presently. 

The author begins with a short but comprehensive account of our knowledge of 
physical anthropology in Europe, treated historically, and starting from the point where 
Anders Retzius struck upon his brilliant idea of the important difference between long 
aud broad skulls. He shows the originality of this idea, and how Blumenbach looked 
much to the face and forehead, but rarely depicted a full profile, and never the vertical 
aspect. He shows too, incidentally, how comparatively small was the material accessible 
to Retzius, and how much his keen insight enabled him to make of it ; and how much 
nearer he came to the truth, as we now suppose it to be, than could have been looked 
for. Nor are other Scandinavian anthropologists neglected, and we find much valuable 
material from Sveu Niisson, Arbo, Eschricht, Von Duben, Barth, Bruzelius, &c, bearing 
on the subjects in hand, which may be briefly summarised as the plausibility and value 
of the distinction drawn by Anders Retzius between long and short skulls, and the 
anthropological history of Sweden, and incidentally of Denmark and Norway. A series 
of maps, that of Anders Retzius, my own, Ripley's, and Deniker's, show the progress of 
our knowledge as to the local distribution of brachykephaly iu Europe. The third 
chapter consists of an elaborate and most interesting description of the sepulchres whence 
the crania subsequently pourtrayed were derived, including the huge gang-graves of the 
Stone period, which much resemble the longbarrows of our own neolithic folk, and the 
large oblong kists, belonging more especially to the earlier Bronze periods of Montelius, 
and containing the remains of whole families or little communities. In the later Bronze 
period, as was the case with us, the use of cremation destroyed the continuity of historical 
craniology ; and in Sweden the record of the Iron period was much impoverished by the 
same custom. 

G. Retzius says very little as to the size of the long bones ; apparently he is 
engaged in a separate study concerning them. Meanwhile, what little he does say leads 
one to infer that they do not indicate gigantic or even tall stature, as we count tallness, 
but that they may probably yield support to Professor Pearsou's theory of the evolution 
of stature. 

The author is not very fond of averages, and with his hereditary view as to the 
duplicity rather than the multitude of types, he avoids summarising and averaging his 
totals, I have, therefore, worked some of these out for myself. 

. [ 71 ] 


I find for the 


[No. 59. 

of Skulls. 

Stone Age • 
Bronze Age 
Iron Age - 











The following refers to the more perfect male skulls only :— 








Stone Age 
Bronze Age 
Iron Age 


189 1 







Zygomatic breadth, with the maximum in the same skulls : — 


Stone Age 
Bronze Age 
Iron Age 

15, including conjectural 

21, excluding 







The average capacity was appareutly not very different in the three periods, though 
a little larger in the middle one than in either of the others. In most of the specimens 

it could not be ascertained very accurately. By Topinard's plan ([L x B x y] -5- 113) 
I arrive at 1,622, 1,642, and 1,634 cc. for the available males in the three periods ; but 
this is, doubtless, too high an estimate. The author found about 1,500 cc. in males 
of both Stone and Iron periods. 

The breadth indices in the Stone period vary between 66 * 7 and 85 * 5, there being 
3 brachys, 16 mesos, and 25 dolichos. These figures alone point pretty distinctly to 
the fact that even then there was a mixture of at least two races of men. The mere 
arrangement of figures would, I think, rather point to the presence of two types, one at 
72 and the other at 78. It may be noted that the Danish Stone-folk were mesokephal 
(index 77 * 5, extremes 65 and 81). Retzius describes the prevailing type as elliptic, 
or narrow oval, dolicho- and ortho- kephalic, with small frontal region, but with prominent 
glabella and supraciliaries in the men ; occiput projecting, but frontal and parietal 
eminences small ; narrow face, low orbits and narrow palate, narrow nasal opening ; 
prognathism frequent. One skull, No. 33, which he takes as a good type of the 
mesokephals, is of a broad, rather squarish, oval ; the author, himself, of course, the 
best authority on the Finlanders, says that this, though not quite broad enough, reminds 
him of the Tavastian type. To me it recalls the Borreby and Sion types, and is not 
unlike some of our narrower Bronze skulls. There is at least one very Lapp-like 

The Swedish Bronze crania seem to be more uniform in type, generally oval, and 
varying only from 68 to 82. (Danish Bronze skulls also are more dolichous than those 
of the Stone period). The number is rather small, and they are mostly imperfect ; the 
nose seems broader, the orbits higher, the face is long ; but there is no prognathism 
iu the only four specimens available for this purpose. There, is one Lapp-like. 

C 72 J 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 59-60. 

sub-brachykephal from Halland ; but the mesokephalic type described just now is 
notably absent. The forehead is generally higher, the glabella less prominent. 

Of the Iron Age skulls, the variation in index is still smaller, from 69 to 81 • 6 in 51, 
32 dolicho-, 15 meso-, and 4 moderately brachy- kephalic. They are generally ortho- 
kephalic, leptorrhine, and mesoconch, and only 1 in 10 is prognathous ; the length of 
face is doubtful. The zygomata have not diminished in absolute breadth since the 
Stone Age, it will have been noted ; in relation to the maximum head-breadth they have, 
perhaps, even increased. I think the Scandinavian often differs from the Anglo-Saxon 
in that direction. It may be added that there is a distinct decrease in the hinderfrontal 
(stephanic) diameter ; thus, Stone Age, in 37, average 113 '9 mm. ; Brouze Age, in 16, 
113 • 87 ; Iron Age, in 50, 1 10 * 0. Thus the Iron Age folk should appear more phsenozy- 
gous in the photogravures ; and I think they do. Trepanation was in use among the 
Swedes of the Iron Age, but, apparently, not earlier. 

G. Retzius's own final conclusions are, put shortly, as follows : — 

1. Dolichokephaly is the rule through all the three periods. 

2. But in the Stone period the race was already a mixed one, there being present 

one, if not two, brachykephalic elements. 

3. The available ancient crania do not lead him to suppose that any very con- 

siderable immigration into Sweden has taken place since the earliest period 
in question ; but that the present population descends from, and represents, 
the prehistoric one, though in various parts of the country more or less 
slightly modified by foreign immigration. 

4. The origin of the brachykephalic element or elements in the population of 

Sweden during the Stone Age cannot, at present, be determined with certainty. 
Thus far the learned and cautious author ; but we may venture to propound some 
further considerations, very doubtful, but not wholly baseless. Thus, may not the 
almost complete disappearance of his Tavastian type in the Bronze Age be connected 
with some reinforcement of the pure long-heads from the other side of the Baltic ? Or 
was it simply worked out, as the Graverow type was in Bavaria, by some occult process 
of natural selection ? The Iron Age type, found chiefly in Gotland, while differing 
slightly from the older Swedish types, as has been shown, seems to be identical with 
Barth's Norse Viking type.* Did it, possibly, come from across the Baltic (where, so far 
as we know, there were always long-headed tribes in plenty), and then press across the 
central, still long-headed, zone of Sweden into central Norway ? Or what was the 
relation, if any, of these primitive brachys and mesos in Denmark and Southern Sweden 
to the Bronze men who conquered and overran Britain, or to the broad-headed coast men 
of Southern Norway ? J. BEDDOE. 

Australia, &o. Verschuur. 

At the Antipodes : Travels in Australia, New Zealand, Fiji Islands, the New £** 
Hebrides, New Caledonia, and South America. By G. Verschuur. London : DU 
Sampson Low. New and cheaper edition in the " Standard Library of Travel and 
Adventure," 1900. Cr. 8vo, pp. x, 330, with map and plates. Price 2s. 6d. 

The author's travels extended over parts of the years 1888 and 1889, and are 
described in a bright and interesting manner. There are drawings of " Australian 
aborigines " on page 35, of a " Maori family" on page 149, and a " Maori house " on 
page 151, of " Fijian women" on page 165, of " Native canoes" in Fiji on page 171, 
and of " Aborigines of the New Hebrides " on page 247. J. L. M. 

* While the 37 Iron Age skulls from Cotland (the island) are almost all dolichous, and yield 
indices of 73*5 and 73, 10 from Alvastra, in Eastgothland (mainland) ; have more resemblance to 
those of the Stone Age, and give average indices of 76 and 76. The figures for four indubitable 
males are L. 190, Br. 144*5, Zyg. 136*6, Fr. 101, Step. 118 -7. Index 76 -05. 

( 73 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 6L 

Egyptology. Steindorff. 

Grabfunde des Mittleren Reichs in den Koeniglichen Museen zu Berlin. Der A4 
Sarg des Sebk-o ; ein Grabfund aus Gebelen. Herausgegeben von Georg I 
Steindorff. Berlin : W. Spemann, 1901. (Heft, ix of Mittheilungen aus den 
Orientalischen Sammlungen der Koeniglichen Museen zu Berlin.) 

In the Egyptian collection of the Berlin Museum, as in the British Museum, the 
Museum of the Hermitage, and the great collection at Cairo, there are examples of 
the wooden coffins of the Middle Kingdom elaborately painted inside with figures of the 
funerary equipment of the deceased — food piled on mats, cloth, clothing, and jewelled 
ornaments, badges of authority, and weapons of war and of the chase. The names 
of the objects being attached to most of the figures the philologist is hereby supplied 
with much valuable information. Magic and ritual texts complete the representations ; 
and all, doubtless, was intended, not for mere adornment, but to promote the welfare of 
the dead. The coffins of Mentuhotep at Berlin form' an exceptionally fine example of 
this class. Each of the three nested oblong wooden boxes bears representations, and the 
paintings were in excellent condition when found (early in the last century). Fortu- 
nately coloured drawings were made of them at the time by the discoverer, for the 
originals suffered much in their subsequent travels. In I860 Lepsius published the 
hieratic texts on these three coffins, and outlines of the paintings ; the latter— carefully 
reproduced in coloured plates — are the subject of a very handsome volume, edited 
by Steindorff in a previous memoir (1896) of the series to which the present volume 

Professor Steindorff 's name is attached to the new publication, which deals with the 
remaining coffins of the Middle Kingdom in the Berlin Museum, but he was unfortunately 
prevented from continuing the work personally. Hence, we are deprived of several 
discussions promised in the first part. The staff of the Berlin Museum, however, stepped 
into the gap. Archaeological descriptions are supplied by Professor Erman and 
Dr. Schaefer, the inscriptions are translated by Professor Sethe, and a special section 
on the strange forms of the hieroglyphs is written by Dr. Moelier. The single (inner) 
coffin of Sebk-o came from Thebes in Passalacqua's collection, along with the nested 
coffins of Mentuhotep. The representations upon it are here rendered in colour on two 
plates and are very interesting. Apart from food, the equipment as depicted on the left 
side of the coffin shows a mirror (called " see-face "), jewelled pectorals in the shapes of 
a hawk and of a vulture with outstretched wings, aud others of more simple form, tassels 
to hang at the back of the neck, bracelets, anklets, and perhaps a finger ornament —all to 
be tied on by strings. There is also the curious menat, a bunch of beads used in religious 
ceremonies, dances, &c, intended to be held in the hand, glittering and tinkling with 
every motion of the holder. At the beginning of this row, in front of the mirror, is 
the symbol of the ka or "double" ; perhaps this juxtaposition may be connected with 
the reflecting power of a mirror. The corresponding row on the right side of the coffin 
shows a jewelled fillet for the head, a head-rest, a doubtful article of attire, two forms of 
head dress, cloth of three degrees of fineness or width, two shirts or tunics elaborately 
coloured or jewelled, two short tunics or drawers with lions 1 tails attached at the back, 
a dagger aud sheath : as emblems of power are shown the whip, two crook sceptres, two 
animal-head sceptres (uas), nine other staves or sceptres, a sort of shield (?), a globular- 
headed mace, a mace with flattened sharp-edged head, two bows and a sheaf of arrows, 
and a noosed cord (in the letterpress interpreted as a bow-string — probably correctly). 
At the foot end are two pairs of sandals, one of leather, the other of plaited grass ; 
and two ties or girdles named ankh, from which the symbol of life (ankh) derived its 
significance ; possibly they are here symbolic. At the foot are depicted eight vessels 
of similar shape, but of two different colours, one large white (alabaster ?) vessel, and 
a. white stand. 

[ 74 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Hos. 61-62. 

The discoverer's description of the grave of Mentuhotep exists, and such of the 
objects found with the interment as can now be identified are figured in SteindorfTs 
publication of 1896. The coffin of Sebk-o is unfortunately an isolated relic. 

We pass on to another find, from Gebeleu, south of Thebes, discovered, according 
to the Arabs, in one tomb in the year 1897. It consists of four coffins, together with 
models of a boat, a granary, &c, and bows and arrows. The decorative work is far 
inferior to that of the Theban coffins, in fact the designs are grotesquely rude, and the 
forms of the hieroglyphs are abnormal. There are here no long funerary texts as on 
the coffins of Mentuhotep aud Sebek-o, but the shorter inscriptions, well interpreted by 
Sethe, are not without special interest for the student of Egyptian religion. The 
ornamentation is only external, and consists chiefly of lines of large hieroglyphs along 
the sides, eyes painted at the left side opposite to where the eyes of the body would be 
in the old crouched form of burial, and sandals at the feet. Generally there are one or 
two scenes. On the coffin of a woman a scene shows her seated, one servant performing 
her toilet while another brings food from a stand. 

The associated objects are a wooden model of a granary in a rectangular enclosure, 
with eight figures of persons griuding corn, making beer, &c. ; a funerary barge and the 
row-boat to tow it ; two figures of servants bearing offerings ; a pair of wooden sandals, 
hardly intended for actual wear ; horn bracelets, wooden bows, cane arrows tipped with 
chisel-edged flint, three clubs — one straight, one curved, the third bent at an angle, 
twelve models of sacks of corn ; also two bowls with base prolonged into a handle, to 
be used as censers, and a solidly constructed stand of wood. All these objects are 
represented photographically. 

The book is a very handsome contribution to our knowledge of Egypt, and is 
of many-sided interest. The publication of the material selected by its authors is 
thoroughly workmanlike and satisfactory. F. LI. GRIFFITH. 

Algeria : Ethnology. Randall-Maolver & Wilkin. 

Libyan Notes. By David Randall-Mac I ver, M.A., Laycock Student of f^f% 
Egyptology at Worcester College, Oxford, and Anthony Wilkin, B.A. London, D& 
Macmillan, 1901. 4to, pp. viii, 113. Coloured Frontispiece and 25 Plates. Price 
20*. net. 

Among the Berbers of Algeria. By Anthony Wilkin. London, Fisher Uuwin. 
1900. 8vo, pp. xiv, 263. Sketch-map and 14 Photographic Plates. Price 16*. 

In these two volumes are contained the results of a brief visit paid in the spring of 
1900 to some of the less-frequented parts of Algeria. The object of the expedition was 
to collect evidence among the purer-blooded survivors of the old Berber stock, as to the 
validity of certain current theories of the relations, racial and cultural, in which this 
stock stands to the ancient inhabitants of Egypt, and the authors are greatly to be 
congratulated, both on the success which attended their observations in the field, aud on • 
the manner in which they have worked up and presented their results. 

In the book which bears Mr. Wilkin's name only, the appeal is frankly to the mau 
in the street, who knows nothing about the cephalic index, and cares less about the 
derivation of geometric ornament, but who may reasonably l>c expected to take an 
interest even in " native races," when they turn out, as in this case, to have so many 
points in common with his good-natured mongrel Philistine self. " Fully one-fifth of 
" those [Chawia Berbers] we saw at £1 Arbaa were fair men — that is to say, 
44 men who would be counted fair in this country. Blue and grey eyes were even 

44 commoner than light (sometimes flaxen) hair Skins were white, or would 

44 have been if they had not been encrusted with the dirt of untold months 

44 We felt ourselves at home amoug so many rosy countenances ; indeed, one youngster 
44 would have been taken anywhere but in his own village (where he would be without 

[ 76 ] 

1901.] MAN, [No. 62. 

" honour) for a freckled wee Scotchman " (pp. 77-9). Of these and kindred Eabyle folk, 
of their beautiful highlands, of the couutless relics of bygone modes of life which strike 
the eye there at every turn, and of the quaint trivialities of cross-country travel, 
Mr. Wilkin has much to tell, and tells it in an easy animated fashion which makes his 
book seem at first reading less full of matter than it really is. We could wish, neverthe- 
less, even so, that he had sometimes taken his public a shade more seriously ; word 
pictures like that of the Chawia potter and weaver (pp. 128-130) have a way of sticking 
in the memory which makes us wish there were more of them. The illustrations, from 
the author's own photographs, are admirable, and add greatly to the attractiveness of the 

The joint work, entitled Libyan Notes y coutains a more detailed discussion of the 
problems which suggested the journey. Ever since Professor Fliuders Petrie's announce- 
ment of a "New Race" in Egypt, the question of the race-relation of the Nile Valley 
to the rest of North Africa has entered a new phase, and the view has been widely held, 
with more or less modification in detail, first, that the course of the primitive civilisation 
of Egypt was largely influenced, if not determined, by that of aucient Libya immediately 
to the westward ; and, secoudly, that to account for this cultural influence a strong 
" Libyan " element must be presumed in the composition of the Egyptian people. 

In regard to the first point, subsequent excavations in Egypt, in which Mr. Randall- 
Maclver himself has had some share, have resulted in the elaboration of an unrivalled 
sequence-series of prehistoric pottery, so typical of the character of the material civilisa- 
tion as a whole, that it is to the ceramic industries of Libya that one instinctively turns 
for the crucial counterpart ; while by great good luck the Algerian jouruey resulted 
in the collection not only of a number of fine specimens of the commoner styles of the 
well kuown " Kabyle pottery," but also of examples of several local fabrics which 
hardly go abroad at all ; and, best of all, of precise observations of the localities and 
of the processes and materials which are employed. On this collection, which attracted 
much atteution when it was exhibited at the Anthropological Institute last summer, and 
which is now to be seen in the Pitt-Rivers Museum hi Oxford, the authors have founded 
a careful comparison of Berber and proto-Egyptian pottery, and come to the guarded 
conclusion that while some of the simpler fabrics are common to the two civilisations, 
and have persisted almost unchanged in Kabylia and the Autos mountains down to 
the present day, others are either peculiar to Egypt or can be shown to have been 
derived by Egypt from uon -Libyan sources. Of the non-Egyptian elements in the 
Kabyle and Chawia styles, on the other hand, some of the most distinctive are certainly 
of later introduction (probably from Cyprus, via Carthage), leaving only a small 
remainder to be attributed to a hypothetical Iberian origin ; so that, on the whole, 
Egypt seems rather to have dominated Libya in early times than vice versa. These 
arguments, of which only the briefest outline is permissible here, are worked out with 
great detail and full illustration, and, on the evidence which is available at present, 
may be accepted with confidence. Only three important points are very slightly dealt 
with : first, hardly anything is said of the native names of the processes or of the 
elements of the ornamentation, though a good many Berber terms are given in other 
sections of the book ; second, no analysis is attempted of these same ornamental designs, 
nor is the very suggestive inference as to the importation of Cypriote motives in Graeco- 
Phoenician times worked out, as it deserves, in comparison with the Carthaginian and 
Cypriote repertoires ; third, no mention is made of the remarkable series of parallels, 
both of form and ornament, which is supplied by the Early Brouzc Age pottery of 
Sicily. None of these omissions, however, affect the validity of the main inference 
as to the relation of the Libyan fabrics to the proto-Egyptian ; the first would have 
confirmatory value only ; the other two bear rather on the origin of the later anil 
^on-Egyptian elements in Kabyle art. 

C 76 ] 

1901.] MAN - OXob. 62-63. 

Turning now to the question of community of race, the authors have a sufficiently 
decisive answer. Neither the skull measurements, nor the head measurements of living 
Kabyle and Chawia individuals, afford the smallest support to the theory of a Libyan 
clement in the early population of Egypt. Taking the evidence of the cephalic iudex as 
typical of the rest, "the difference between 742" [the lowest Berber figure] "and 721 
(rather, probably, 712)" [the figures for skulls from Abydos and Hou respectively] " is 
" too great to be explained away. . . . The cephalic index, then, absolutely forbids 
" any identification of the prehistoric Egyptians with the Berbers" (p. 206). Such 
language is precise aud explicit, but it is based on a large induction (as such series 
go), and is quite borne out by the evidence, which is discussed and tabulated in an 
original and effective fashion, and illustrated by a large number of photographs of 
individuals ; special note being due to the ingenious and uncanny " vault views " in 
Plate XXV. 

It must not be supposed, however, that the whole of these Libyan Notes are 
devoted to pot fabrics and anthropometry, or even to subsidiary arguments from history 
or archaeology on the Egypto-Libyan question. Besides an introductory note on the 
literary allusions to the old Libyans, aud an excellent summary of recent French 
research on the language aud social institutions of the modern Berbers, the book 
contains a valuable account of dolmen-sites at Bou Nouara, Bou Merzong, and Roknia, 
and of a new site at Msila, near Bordj-bou-Areridj, with an analysis of the meagre 
results of excavations up to date, with numerous photographs and useful facsimiles 
of the skulls from Roknia, described long ago by General Faidherbe. There 
are also a number of careful descriptions of Kabyle and Chawia architecture, of the 
primitive loom and oil-mill, and of other implements and processes of considerable 
ethuographical importance. J. L. MYRES. 

Biography : Huxley. Mitchell. 

Thomas Henry Huxley : A Sketch of his Life and Work. By P. Chalmers AQ 
Mitchell, M.A. ("Leaders of Science" Series). New York and London. DO 
Putmans. 1900. 8vo, pp. xviii, 297. Price 5*. 

This book, written long before the completion of the " Life and Letters," which it 
closely followed in order of publication, is an admirable little work of 285 pages, 
embodying a classified account of the life aud work of Huxley, with the author's 
impressions of his published writings, and personal narratives largely culled from 
obituary notices and studies of the great man by persous with whom he was especially 
familiar. It is divided iuto 17 chapters, aud gives a well-arranged and succinct 
narrative of the chief incidents in his life, and a corresponding account of the more 
important memoirs, lectures, and addresses which have rendered the name of Huxley 
epoch-marking in science, education, aud philosophy. Apropos of passing allusion to his 
most intimate friends and contemporaries who were concerned in the scientific triumphs 
of his time, there are introduced portraits of Darwin, Hooker, and Lyell. Of Huxley 
himself three portraits are given, one at the age of 32 ; one in later life, the choice of 
which is not altogether the most fortunate ; and a third, the famous caricature of himself 
drawn in 1848 while visiting Australia. 

Of the book it may be said that the portion dealing with Huxley's scientific work 
is admirable. Concise and connected in its method, it gives the lay reader an altogether 
excellent notion of the trend of his mind in his triumphs as an observer and thinker. 
The Tunicate controversy, the great work on the Medusae, the Skull, and on the 
Cephalous Mollusca, are all rendered clear ; and the Man and Ape achievement which 
led to his "Man's Place in Nature" that will ever remain one of his foremost 

[ 77 ] 

ldOlO MAN. [No. to. 

successes, are each in turn dealt with. And concerning the latter, while it is well- 
known how, in its progress, the posterior cornu of the lateral ventricle of the brain 
played a leading part, in consideration of the brevity of Mr. Mitchell's statement 
concerning it, it is opportune to record the fact that Professor D. J. Cunningham 
in 1886 announced the interesting discovery (Cunningham Mem. No. II., R. Irish 
Acad., p. 128) of the abseuce of this cavity on one side of the brain of an Orang, 
regarding it as possible that Owen " may in the first instance have been misled by an 
" abnormal brain of this kind." 

Referring to Huxley's book on " Physiography," Mr. Mitchell rightly gives 1880 
as the date of publication, but in his context he refers to it as though directly 
associated with the editorship of the Macmillan series of Science Primers, the 
Introductory volume to which was from Huxley's pen. We would point out that the 
" Physiography " was really based on the Notes of a Course of Lectures, first delivered 
at the London Institution in 1869, and afterwards repeated at the South Kensington 
Museum (as is duly explained in the preface to the work), and that perusal of the 
detailed syllabus which was issued for use at the lectures and of the book itself, shows 
that the central idea which led to the educational triumph of Huxley as a teacher, and 
which in reality permeated all his subsequent writings for the student — the creation 
aud development of the Type System — first took shape in this association. 

Passing to that portion of Mr. Mitchell's book which deals with Huxley as a 
philosopher and writer and speaker, it must be admitted in most respects excellent. As 
giving a summary of his views on topics social, religious, political, and educational, it 
is most interesting reading, except perhaps for the somewhat morbid view our author 
has taken of the intended refrain of the Romanes Lecture at Oxford, which he does not 
seem to have rightly interpreted. Here, as in the earlier portion of the book, there are 
certain matters of detail upon which we would desire to comment, and chiefly his 
statements concerning "style." On page 215 we read that "Huxley lacked the 
" sedulous concern for words themselves as things valuable and delightful," and again 
on page 217 that he " produced his effects by the ordering of his ideas and not . . . 
u of his words " ; indeed, Chapter XII., from which these words are cited, is permeated 
by this conviction, and we venture to think that in framing it our author is at 
fault. He makes no allowance for the fact that " style" is relative to aim and object in 
writing or speaking, and to context, and that it has to be determined by the nature of 
the subject-matter in hand. To do him justice, however, in arguing that the idea and 
not the expression — the academic choice of words — was the dominant impulse in 
Huxley's method, which is tantamount to regarding him as technical rather than 
intellectual, we are bound to point out that he is not depreciating Huxley's merits as a 
writer of English, but rather seeking to classify his position among the writers of his 
period than to criticise. We nevertheless consider him in the wrong, and hope that in 
any future editions of his book he will at least modify his views on this point. 

There are one or two small inaccuracies in the book which cannot pass unnoticed. 
Huxley was of greater than " middle stature," and it is saying too much to state that 
u while at work he smoked continuously." After he was 40 he smoked a good deal, but 
never while working. And, similarly, the " strains occasionally heard from his room" 
were those of his own voice and not, as is stated in the passage our author had in 
mind, of " a fiddle." Iu writing of Huxley's Scientific Memoirs Mr. Mitchell refers the 
reader to the reprint of these now in course of publication as a series of Memorial 
Volumes, and it becomes necessary for us to point out that the prefatory list of titles 
as originally printed in the first of these is deplorably deficient. The omissions have 
been mostly made good ' m the later list which is incorporated in the Life and Letters ; 
but even here the Rede lecture of 1886 on " Animal Forms " (published in Nature at the 
time of delivery) though mentioned in the text, does not appear in the classified record. 

[ w ] 

1901] MAN. [flos. 63-64. 

And it is a remarkable fact that in no book thus far printed on Huxley's work does 
there appear the title of his great Survey Memoir of 1877 on the Elgin Crocodilii, or his 
1886 definition of Agnosticism, which is one of the most concise and characteristic, if 
not the very best, things he ever wrote. G. B. H. 

Folklore. Various Authors. 

Popular Studies in Mythology, Romance, and Folklore. London : D. Nutt, f\m 
1899, 1900. Price 6d. each. Presented by the publisher. 04 

1. Celtic and Mediaeval Romance. By A. Nutt. 

2. Folklore, what is it and what is the good of it f By E. S. Hartland. 

3. Ossian and the Ossianic Literature. By A. Nutt. 

4. King Arthur and his Knights. By Jc«sie L. Westou. 
o. The Popular Poetry of the Finns. By C. J. Billsou. 
6. The Fairy Mythology of Shakespeare. By A. Nutt. 

' 7. Mythology and Folktales. By E. S. Hartland. 

8. Cuchulainn, the Irish Achilles. By A. Nutt. 

9. The Rigveda. By E. V. Arnold. 

By undertaking the publication of these txx>klets Mr. Nutt has earned the gratitude 
of all who are interested in folklore and romantic literature, and of many who would like 
to take an interest in them but hardly know where to begin their studies. The series 
is the work of specialists, who treat their subjects concisely, confining themselves to a 
broad survey of the theme ; not the least valuable feature is a bibliographical appendix 
to aid those who fiud their appetite whetted by what is here put before them and wish 
to go more deeply into the subject. The enthusiasm excited by the work of the 
brothers Grimm raised the collection of folklore in Germany to the position of a 
national duty. England did not begin the task of collecting her folkbeliefs and tales 
until long after, and found her harvest correspondingly diminished ; even now, the 
interest aroused by this subject is not to be compared with the enthusiasm of Germany, 
where in some parts 1 in 3,500 of the population is a member of a folklore society. 
This want of interest in England arises, perhaps, from a lack of knowledge of what 
folklore really is ; there are others besides Mr. Hartland's musical friend who will look 
at you with compassion, and say : " Ah, yes, the Folklore Society," under the impression 
that folklore means nothing but cures for warts, and creepy stories. But after all, the 
investigation of traditional customs, beliefs, and tales is at least as worthy of being 
called authropology as the study of bones and stones. Other animals besides man have 
bones ; and stones are only interesting to the anthropologist if they bear traces of human 
ingenuity. Primitive religion and philosophy cannot be relegated to an inferior place 
unless the mind of man is less important than his body or bis works. 

The series is, however, intended more for the general reader. The practical man, 
who looks down on " antiquarian ism " of all sorts, will learn from Mr. Hartland that we 
have to-day an Irish question because our forefathers were not anthropologists. Those 
whose taste lies in the direction of romance will find in Mr. Nutt a reliable guide in the 
highways and byways of Celtic hero stories, and on the more familiar ground of the fairy 
mythology of Shakespeare. If they find Mr. Nutt's fascinating studies all too short, 
their needs are provided for by the bibliographical appendix which has wisely been 
made a feature of the whole series. Miss Weston's contribution should be found 
especially useful ; the average Englishman has never yet learned anything of the 
sources of his national literature, but he will here find a royal road to repentance. 
Mr. Hartland in his contribution on Folktales puts some awkward questions to the 
borrowing school ; the bibliography of America is perhaps unnecessarily limited ; Rink 

[ 79 ] 

19011 MAN. [Nos. te-65. 

has published Tales of the Eskimo ; for Canada, Petitot's Traditions Indiennes should 
certainly have been mentioned ; Rand's Legends of the Micmacs are an important 
collection ; Lummis has published a number of Pueblo stories ; for South America the 
works of Thevet and D'Orbigny contain a good deal of matter. Mr. Billson's account 
of Finnish poetry is very readable. Mr. Arnold is less successful in dealing with the 
Rigveda. We can hardly imagine the following statements meeting with general 
acceptance in England : — " In the period in which the ancestors of the Aryan peoples 
" still formed a single nation, they were united by a system of religion constructed by 
" the wisdom of their statesmen and poets. The supreme objects of worship were 
" principally such natural objects as the Sky, the Dawn, the Twin Stars, and the 
" Storm " (p. 36). The latter statements are hardly consistent with what we learn on 
pp. 21, 22, and the evidence for a cult of Ushas has still to be brought forward. 
Mr. Arnold would have done better to steer clear of theory. N. W. T. 

Trepanning: Prehistoric. Pittard. 

Snr une tripanation prehisloriquc de Vage du bronze. By Eugene Pittard. |jp 
(Extract from Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles. Geneva, 1899.) UU 

lu this communication M. Pittard describes a skull, found some years ago at 
Sallanches, and assigned from its surroundings to the Bronze Age of culture. Owing to 
post mortem injuries, the vault of the crauium only is left ; of this, the right parietal 
eminence has been removed, leaving an almost circular wound, with oblique edges, in 
which the diplce is hidden throughout the whole circumference by a cicatricial callous 
mass uniting the inner and outer tables of bone. It is thus evident that the injury was 
survived for a considerable time, while the regular outline of the wound and the absence 
of other injury would seem to show that it had been produced by deliberate operation, 
and not by any blow accidental or homicidal. The chief interest attaching to this skull 
arises from the period to which it is assigned, evidences of trephining in the Bronze Age 
being exceedingly rare, although the operatiou seems to have been comparatively 
requent in neolithic times. Of tbe technique of this particular operation we are of 
course ignorant, but as various savage tribes have within comparatively modern times 
practised trephining, we can suppose prehistoric man operated in a somewhat similar 
manner. Ella, in the Medical Times for 1874, describes the islanders of the South 
Pacific as making a T- aua ped incision through the scalp, and theu gently scraping away 
the surface of the cranium with a shark's tooth until they reach the dura mater. In the 
Aures mountains, according to Dr. Vediennes, the operation was performed in two 
stages, lu the first, the surface of the bone was laid bare, and a small area marked out 
by holes drilled through the bone with a pointed iron or bronze rod, and the wound 
dressed for 24 days. At the end of this time the portion of cranium between the 
holes, which would have been loosened by necrotic processes, was removed by a blunt 

As far as we can judge from the figure appended to M. Pittard's paper, the former 
method would seem more probable than the latter. Some day further discoveries may 
reveal the precise surgical technique of our remote ancestors, and carry still further back 
the history of the medical profession. One further point, which must strike all readers 
of M. Pittard's paper, and of other communications on this subject, is the extraordinary 
resistance of primitive man to the septic organisms which till recently played such havoc 
among civilised communities, and, until the introduotion of antiseptics, fettered the 
energies of the foremost surgeons of the day. F. C. SHRUBSALL. 

Printed by Byrb and Spottiswoodb His Majesty's Printers, Bast Harding Street, B.C. 

■■...■ ni.,gH .,.m, -f!i'.,. i«-,,|o t ,^..w...K...-i?;.i...^ I?- 




1901.] MAN. [No. 66. 

Kent: Flint Implements. With Plate P. Newton. 

The Occurrence in a very I /united Area of the /{iff lest with the Finer Forms AA 
of Worked Stones. 00 

Among the numerous discoveries in the area of what may l>e termed the West Kent 
Palaeolithic deposits, there has heen none of greater interest than that made in the year 
1H99 at Greenhithe. The pick and spade of workmen laid bare an old-world river-bed, 
highly fossiliferous and containing many stone implements of great beauty in workman- 
ship, associated with others of more primitive form, and also some whose only claim to 
recognition as implements lies iu that portion of the natural stone exhibiting signs of 
much use. 

Public attention was first directed to the discovery by Mr. H. Stopes at a meeting 
of the Anthropological Institute of May 1.5, 1900 {Journal of the Institute, Vol. XXX., 
N.S. II., page 302), and the containing IkkI is described as an "exceedingly fossiliferons 
u band of stratified sands and gravels capped with a thin layer of tough clay." The 
actual elevation of this deposit is about 80 feet above Ordnance datum, and a dee]) valley 
lies to the eastward between it and Milton Street, a locality well known as a happy 
huntiog ground for palaeolithic implements. From the nature and elevation of this deposit, 
now known as the Greenhithe shell-bed, the pala»ontological and geological evidence prove 
the immeuse antiquity claimed for the river drift by well-known writers on the subject. 
In addition to the published list of vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, a large number of 
species have been recently recovered which will show this deposit to be one of the most 
important, if not absolutely the most important of its kind that has yet been discovered, 
further accounts of which will shortly be laid before the geological world. I might, 
however, say, that from amongst the quantities of the material comprising the shell-t>ed 
which I have forwarded to Mr. W.J.Lewis Abbott, F.G.S., for working, that gentleman 
has recovered species suggesting a closer relation to pliocene beds than have previously 
l»een found iu the Thames Valley. 

This remarkable shell-bed is a few miles almost due north of the locality where 
Mr. I>. Harrison has made his most important finds of plateau implements, and the 
surroundiug country is teeming with evidence of the earliest appearance of mau. Some 
years ago, Sir John Evans in a genial manuer rebuked Mr. Harrison for desiring to 
claim the county of Keut as the birth-place of the human race, but in the second edition 
of his great work on The Ancient Stone Implements of ( Ureal Britain, Sir John Evans 
gives it as his opinion that the " numerous and important discoveries made during the 
" last thirty years by Mr. Benjamin Harrison of Ightham," as interpreted by Sir Joseph 
Prestwich, "have done much to revolutionize our ideas as to the age and character of 
44 the drift deposits capping the chalk downs iu western Kent, north of the escarpment 
" facing the Weald." 

This valuable expression of opinion of so cautious an observer assists us greatly to 
appreciate the high antiquity of the Greenhithe shell-l>ed deposits. The old tributary 
to which we are indebted for so many interesting accumulations flowed from greater 
heights in the Weald than now exist into the valley of the larger river, which, under its 
diminished form, is now kuown as the Thames, and whose bed was prolwibly 70 or 80 
feet higher than it now is. 

On its northern journey into the Thames Valley the old stream received the relics 
of the various land surfaces over which it passed, ultimately storing them up on the 
ancient terrace and forming a veritable treasure house for the delectation of the pre- 
historic anthropologist of to-day. 

With respect to the illustrations of implements found in the shcll-hcd, it will l>o 
noted bv anv one familiar with the subject that the ordinarv pointed or hache shape is 

\ 81 j 

19QL] MAN. [Hob. 66-67. 

absent. The writer has only seen one of this form from the deposit, and that was of 
small dimensions. 

In the Milton Street gravels on the other side of the valley the hache shape 
abounds. In the shell-bed the flat ovate form appears to predominate, and the proportion 
of such implements with an ogival twist it? large. 

Nos. 1 and 2 in the photograph are of the rudest possible type of implement, having 
very little human work upon them. No. 3 is a perfect pebble, and No. 4 a rough piece 
of tabular flint, but both are excellent examples of hollow scrapers and have been well 
used. No. o appears to have been made and used for a double purpose, the right 
depression, as seen in photograph, having been used for scraping, and the left for 
rubbing. Nos. 6 to 11 are of the commouer palaeolithic forms, except No. 9, which has a 
very pronounced twist. Nos. 12 and 13 form a pair of side scrapers suggestive of left 
and right hand use, as may be seen by a curious little projection at one eud. Nos. 14 to 
18 are very flue examples, they have sharp edges, especially Nos. 14 and 16, the latter 
having the ogival twist. To Mr. Lewis Ablx)tt is due the recognition of Ostracoda on 
specimen No. 1 . Since making the photograph the writer has obtained from i the bed 
another side scraper of larger dimensions, aud with a remarkable undercutting to sharpen 
the scraping edge. W. M. NEWTON. 

Australia. Spencer-Glllen Expedition. 

The Australian Ethnological Expedition. By N. W. Thomas, M.A. g\^ 

The ethnological expedition of Prof. Baldwin Spencer aud Mr. F. J. Gillen Of 
started some three months ago for the interior of Australia. 

Starting from Adelaide, the party proceeded to Oodnadatta by train. There they 
were to be joined by Mounted-Constable Chance, who had gone on ahead with the stores. 
He is an experienced bushman, and well acquainted with the country. From the 
terminus of the railway line the travellers were to follow the telegraph line to Alice 
Springs. Food depdts have been established at all the telegraph stations along the line. 
The ethnologists will spend some time with the various tribes through the continent, 
and make excursions east aud west of the telegraph line to fertile spots where natives 
cougregate. VVheu they get to Powell's Creek, which will be one of their main depots, 
they will leave the line and cross iuto Queensland to Camoweal, where they hope to 
connect their labours with the investigations conducted by Dr. Roth, the Protector of 
Aborigines of Queensland. Afterwards they will return to the telegraph line, aud 
continue their jouruey northwards, taking the tribes along the big rivers in the Territory. 
If time permits they will strike across to Wyudhain, in Western Australia. 

Language, history, customs, habits, ceremonies, religions, laws, will all be carefully 
investigated and noted, aud the records of the journey are likely to be very complete. 
The scientists are taking with them a magnificent equipment, which includes a first-class 
cinematograph, with which they will take pictures of corrobborees and secret ceremonies, 
aud also a fine phonograph, presented by Mr. J. Angas Johnson, of Adelaide. Large 
impressions will be taken by it, and these will be capable of being multiplied indefinitely 
on small cylinders. A vast amount of photographic material has been distributed at the 
various depots, aud with it careful records will be obtained of types, ceremonies, and 
gatherings of the tribes. Weapons and implements of each race will be procured, and 
anthropometric records of each section of the black people carefully preserved. Collec- 
tions of the flora and fauna of the country traversed will be made. Professor Spencer 
will pay particular attention to zoological work. It is needless to say that the good 
wishes of all anthropologists go with the party. The expedition is expected to last 
about a year, 


190L] MAN. [Nos. 67-68. 

If we can hardly expect such startling discoveries from the present expedition as 
from the preceding one, it is certain that no more valuable work could be done than that 
to he carried out by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen. The native tribes of Central Australia 
are not only left untouched by European influence ; they eeem to have lived remote from 
all outside influence for a lengthened period. 

Anthropology owes a debt of gratitude both to the Australian Governments, whoso 
readily acceded to the memorial in favour of the expedition, and also to those who are 
hearing the cost of it. 

The Victorian authorities are paying a substitute to take the Professor's place, and 
the South Australian Government have given Mr. Gillen leave of absence for one year 
on full pay. The cost of the expedition is being borne by Mr. David Syme and 
Mr. Rubin Spencer, of Manchester — Professor Spencer's father. The former has 
contributed 1,000/. and the latter 500/. towards contingent expenses. The Govern- 
ment of South Australia has shown great practical sympathy with the work. The 
Commissioner of Crown Lauds has presented to the travellers the express vehicle built 
for and used by Lord Kin tore in his trip through the continent, and a splendid team of 
four horses. N. W. T. 

Religion. Lang. 

The Martyrdom of St. Dasius. By A. Lang, M.A. (See Max, 1901, 53.) qq 

The variations of M. Cumont's opinions as to the legend of St. Dasius may DO 
easily l>e traced. He first published the Greek narratives (the longest MS. being 
now printed for the first time) in Analecta Bollandiaiia (t. xvi., 1897). He was 
then sceptical about the story, as he deemed the Greek an iucorrect translation from 
the original Latin, made for au edifying purpose by an author so unscrupulous as to put 
the Nicene Creed in the mouth of St. Dasius—" before it was made." The story, more- 
over, was inconsistent with observation of the Imperial edict against human sacrifice. 
Moreover, the 30 days of mock royalty are unknown. M. Cumont, therefore, thought 
that St. Dasius only refused to sacrifice to Saturn ; and, iudeed, in the new MS. he does 
decline, when urged by Bassus, his commanding officer, to offer incense to the Imperial 
images, and is executed for no other reason. 

But, in the Revue de Philologie, 1897, pp. 143-149, M. Parmentier, while 
admitting the difficulties, asked whether the memory of an ancient and cruel rite 
might not have been revived at the Saturnalian debauch in Moesia, thanks to the 
license of the persecution agaiust the Christians ? The Greek author of the Dasius 
legend might then use this circumstance for his pious purposes. M. Parmentier then 
quoted the only evidence for the hanging the mock king at the Persian Saca?a. As 
we know, it is merely a statement put by Dio Chrysostom into the mouth of the Cynic 
Diogenes. No other surviving writer on the Saca?a, while describing the festival, men- 
tions the hanging of the mock king. M. Parmentier then suggests that an Oriental 
human sacrifice would come to be " completely coufounded, in character and date, with 
" their own Saturnalia by the Romans." Their Saturn answered to Crouos, and Cronos 
received human sacrifices. In M. Par men tier's view, the Moesiau case of St. Dasius 
(A.D. 303) was the "result of military importation of Oriental usages." Meesia 
contains many monumeuts of Mithra worship, which are also of military importation, 
and a similar importation may have been the alleged attempt to sacrifice a Christian 
private at the Saturnalia : " a bloody comedy at a military festival, when the liceuse of 
" persecution must have unchained the most cruel instincts." 

M. Cumont now (op. cit. y pp. 149-153) revised his original opinion. He "thought 
" the hypothesis, that, in the East, the Roman Saturnalia had been blended with • , . v 

[ 83 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Hob. 08-09. 

" the Saca>a, very attractive/ 1 Oriental slave* in Rome would lend their influence. 
Like MM. Frazer and Meissner, he inclined to identify the Sawn, Zagmnk, and Purim. 
Meyer and Jastrow refuse to admit this, and the date of the Saciea (either July or 
September) makes the identification impossible, Purim being in March. M. Cumont (an 
in Man, 1901, No. 53), gave examples of human sacrifices at Rome in the second— 
fourth centuries of our era. I do not quite understand whether M. Cumont now 
regards the military sacrifice of a mock king, like St. Dasius, as an Oriental infiltration, 
as M. Parmentier did, or as a recrudescence or survival of a Roman rite — utterly 
unknown to Roman antiquaries. Judging from M. Cumont's essay, Le Taurobole % 
which he has kindly sent me (Revue (THistoire et de la Literature religieu$e$ y t. vi, 
1901, No. 2), he looks on that rite as of Oriental importation. If he thinks the same of 
the Moesian case of St. Dasius, it affords no proof of native Italian sacrifices of a mock 
king. The period of 30 days assigned to the mock reign of the mock king in Mcesia 
does not correspond with the duration either of the Sacwa or of the Saturnalia ; and the 
date (November — December) in Mcesia is remote from the date (July or September) of 
the Sacaea. Again, sacrifice (as in Mcesia) is not whipping and hanging, as at the 
Saca^a, and, unlike the Sacwan victim, the Moesian is not stripped of his royal robes. 

While evidence and opinion are in this condition, it seems rather premature to 
argue, from the apologue of Dio and the Dasius legend, that kings in Italy and 
Babylon used at one time to be sacrificed annually, that the gods whom they incar- 
nated might find fresh IkhUcs for their reception. We know no case in which a king 
is sacrificed to release the god whom he incarnates, and we know no instance of the 
vearly slaying (let alone sacrifice) of a king. Nobody would take the billet, in the 
circumstances, and no dynasty, no country, would endure such a proceeding. 


Algeria: Ethnography. Capart. 

On the "Libyan Notes" of Messrs. Randall- Mae Iver and Wilkin. By Jean QQ 
Capart, conservateur-adjoint du Musee de Bruxelles. HO 

Les deeouvertes des deru teres annces en Egypte ont ouvert aux chercheurs un 
nouveau champ d'ohservations d'une fecondite extraordinaire non seulement pour 
l'etude de 1'antique Egypte mais aussi pour les recherches relatives a la pn'histoire 
de tous les peuples rcediterraneens. 

II semble ressortir de tous les travaux publics jusqu'a Pheure actuelle que le 
premier fond de la population de l'Egypte etait forme par des elements negres sur 
lesquels seraient venues se superposer des populations blondes si peau blanche dont 
le type se serait conserve assez pur par mi les berberes. A ces deux elements 
primordiaux il faudrait peut etre en ajonter un troisieme, Boschimaus, Hottentots. 
Dans quelle proportion ? A quel moment de la periode prehistorique ? Cela serait 
difficile a preciser. L'entree ulterieure des families semitiques en Egypte se fit-elle 
en une ou plusieurs invasious ? L'hypothese d'invasious successive* pennet trait 
d'expliquer beaucoup de faits encore obscurs mais n'est pas encore prouvee d'une 
manure suffisaute. Ce qui para it certain, e'est que les envahisseurs egyptiens vinrent 
du pays de Fount sur la cote orientale de TAfrique. 

On avait etc profondement frappe des le d£but par les analogies norabreusea que 
Ton constatait entre les prehistoriques Egyptiens et les modernes Kabyles ; notam- 
meut les procedes de fabrication et de decoratiou des poteries semblaient irientiques 
de part et d'autre. 

II etait done hautement desirable de voir quelqu'un au courant des etudes 
prehistoriques egyptiennes entreprendre un voyage d'etudes scientifiques dans le 
do amine des peuples de race libyenne. 

[ 84 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 69. 

Cctte tache a etc assumee par deux savants anglais, David Raudall-Maclver et 
Anthony Wilkin. 

Le premier est deja suffisamment connu par ses travaux fails sous la direction du 
savant explorateur anglais Fliuders Petrie. Peu de temps avant le voyage, M. Maclver 
avait presente a l'lustitut Anthropologique de Grande Bretagne, uu important travail 
dans lequel il coucluait a Tidentite des prehistoriques egyptiens et des Libyens, chorchant 
par la, comme il le disait en commencant sa communication, a montrer l'aidc important 
que Tauthropologie pouvait apporter a l'archeologie. Aujourd'hui, le voyage terminc, 
et les resultats mis en ordre, les auteurs ont change d'avis, et, remarquons-le immediate- 
meut, uniquement en se basant sur leurs nouvelles mensurations : ce qui peut a bou 
droit iious rendre suspects, dans le cas present, les services de Tauthropologie. Leur 
appui sera it en effet immense s'il vena it confirmer toutes les autres dounces qui sont si 
coucluantes a mon avis qu'il faut bien admettre qu'une cause quelconque est venue 
vicier les resultats des mensurations. Cette cause ue serait-elle pas a chercher unique- 
ment dans l'espace de temps cnorrae qui separe nos prehistoriques egyptiens des modernes 
kabyles, e'space de temps qui a permis et favorise bien des melanges ? 

Ou seut au cours du livre combien MM. Maclver et .Wilkin sont genes par les 
resultats. 11 leur est necessaire a chaque pas de parler de rapports de commerce tntenses 
ou de recourir a certaiues subtilitcs pour expliquer les analogies de coutumc. 

La question est encore si peu mure, taut de documents de premiere necessite font 
defaut (par exemple des fouilles mcthodiques dans le nord de PAfrique a ce point de vue 
special) qu'il est dangereux de se prouoneer aussi categoriquement que le font les auteurs. 
Je regrette qu'ils ue se soient pas coutentes de donner au public savant le compte rendu 
de leur exploration avec la masse enorme de precicux documents qu'elle a fait couuaitre, 
sans chercher pour eela a decider la question du " Libyen ou non " des prehistoriques 

II serait temeraire sinon iusense apres la critique qui precede de vouloir a mon tour 
essayer de tirer une couclusiou quelconque des documents rapportes par MM. Maclver 
et Wilkin ; cependant je pense utile de resumer ici quelques unes des questions traitees 
par les auteurs en p renant I'hypothcse coutraire a la leur. 

Cette hypothese n'est pas nouvelle et e'est a quoi etait arrive des 1861, Pruner-bey 
a la tin de ses recherches sur rancieune race egyptieuue. Voici comment le docteur 
Ah bate -pacha rcsumait la question dans le bulletin de l'institut egyptieu 1882: u Ne 
" trouvant du cote de l'Orietit que des incertitudes, l'auteur se tourue vers TOccideut ; 
44 il compare le type avec celui de la race libyque ou berbere, et cette fois la ressemblance 
44 lui parait complete." 

Plus recemment le professeur hergi, exposaut ses idees sur les habitants primitifs 
de la Med i terra nee pensait qu'une grande famille humaine, " les Ibero-Liguro-Libyeus 
avail precede dans le bass in de la Med iter ranee les races semitiques et aryennes. Les 
Iberes, les Sicules et les Ligures preseuteraient en effet les memes elements ethniques. 
Le professeur Sergi demontre ensuite par Taualyse morphologique des cranes des anciens 
Egyptiens, que ceux-ci possedeut beaucoup de caracteres communs aux peuples de 
rOuest de la Med iter ranee dout il vient d'etre fait mention. Les anciens egyptiens 
seraient done des Libyens. En resume les recherches de notre coufrere, dit le baron de 
Loe a qui j'emprunte ce resume, etabliraient Texisteiice depuis un temps immemorial 
d'une famille humaine mediterraneeune composee de plusieurs varict£s." 

Specialement au point de vue egyptieu, la memc hypothese est soutenue par 
M. Dcniker dans son recent ouvrage sur les peuples et les races de la terre. 

Quelle aura it etc la langue de cette population medi terra ueenne ? Une serie de 
dialectes l»erberes, s'il est permis d'einployer ce terme dans le scus etendu de la sorte 
Cette langue s'ecrivait au raoyen de signes que nous retrouvons dans Talphabet libyen. 
Les decouvertes de Evans et de Petrie ne montrenUelles pas a Tevidence Temploi de 

[ « ] 

1901.] MAN. pTo. 60. 

ces c&ractcres en Crete, en Asie Mineure (Carie), en Egypte, en Espagne, alors qu'on lea 
avait deja rencontres depuis la peniusule sinaitique jusqu'aux iles Canaries sur tout le 
littoral africain et ineme a ce qu'il parait, sur les dolmens pyrcu'ens. Cela n'explique- 
rait-il pas eu merae temps les aualogics frappantcs que Ton a constateos entre l'ancien 
egyptien et le berbere (voir notammeut Tarticle capital de Rochemonteix que MM. Mac- 
Iver et Wilkin ne citent pas), entre l'ancien egyptien et le basque, ce qui avait ton jours 
paru un brillant paradoxe. Les auteurs cousidcrent la chose jugee relativement aux: 
rapports eutre l'egyptien et le Where eu s'appuyaut sur l'autorite du professeur Erman 
qui a declare qu'il rcgardait l'ancien egyptien comine une langue semitique. La chose 
u'est pas encore aussi claire qu'on pourrait le croire et je suis heureux de pouvoir uoter 
ici la protestation de M. Maspero contre ce qu'il appelle u la semitisation a outrance de 
44 la langue et de la population egyptien nes." 

La mcme aire est caraeterisee par une serie de monuments uppeles dolmens, qui se 
moutreut extremement uombreux sur la cote africaiuc mais qu'on a rencontres un peu 
partout sur le pourtour de la Mediterranee. Les auteurs out explore un certain immbre 
de cercles de pierres avec dolmen et apres avoir discutc d'uno maniere extremement 
iuteressante les difterentes liy]K>tlieses cpii ont surgi a leur propos, constatent qu'il est 
de la plus haute signification de remarquer qu'on n'a pas trouve trace de semblables 
constructions eu Egypte, alors qu'ellcs sont si frequeutes en Algeric. Cela leur permet 
de faire les reflexions suivantes : "Nous avons vu qu'il existe de telles coincidences 
44 entre !a plus anciennc population des deux contrees qu'elles peu vent etre seulenient 
44 expliquces en supposant ou bien qu'il y avait entre elles des rapports continuels et 
44 etroits ou bien que les populations de Tune et de l'autre etaient identiques. Mais, 
44 ajoutent ils, si les peuples primitifs montrent de la tenacite dans leurs traditions 
44 artistiques, ils sont encore beaucoup plus tenaces dans leurs coutuuies funeraires. 
44 Comment se fait il que les Egyptiens, s'ils etaient libyeus de race n'aient jamais fait 
44 usage de dolmeus ou de cercles ? La coutume funeraire des libyeus les rapproche des 
44 auciennes races europeeuues et des Amorites en Syrie, mais les isole complctemeut des 
44 habitants de TEgypte a quelque periode que ce soit, soit ancieune, soit recente." 

L'argument preseute de la sorte ne manque pas d'une certaino vigueur ; si de 
part et d'autre de I'Egypte, chez les Amorites et chez les Libyeus nous trouvons le 
mcme systeme de sepulture sans le reucontrer en Egypte, ce serait la un pheuoinene 
embarrassant a expliquer. Heureusemeut qu'il n'en est pas ainsi et que nous 
connaissons pour le momeut deja au moms un cercle de pierres avec dolmen, 
du plus beau type saharien qu'il se puisse imaginer. II a etc decouvert il y a 
plusieurs aunees deja dans le desert pre* d'Edfou dans la Haute Egypte par M. 
Lcgraiu dont le dessin a etc public dans la livre de M. de Morgan sur les Origines de 

II n'a malheureusement pas etc fouille jusqu'a present et nous ne savona pas 
si comine dans les dolmens de 1' Algeric ou dans les sepultures prehistoriques des 
Balearcs, pour ne citer que cet exemple, les corps etaient places dans la position 
embryonaire ; mais ce qui est certain, e'est que cette position est celle de la plupart 
des tombes prehistoriques d'Egypte. 

Le conteuu de ces tombes est extremement iuteressant. A cote des nombreuses 
poteries se trouvent des instruments en silex aux formes les plus variees. Je no 
veux pas m'attarder ici a rappeler les analogies de formes qu'ils presenteut en Egypte, 
eu Libye ou ailleurs ; je me contenterai de citer les formes des silex decrits par le 
K. J'. GermerDurand et decouverts eu Palestine, ceux si noinbreux qu'on trouve eu 
quantite dans le Sahara, notamment a Ouargla et a El-Ciolea, enfin, ce qui est plus 
frappant pour nous, l'ideutitc qui existe eutre les formes et les procedes d'extraction du 
silex a Wadi el Sheikh (decouvertes de Setou Karr) et a Spicuues en Belgique. 

L'etude de la ceralnique n'est pas moius iuteressante et les auteurs dee 44 Libyan 

L" 86 1 


1901.] MAN. [No. 69. 

Notes " concluent dod seulement a 1'ideutite de formo et de decoration mais aussi a 
1'ideutite de precedes. Notons que pour re rid re compte do toutes les varietes do poteries 
encore en usage aujourd'hui eu Kabylie ils sont obliges d'aller chercher leurs analogues 
dans l'Egy pte prehistorique, dans Tile de Chypre, dans les Terramares do Tltalie et 
dans les tombes de Sicile. 

Differentes tombes egyptiennes nous ont fait connaitre aussi un certain uombre de 
petitcs figurines de femmes preseutaut des particularites extrcmement curieuses que les 
fouilles de M. Piette dans les grottes de Brassempouy au sud de la France nous ont 
fait egalement retrouver. 

Nous en arrivons ainsi a parler des traces de coutumes religieuses. L'une d'elles 
retrouvee aujourd'hui encore dans PAurcs est celle relative au bucraue qu'on a constatee 
deja tant de fois sur des monuments archaiques egyptiens sans qu'on paraisse y avoir 
attache* grande importance, et qui me parait memo citee dans les textes des py ram ides. 

Les auteurs du livre nous parlcnt egalement de la deesse Neith qui serai t d'origine 
lihyeiine, ce qu'ils ne veuleut du reste pas ad met t re. lis auraient pu nous dire qu'un des 
rois de la premiere dynastie de convert par Petrie a Abydos, porte Ic curieux nom de 
Meri-Xcith, aimc de la deesse Neith. 

Un passage du livre nous parlc trop brievement, a mon avis, des procedes do culture 
des berl>cres, sur lesquels M. 1 1 amy vieut de nous douner des details fort iuteressants 
parmi lesquels je tieus a en rclever un specialcment : on trouvc, dit le savant cthuographe, 
en Berberie des pierres qui ressemblent a des socs. " Le Musee d'ethuographie posscde 
" un specimen dc cct ustensile eu pierre demi-poli, recueilli nagucre par Largeau dans le 
" sud algenen." Or on a trouvl assez receinment a HieVaconpolis des silex tallies d'une 
grandeur cxtraordiuaire qui nc sont, eux aussi je pense, que de* socs de charrue. 

Ce ue sont la que quelques rapides notes de lecture sur lesquolles je me hasarde a 
attirer Fatten tion des savants autorises, en recherchaut pour terminer si l'hypothcse 
de prehistoriques libyens en Egypte s'accorde avec ce que l'histoire d'Egypte nous 

Un des plus ancieus documents ecrits deeou verts par Petrie a Abydos, une tablet te 
en ivoire commemoraut une fete d'un roi dc la premiere dynastie fait meutiou d'un chef 
de Libyens. D 'autre part, les chroniqueurs nous montreut dans le premier roi d'Egypte, 
Menes, un conquerant vainqueur des Libyens tandis qu'au debut de la deuxiemo dynastie 
le sort dc TEgypte parait en danger par une invasion de Libyens qui ue sont vaincus 
que grace a la terreur que leur cause une eclipse. 

Sous 1'aucieu empire, nom b re uses sont les mentions de luttes contre les Libyens et il 
ire scmblc que la scene de guerre trouvee par Petrie a Deshasheh represente la defaite 
d'un corps de Libyens par les Egyptiens. Faut-il rappeler le role joue peudaut toute la 
duree dc l'histoire de l'Egy pte par les incursions de Libyens ? N'y avait-il pas ainsi 
que nous le dit Mariettc des Libyens ctablis encore a I'Occideut du Delta jusqu'a 
IVpoque modcrue " etablis a Rbacotis des I'origine." 

Ce qui parait ressortir de l'eusemble est ou bien que les prehistoriques Egyptiens 
etaient par la plupart des Libyens, ou bien, qu'au moment de Fen tree des egyptiens 
pharaouiques en Egypte les Libyens etaient sur le poiut eux aussi d'envahir 1'Egypte 
qu'ils entouraieut depuis I'Occideut du Delta jusqu'eu haute Nubie ou encore sous la 
sixieme dyuastie on counaissait le champ des Libyens. Dans ce cas, les Pharaons pour 
assurer leur pouvoir sur les rives du Nil dureut combat tie les indigenes et repousser en 
meme temps I'invasion libyeune. L'hypothese est plus simple si les Libyens formaient 
le fouds de la population eu Egypte. 

Un point que les auteurs sem blent avoir laisse de cote dans leurs comparaisous 
anthropologiqucs est que les Egyptiens prehistoriques libyens ou autres etaieut fortement 
nicies a la race uegre. lis auraient pu nous dire ce que douue actuellemeut le melange 
libyeu et uegre. 

[ »• ] 



[Nos. 69-70. 

Nuu . la fin ik woa >■ pas irouvees 

mule ^ ] tio 111 lihyeoiu <- les 

'IIMIlL'llt. p. |(K 

■ I 'nvnir 60 i|u< I lotudl i li liuUte * 

qui malgriS ce q 

■ |jin> Ifl manure tin livre eapital iptl ttlira uil notanninnt lc nuTil' 

mr sou i £i italde i JI 

l\s,— J< li- . jM.ui ji inn- u- points <! 11 * 

. ;. V7o Vo/ 

■ li p, n hint hi (•< <!. - I 

• le. 

Greece : Prehistoric. 

Pn -M*fk* iftKtn Athens, r. John L, llyree, M,A„ K.s,A. 

— D 


It i nee I noted on the south side of i of lU 

_ v t l j • uiv settlement underlying the fragments of l£j 

wait* which lie in the open space behind the 
back wall of Hi. Stofl of Eumeues, between the 

I IdeiOD of II' ttlCUl OS Hie We0< and the 

Aeklepteion and the Diooysiac Theatre on the 
east* But it is only because I have failed 
hitherto i<» find any reference i" these remains 

in any of the current ■■renee tliat I 

venture i<» put on record what must have beeo 
risible to ferj manj students of antiquity, and 
viiv likely has escaped record rely becauen 

il was par 

The whole of I i.iN>\v the steep 

Pace of the Akropolis, and between the 
Odeioa siinl i he Asklopioion, was cleared of 

debrit dowil to the ruck :M I he same linn ati 

Mm reel of i In south side <*l" the hill ; Ijiu very 

buildinga or monumental were found either of Hellenic or Grssco*Roaiau date. There 

i, however, numerous fragments of bouee^waUfl oflfykensBan date, and these are fully 

i hi on the rurrenl ground plan- of the site. What lias not, however, been noted is^ 

thai these walk themselves stand upon n di>tmet layer ot •'made-earth," which must be 

rllei date, and Is, in fact, full of the d&bnti of :« very much more primitive settlement, 

pre-Mykenfeau Btrel is in some nb i metre in depth; hut as 

its - appears to bare been ignored during the excavation, the onlj rem 

of ii now ai*' the narrow itripe on which the Mykemeau walls standi and I 
i\ attenuated by the anion of the weather. 

Still, enough remains to give a general idea of the chsjracter of the settlement, 
which tolonga, to ill appearance, to the end of the Neolithic Age, or, perhaps, to the 
ginning of ihe Bronze Age, and is comparable in many reepecti of in culture 
to the "Second Town*' in the far finer series at Hia&arHk. The made-earth Already 
mentioned is full Of fragments of rough, hand-made, unpaiiited pottery, made of the 
dark uiiluvigated mml of the Hisses valley, full of fragments of the local schists ; not 

of (In iiwnv and much lesti gritty fluv of tli« Ivrraincikos and the KephlM&OS valley, on 
side of tht lb ol Allien-. Then are alM> rare frugineuU of a light~coloured 

[ *8 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 70-71. 

ware, more like the clay of the Kcrameikos, one of which showed traces of lustreless 
brown paint ; but it was not quite clear to me iu some cases whether these had not 
slipped down from the Mykeiia^an layer, where light-coloured and painted fragments of 
various fabrics abound. The pre-Mykeurean layer yields also fragments of ashes and 
cinders, and of animal bones, together with obsidian flakes, and occasional rubbed 
pebbles, which may have been potter's burnishers. That the pots were made near the 
site is also clear from their composition, aud from the presence in one of them of a 
fragment of worked obsidian, which does not occur in situ in the Ilissos valley, or, 
indeed, in Attica at all. Similar very rude pottery is to be found on the surface 
on the east face of the Mouseion Hill, and on the unexcavated west slope of the 

Vessels of " Hissarlik " types are already known from the excavations on the 
Akropolis itself ; but it is a distiuct point gained to know that iu primitive, as in 
Myketueau times, there was a regular settlement under cover of that natural fortress ; 
more especially when it is remembered that the plot of grouud in which both have been 
found is commonly identified with the " Pelasgikon " or " prehistoric site " which is 
mentioned by Thucydides (II., 17) as a tabu-plot of uncanny waste in the heart of fifth- 
century Athens. It is, perhaps, worth noting further that immediately above the l>est 
preserved bits of Mykctiftan wall are the worst ravages of that "quarrying in the 
Pelasgikon," which had to be forbiddeu in the fifth century by the well-known 
Eleusiuian Psephisma (Ditteuberger, Sylloge, 13). 

The photograph shows oue of the best-preserved sections of the stratum in 
question. The letter A iu the margiu marks the surface of the hard red rock of the 
Akropolis ; B, the upper surface of the pre-Mykena3au layer ; C, the fragmentary 
Mykcnwan wall, with bits of Mykemeau pottery in the crannies ; I), the steep face of 
the Akropolis, with the fifth ceutury fortress- wall above the Asklepieion, iu the 
background. J. L. MYRES. 

Malta: Prehistoric. Myres. 

Prehistoric Pottery in the Valletta Museum in Malta. By John L. Myres, ^M 
M.A., F.S.A. I I 

The vases which stand prominently in the centre of the photograph overleaf are 
said to have come from rock-tombs iu the Bengemma Hills iu the north-west part of 
Malta. They are composed of a rough native clay of dark colour, the result of the 
disintegration of the soft limestone of the island ; they are hand-made, aud they bear the 
warm red lnematitic surface with bright burnished lustre, which is common to so many 
early fabrics of pottery iu the Mediterranean coast-lands. 

The larger vessel, iu the lower part of the photograph is comparatively simple in 
form. The body is nearly spherical, slightly flattened for stability below ; the neck 
is wide, aud slightly expanded above, but without distinct rim : the handles are set ver- 
tically rather low down ou the body ; and there is a small ma mi I la on the shoulder half- 
way between them. The general type is well-kuowu among the early Bronze Age 
"red-ware"of Cyprus (Cyprus Museum Catalogue, PI. II., 194, 200, 206), but the 
particular form of this vase is not Cypriote : neither does it occur among the pre- 
dyuastic " red-ware " of Egypt (Petrie, Nagada and Ballas, passim), nor among the 
very scauty series from the Tunisian dolmens (Bardo Museum, unpublished), nor in 
the pottery of the Sicilian Bronze Age (Syracuse Museum : cf. Orsi, Quattro Aitni di 
Esplorazionc Siculc, passim). 

The composite vase on the upper shelf in the photograph is remarkable first for its 
fine technique aud for the perfection of its red surface, and then for its form. It consists 
of three high gourd-shaped vessels iu contact with each other below, and connected also 

[ 89 ] 



[Wo*. 71-72. 

above by a three-fold handle. Two of them are closed at the top by a conical roof, 
while the third is open and serves as a spout for the whole vessel. The modelling 

suggests at first sight both an Arab typo 
aud a well-known variety of the Kabyle 
pottery ; but the fabric and the proven- 
ance of this specimen leave no doubt as 
to its early date. Aud it is worth noting 
that the three great groups of Mediter- 
ranean redware — in Cyprus, in Kgypt, 
and iu modern Kabylia — agree in au 
inclination both to the use of gourd forms 
and to the construction of composite aud 
fantastic vases. 

The tombs in the Bengemma Hills, 
from which these vessels aud other frag- 
ments iu the Valletta Museum are Haiti 
to have come, are small rock-cbaml>ers 
hewn in the precipitous sides of a narrow 
ravine, which resemble very closely lxith 
the rock- tombs of south-eastern Sicily 
(Orsi, I.e. pp. 10.5, 117 = Bull, di Paletn. 
/////., XVII., pp. 59, 71) and those of 
Chaouach near Medjez-el-Bab in Tunis. 
Scattered over the narrow cultivated 
terraces iu front of the tomb-doors in the Bengemma ravine are many fragments, 
both of the coarser red-faced ware exemplified in the vessels described above, 
and also of a finer-grained, gypseous, smoky, drab-coloured ware, which takes a finer 
polish, and is occasionally ornamented with roughly-incised dots aud line*. Both kinds 
of ware, it should be noted, are common also in and round the megalithic monument of 
Giganteia in the neighbouring island of Gozo, and present close parallels to the early 
burnished fabrics of the Sicilian rock-tombs. The tombs of the Bengemma Hills, which 
are described in Dr. Cariiaua's valuable work on the tombs of Malta, are mostly of later 
dates, and the record of the discovery of the vessels under review is sadly defective in 
detail. Enough, however, has, I thiuk, been said to indicate the importance of this 
fragmentary evidence of an early stage of culture in Malta and the need of more careful 
investigation of the Bengemma site. J. L. MY RES. 

Africa, South. Native Races Committee. 

The Natives of South Africa ; their Economic and Social Condition. Edited ■■!% 
by the South African Native Races Committee. Loudon. John Murray, 1901, I /L 
XV., 360 pp. 12.v. net. 

No more complete vindication of the course taken last summer by the Anthro- 
pological Institute and the Folklore Society, in presenting a joint memorial to II. M. 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, praying for a commission to enquire iuto tbe 
condition of the native races of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, could 
be wished for than this instructive book. It has been prepared by a committee repre- 
senting all shades of political and religious opinion. It is written in a calm and 
matter-of-fact way, aiming at putting the readers in possession of accurate information, 
rather thau at making any rhetorical appeal. Indeed, rhetoric and passiou are markedly 
absent throughout, aud every effort seems to have been made to arrive at accuracy. 

[ 90 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 72. 

Commencing with a general sketch of the native races, their laws, customs, and 
daily life, and an estimate of the native population of the various states composing what 
is now British South Africa, the Committee proceed to render an account of the existing 
administration of native affairs. This administration differs in different territories. 
Some of the territories are ours by right of conquest, others we hold as a protectorate hy 
invitation of the chiefs and people. In the former case, reserves or locations are 
provided for the natives ; in the latter, the eutire territory belongs to them. The case 
of Basutoland is peculiar. Though a Crowu Colony, the whole country is reserved 
for the natives, no white man being allowed to settle there, save officials, missionaries, 
and traders. 

From this preliminary statement of facts necessary to the understanding of the 
following chapters, the Committee pass to an exposition of the important questions 
forming the main subject of the book. Laud tenure, the labour question iu its various 
phases, the pass laws, education, taxation, the franchise, and the liquor laws are 
successively reviewed. While much of the material here brought together is of interest 
rather to the statesman than to the anthropologist, the difficulties arising from the 
clash of cultures, and the modification and gradual defecation of native customs and 
beliefs under the influence of civilization are subjects of importauce to the scientific 
student ; and they here receive abundant illustration. The appendix, which ought by 
no means to be overlooked, contains a selection from the replies of correspondents to 
whom questions were addressed by the Committee. It may be regarded as a series of 
samples of the raw material from which much of the substance of the book has been 

Although the Committee have thus brought together a considerable mass of facts 
and opiuions, they themselves recognise its deficiencies. In their final chapter they say : 
u This statement of conclusions and suggestions is made with diffidence, aud with full 
consciousness of the incompleteuess of much of the material available." And they 
appeal to the Government to institute in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony 
" a systematic investigation of the special needs of the natives now brought directly 
under Imperial control," In August last, at the very time when the joint memorial of 
the Anthropological Institute and the Folklore Society was presented, they addressed to 
the Colonial Secretary a representation pressing the desirability of a thorough investi- 
gation of native questions, aud praying for an authoritative enquiry into the laws, 
customs, and land tenure, the tribal system, and other specified matters which are dealt 
with in these pages. As an expression of opinion on the part of men well qualified to 
judge, who have approached ihe subject from the practical side, it may be regarded as 
strong confirmation of the opinion expressed from the scientific side in the joint 
memorial. We may reasonably hope that when the proper time arrives, Mr. Cham- 
berlain will favourably consider the representations, and that the terms of appoiutment 
of any Commission may l>e sufficiently wide to add to our knowledge of the natives in 
directions beyond those which may appear necessary for the immediate purposes of 
government. There is still much to be ascertained before even the best known tribes 
can be said to be thoroughly understood. With some of the tribes we are hardly 
acquainted at all. Among these may be noted, as of special interest, the pigmy 
Vaalpens, the remains of what are said to be " the true al>origines," who live in small 
and scattered communities in the northern parts of the Transvaal aud the Bechuaualand 

Tliree maps, giving the distribution and density of population in Cape Colony and 
Natal, are inserted ; but no attempt is made to show the distribution of the native 
tribes. E. S. HARTLAJSD. 

f 91 ] 

190L] MAN. [No* 78-74. 

; Africa : Masai. Hinde. 

The Masai Language, Grammatical Note* % with a Vocabulary. Compiled HfO 
by Ilildegarde Iliudc, 1901. Cambridge University Press. 8vo., pp. ix., 75. ff O 
Price 3*. 6d. 

This pretty little volume is an addition to our knowledge of au African language 
brought up to date, and to be depended upon, as derived from original sources. In fact, 
the authoress dwelt two years in the region, aud caught the words, as it were, from the 
lips of a barbarous tribe. 

Anyone, who has the least acquaintance with East Africa, must have heard of 
Masai-land ; it is a small narrow regiou which extends from the southern boundary of 
Galla-land, north of the Equator, due south to a certain point south of the Equator, 
where it is surrounded by different portions of the region occupied by the great Bautu 
race, who spread over South Africa from the Equator to the Cape of Good Hope, aud 
some of the tribes speak magnificent vernaculars. 

The Masai tribe is quite distinct from the Bantu, and their language is classed by 
competent scholars in a small group called " Nuha-Fulah," a classification which may 
conveniently be retained for the present, though open to modification hereafter. Oue 
thing is clear, that the languages provisionally grouped in the Nuba-Fulah group have 
no connection with the Semitic, Ilamitic, Negro, or Bantu languages, which surround 
them, though, |>ossibly, loan-words may have crept into the mouths of barbarians from 
contact with their more highly-civilised neighbours. 

The railway from the port of Mombasa on the eastern coast to U-Ganda on the 
great equatorial lake, passes through Masai-laud, and this may prove a forerunner of 
permanent settlements, increased culture, and more abundant means of existeuce of this 
tribe ; and no doubt this meritorious little volume will prove the forerunner of a more 
solid grammar and dictionary, and some texts in print. No portion of the Bible has yet 
been translated and printed in the Masai language, but as there are missionaries in the 
neighbourhood this may be expected. 

The lauguage is briefly noticed at page lol of Vol. I. of my Modern Languages 
of Africa, published by Messrs. Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, as far back as 1883 ; hut 
eveu at that period a certain amount of literature existed, which J quote in the Appendix, 
Bibliography, of my volume, notably a vocabulary by Erhardt, which is noticed in the 
preface of the volume before us. A great deal more has to be done, and the sooner that 
it is done the better. The authoress of this Grammatical Note would greatly aid the 
future grammarian, whom we expect, if she could publish stories and conversations of a 
simple and genuine kind, taken down iu the very words of each speaker. 

The chapters of this book are : 1. Grammatical Notes ; II. Verbs ; III. Phrases ; 
IV. Salutations ; V. Vocabulary. R. N. CUST. 

Africa : Soudan. Chantre. 

Lcs Bicharivh el les Ababdch. Par M. Ernest Chautre. Lyons, 1900. -■ m 

M. Chantre is a diligent worker in some of the more obscure fields of anthro- f ^ 
pology. After exploring a great part of South-western Asia, he has now turned his 
attention to North-east Africa, and iu this monograph gives us a succinct account of the 
Bishari and the Ababdehs, two of the more important members of the Beja Ilamitic 
family. These hail already been carefully studied by Munziger, Almgorist, Sergi, and 
several other observers, so that there was not very much new to be said about them. 
Some useful anthropometric tables, however, are given of various groups visited by the 
author, who agrees with his predecessors that these, like all the other Bejas, are from 
the ethnical standpoint mere varieties of the same primitive race which constitutes the 
so-called "Ethiopie" (Eastern) branch of the Hamitic division. Uufortunately, with 

[ <J2 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Wos. 74-75. 

them are again included the Barahra or Nubians of the Nile Valley, who are not 
Uamites with a Negro strain, but Negroes with a Hamitic strain. This is clearly to be 
inferred from their speech, which, as shown by Lepsius {Nubischc Grammatik), is not 
Ilamitic, but closely related to the Negro language still current amongst the Xubas of 
Kordofau. The point requires to be all the more insisted upon, since in Die Flexion des 
jEgyptischen verbums Professor Erin in has recently revived the old error of regarding 
the language of the Nile Nubians as an independent form of speech, like Basque, 
unrelated to any other known idiom, and suggesting that we have here the original 
tongue of the primitive Egyptians before they were Semitized by early intruders from 
Asia. The Egyptians were never " Semitized " iu pre-Mnhammedan timer-, and their 
ancient Hamitic language has not the remotest connection with that of the Nile Nubians, 
which is itself not isolated " like Basque," but a distinct branch of the Nuba tongue 
widely diffused amongst the tribes of pronounced Negro type, whose cradle is to be 
sought in the uplands of South Kordofan. For details see my Ethnology of Egyptian 
Sudan. A. H. KEANK. 

Proceedings. Soc. d'Antlir. de Paris. 

Sommaires des procts-rerbaux des Stances de la SociStt d' Anthropologic de ^ir 
Paris. Janvier— Mai, 1900. f 

Seance du 3 Janvier 1901. — Discours de M. Yves Guyot, President sortant. 
Discours de M. le Docteur Chervin, President entrant. M. Diamanti : Experiences do 
calcul mental et de memoire visuelle. Discussion : MM. Laborde, Herv6, Atgier, 
Letourneau, Manouvrier, Azoulay, de Mortillet, Papillault et Volkov. 

Stance du 17 Janvier 1901. — M. Adrien de Mortillet presente des baches de bronze. 
M. Meyer presente un buste ditde la femme d'Anveruiers, lacde Neuchatel, inodele d'apres 
un crane de l'6poque neolithique, sur les indications de M. lc Professeur Dr. Kollmanns 
de Bale, par le Sculpteur Buchli. Discussion : MM. Manouvrier, Hcrve, Papillault, 
de Mortillet, Regnault, Zaborowski, Garnaud, Block. M. le Dr. Danjou envoie des 
cranes de Madagascar. M. Mac quart lit un memoire sur la diminution du tanx de la 
natalite francaise. Discussion : MM. Zaborowski, Regnault, Herve, D urn out, Yves 
Guyot, de Mortillet. M. le Dr. Garnaud fait uue communication sur le livre de Struck : 
" Le Sang et le Crime Zituel." M. Mathews communique un memoire sur des fouilles 

Stance, du 7 fevrier 1901. — Compte-rendu de la visite de la Societe an Musee 
Guiraet. M. le Dr. Atgier presente deux sujets : Tun acrocephale, Tautre scaphoc£phalc. 
Discussion : MM. Manouvrier, Papillault, Herve. M. Adrien de Mortillet montre des 
photographies de Sakalaves. M. le Dr. Godin lit un memoire sur Tinfluence de la 
gymnastique sur la croissance des differentes parties du corps : Discussion. M. le 
Dr. Garnaud lit un memoire sur les origines et le sens de la circoncision : Discussion. 

Seanee du 21 fevrier 1901. — M. Sanson presente des photographies de bceufs 
geants. M. Beauvais adresse d'inteVessantes photographies du sud de la Chine. M. le 
Dr. Atgier presente un sujet scaphocephaly M. le Dr. Regnault lit un memoire sur la 
transformation de l'indice c£phalique. Discussion : MM. Zaborowski, Anthony, Atgier, 
Block. M. Thieullen commence la lecture d'un memoire sur les pierres figures. 

Stance du 7 tnars 1901. — M. le Dr. Regnault preseute un crane hydrocephale. 
M. Yauville fait don de vases etrusques, gaulois et merovingiens. M. Thieullen 
termine la lecture de son memoire sur les pierres figures. M. le Dr. Azoulay commence 
la' lecture d'un memoire sur le mode de constitution d'un mus£e pbonograpbique, 

[ 93 \ 

190L] MAN. ClTo. 70. 

M. Vase hide lit un memoire stir le reve propheiique. Mllo. Pel lc tier communique une 
note sur Pindico cubique cranien. 

Stance du 14 mars 1901. — Le President annonce la presence de M. le Baron 
Andrian, de Vienne, et de M. Brabrook, de Londres. MM. les Drs. Hickmet et 
Regnault communiquent une note sur le recrutement des eunuques du harem de 
Constantinople. Discussion : M. le Baron Andrian, Zaborowski, Atgier. M. le Dr. 
Adolphe Block lit un memoire sur la transformation d'une race de couleur foncee en 
une race blanche. Discussion : MM. Deniker, Zaborowski, Atgier, Regnault, Verneau, 
Manouvrier, Herve. M. Laville* communique le resultat de ses fouilles dans des depots 
neolithiques et infra-neolitiques stratifies de la vallee de la Seine. Discussion : MM. 
Fourdrignier, A. de Mortillet, Vauville, Marty. 

Seance du 4 arril 1901. — M. le Dr. Dore fait don an musee de cranes provenant da 
CimetuVe de Saint-Germain des Pres. M. (liraux presentc des photographies de 
Menhirs et do Dolmens des environs de Paris : Dolmens de la Pierre Turquoise, de Trye 
chateau, de Boury, de la Justice et du Trou aux Anglais a Aubergenville, etc. M. le 
Dr. Azoulay acheve la lecture de sou memoire sur la constitution d'un musee phono- 
graphique. Discussion : MM. Fourdrignier, Letoumeau, Azoulay. M. le Dr. Verneau 
donne lecture du Rapport de la Commissiou char gee d'etudier les moyens de deVelopper 
des rapports scientifiques et amicaux avec les societes anthropologiques de la France et 
de retranger. Ce rapport est approuve. M. Deniker fait une communication sur les 
taches pigmeutaires de la region sacro-loml>aire. 

Seance du 18 avril 1901. — M. Adricn de Mortillet oflre des dessins et photographies 
provenant de l'exposition d'anthropologie de 1900. M. Duhousset rappelle ses com- 
munications de 1877 sur la circoncision des filles en Egypte. M. Lejeuue repoud a la 
communication de M. Vasehidc sur les reves prophetiques. M. Laville : Coupe de la 
carriere de Saint-Prest (Eure-et-Loir), silcx tailles. Discussion : MM. Sanson, d'Ault 
du Mcsnil, Verneau. M. le Dr. Adolpbe Block : L'houime prehistorique d'apres Buffon. 
M. Vaschide : Contribution a l'etude de la siguificatiou des reves. Discussion : MM. 
Azoulay, Papillault, Manouvrier, d'Echerac, Sausou, Fourdrignier, Vaschide. M. le 
Professcur Gustave Retzius fait connaitre les resultnts de Tenquete anthropometrique 
faite en Suede sur 45,000 consents. Discussion : MM. Verneau, Manouvrier. 

Seance du 2 mai 1901. — M. A. de Mortillet offre des photographies de nains. 
A I'occasion de la communication de M. Deniker, il signale uu cas de developpement 
pileux dans la region sacree chez un sujet feminiu. M. Fourdrignier presente de 
petits silex trouves avec MM. Nicaise et Morel, en 1876, a St. Martin-sur-Pr6 
(Marne). M. le President annonce : 1 qu'uue Excursion a Cbalons-sur-Marne, pour 
assister a des fouilles de tombes gauloises trouvees par M. Emile Schmit, sera faite 
dimanche prochain 5 courant ; 2° que la Conf6renee transformiste annuelle sera faite 
par M. Vinson, lc 18 mai sur la litterature et Tecriture dans Tlnde meridionale. 
M. Zalwrowski : Influences egyptiennes an Senegal et au Soudan. Discussion : MM. 
Verneau, Delisle, Garnault, A. de Mortillet, Herve, Fourdrignier, Zal>orowski. 
M. Azoulay : Le musee phonographique de la Soeiete d'Anthropologie. Discussion : 
MM. Letourneau, Vinson. M. Garnault : Les pretendus ex-Voto medieaux de 
TEgypte. Discussion : MM. Atgier, Regnault, Garnault. 

| Seance du 16 mai 1901. — Les Societes d 1 Anthropologic de Vienne et de Rome 

' acceptent de faire 1'cchange des sommaires des proces-verbaux et le principe d'un 

i anuuaire international des antbropologistes. La seance solenuelle de la soeiete aura 

' lieu le 18 juillet. M. de Mortillet rend compte de differentes excursions scientifiques 

faites depuis la derniere seance. M. Dubalen fait don d'iustruments en pierre proveiuiut 

du departement des landes. MM. Faivre et Cauderlier envoient des travaux pour les 

prix Godard et Bertillon. Une commission composee de MM. de Mortillet Otgier et 

t M ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 75-76. 

Tapie de C61eyran est ehargee ile r&liger des instructions a l 1 usage des fouilleurs. 
M. 1c Dr. Regoault oftre la photograph ie d'une femmc dc 53 ans ayant 2 nez et trois 
yeux. ' Discussion : MM. Herve, Mathias Duval, Anthony et Reguault. M. Laville : 
Quaternaire moyen dans le gypse de Montmaguy (S. & O.). 

Proceedings. Anthropological Institute. 

Ordinary Meeting, J an. 22, 1901. Mr. C. II. Read, F.S.A., President, in -yn 
the chair. The President announced from the chair the death of Her Majesty |Q 
Queen Victoria, and declared the meeting adjourned. 

Annual Meeting, Jan. 30, 1901. Mr. C. H. Read, F.S.A., President, in the chair. 
The Reports of the Treasurer and Council were read and adopted. The Officers and 
Council were duly elected for the year 1901-2. 

The President delivered his annual address, which will be found printed in full in 
the Journal of the Institute, Vol. XXXI., p. 1 ff., together with the Reports of the 
Treasurer and Council, and the official minutes of the meeting. 

Ordinary Meeting, Feb. 12, 1901. Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., President, in the 

The election was announced of Mr. Thomas Durnan, as a Fellow of the Institute. 

Mr. A. L. Lewis, Treasurer of the Institute, exhibited a number of photographs of 
Stonehenge, illustrating the recent fall of stones (cf. Man, 1901, 18) : and also a photo- 
graph of the well-known Tonga trilithon. Mr. Stopes pointed out the ease with which 
restorations of Stonehenge might be effected, and urged that representations should be 
made in the proper quarter. The President expressed the thanks of the meeting to 
Mr. Lewis for his exhibit. 

The Secretary reported recent accessions to the library of the Institute, and also 
the presentation by Dr. Eddowes of a series of slides illustrating a number of details of 
the construction of Stonehenge. Thanks were ordered to l>e returned to Dr. Eddowes 
and to the publishers and others who had presented l>ooks and pamphlets. 

Mr. \V. Rosenhain read a paper on " Malay Metal Work," which was illustrated by 
lantern slides and experiments. The paper was discussed by the President, Mr. Gowland, 
and Mr. Atkinson. The thanks of the Institute were ordered to be returned to Mr. 
Rosenhain for his paper, which will be printed in full in the Journal of the Institute, 
Vol. XXXI. 

Extraordinary Meeting, Feb. 25, 1901. Prof. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., President, iu 
the chair. 

Major-General Robiey presented to the Institute a drawing ef a Maori war-dance 
sketched at Le Papa, Tauranga, on December 2.5th, 1864. The thanks of the Institute 
were ordered to be returned to Major-General Robiey for his gift, which is exhibited in 
the library of the Institute. 

Mr. H. Ling Roth read a paper on " Maori Tatu and Moko," which was illustrated 
by lantern slides and drawings. The paper was discussed by Mr. Edge- Partington, 
Mr. C. H. Read and the President. The thanks of the Institute were returned to 
Mr. Ling Roth for his paper, which will l>e printed, with full illustration, in the Journal 
of the Institute, Vol. XXXI. 

Ordinary Meeting, March 12,1901. Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S, President, in the 

Professor II. Louis exhibited and described examples of the " Kingfisher type of 
Kris from the Malay Peninsula." The exhibit was discussed by Mr. Gowland and 

[ 95 ] 

190L] MAN - D*°- 78. 

the President, and the thanks of the Institute were ordered to Ik? returned to Professor 
Louis for his exhibit, which will he found described and illustrated in the Journal 
of the Institute, Vol. XXX., Miscellanea, No. 77, Plate I — J. 

Professor Victor Horsley, F.R.K., presented a communication from Rev. J. A. 
Crump, on " Trephining in the South Seas," and commented at leugth on the new 
material which ii contained. Three trephined skulls were exhibited, in illustration of 
the paper, by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, of the British Museum, to whom the Institute is 
indebted for the opportunity of discussing Mr. Crump's results. The paper was discussed 
by Professor Thane, Mr. Shrubsall, Dr. Garson, and the President, and will be printed 
in full in the Journal of the Institute, Vol. XXXI. 

Mr. J. Gray, B.Sc, described and exhibited kephalometric instruments devised by 
himself and kephalograms obtained by their means. The paper was discussed by 
Professor Thane, Dr. Carson, and the President, aud will be priuted in full in the 
Journal of the Institute, Vol. XXXI. 

The thauks of the Institute were ordered to be returned to the authors aud 
communicators of papers. 

Ordinary Meeting, April 23, 1901. Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., President, in the 

The President briefly commemorated the devoted services of the late Rev. James 
Chalmers, whose murder by head-hunting raiders was that day reported from N ew 

The election was announced of Dr. A. J. Chalmers, Mrs. Lala Fisher, Messrs. 
E. A. Preen, J. A. Travers, II. A. Rose, H. R. H. Hall, and C. Letts, as Fellows of 
the Institute. 

Mr. L. J. Shirley exhibited specimens of Neolithic implements from a site ou the 
Wiltshire border of Berkshire. The exhibit was discussed by the President and the 

Mr. Franklin White exhibited a number of stone implements from Rhodesia and 
photographs aud plans of ruins in that country. The paper was discussed by the 
Secretary and the President, aud will be printed with full illustration in the Journal of 
the Institute, Vol. XXXI. 

Communications were received from Rev. J. Roscoe, through Dr. J. G. Frazer, on 
" The Manners and Customs of the Baganda " ; and from Mr. S. II. Ray on " Folktales 
from the New Hebrides." These will be printed in full in the Journal of the Institute, 
Vol. XXXI. 

The thanks of the Institute were ordered to be returned to the authors and 
communicators of papers. 

Ordinary Meeting, May 14, 1901. Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., President, in the 

The election was announced of Dr. Bushel), C.M.G., Dr. Edridge Green, Dr. 
Mitchell, Mrs. Ballen, Mrs. Farquharson, Mr. Franklin White, Rev. II. V. Mills. 

Mr. R. Shelford exhibited a number of carved bamboos from Sarawak, and 
commented upon the elements of Dyak decorative art. 

Mr. MacDougall read a paper, by Mr. C. Hose and himself, on *' The Relations 
between Men and Animals in Sarawak." The paper was discussed by the President, 
Major Travers, Messrs. Biddulph Martin, Shelford, Gomme, and N. W. Thomas. 

The thanks of the Institute were ordered to be returned to the authors of these 
communications, which will be printed in full iu the Journal of the Institute, 
Vol. XXXI. 

Printed by Evkk and Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, Oast Harding Street, E.C, 

190L] MAN. [No. 77. 


With Plate G. 
Burma : Shan States. Balfour. 

A Spear-head and Socketed Celt of lironzr from the Shan States, Burma, ^^ 
Communicated by Henry Balfour, M.A., Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, I I 

Implements of forms referable to a Bronze Age in South-eastern Asia are of suflieiei.t 
rarity to justify the publication of the two example* shown in Plate G. These came 
to me through the kindness of Mr. II. Leveson, C.S., who obtained them from natives 
on the spot. The bronze spear head was procured by him in 1896 from a unlive who 
stated that it had been fouud by his father some thirty years previously in the bed of 
the Nam Lwi stream, a tributary of the Mekoug River, lat. 21° 20' N., long. 100° E. 
As the uative informed Mr. Leveson, it was believed to have descended with the 
lightning, and that it pierced deep into the ground, and " in the fulness of its time 
ascended to the view of man." It is interesting to Hud that this belief in a celestial origin, 
which is so commonly and universally associated with implements of a forgotten Stone 
Age, should be also held in regard to those of the Bronze Age, and it goes to prove a 
considerable antiquity to these bronze weapons, which have become surrounded with 
myth because their real nature and human origin has long passed out of memory. Its 
length is 6«j inches, and its width 1£ inches or a trifle more. As will be seen, it is leaf- 
shaped and socketed, the socket heiug produced in the casting and not hammered round. 
A portion of the socket has been broken away, so that the present length is less than its 
original length. The surface i* pitted considerably with small gas-vents formed in the 
casting. This spear-head is practically identical in form with many of the leaf-sha]>ed 
socketed bronze spear-heads of. Western Europe. 

The bronze celt was discovered in digging in the gravel bed of a stream called the 
Nam Pang, a tributary of the Nam Ilka stream, which runs into the Salween River on 
the left bank, lat. 22° 10' N., long. 99° 10 7 K. (Jold-washing operations are carried on 
in the Nam Pang bed, and it was thus that this bronze celt was fouud, together with a 
polished stone axe-head. It is a well-cast implement, and, although it resembles in form 
some of the socketed bronze celts of Western Europe, it presents at the same time minor 
peculiarities which give to it a local colouring. It is 3^ inches long, 2.\ inches wide, 
and weighs 3 ozs. 306 grs. The metal is somewhat thin, the cutting edge expanded 
and cresceutic. In transverse section the shape is fusiform, the two faces being convex 
and meeting to form edges at the sides. When viewed from one of the sides it is seen to 
be unsymmetrical, one face being considerably less convex than the other towards the 
cutting edge, in fact it is nearly flat at this part. This shape has the appearance of 
being iutentional, and the implement may have been designed for some special kind of 
work. On the obverse are three raised zig-zag lines runuing parallel to each other 
from the socket rim to a transverse line which forks at. the sides of the cell. 
The reverse is marked with a raised line following the contour of this shape : — |"""1 
There is a fine green patina over the surfaces. J \ 

Both spear-head and celt are now in the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. 

Dr. J. Anderson procured a socketed bronze celt in the Sandn Vailey, Yunan 
(c. 9S° E., 24° 40' X.), of a peculiarly specialized form, with oblique edge and winged 
sides. He mentions the rarity of these implements, and says that he paid 2/. 10* for 
his specimen, while for three otheis exactly similai he was asked .>/. each (" Hep. on 
Exped. to W. Yunan," 1871, p. 414, pi. V.). There are many copper and tin mines 
in Yunan, and these materials were brought in quantities thence to Mandalay and 
Momieo bv Chinese caravans. 

[ 97 ] 



[Nos. 77-78. 

Sir J. Evane mentions also an example of socketed cell from Ynnan in tlie British 

Museum, and From Cambodia, also a Bpenmen from Java which is in the Cabinet <>1 

Coins, Stuttgart. They appear to be vary rare, HENRY BALFOUB, 

Nomenclature : Glaze or Varnish. Myres. 

Note on tie Uieofthi Ward* " Slow?* 1 and H Varnish* in the Description *]{% 
&f Painted Pottery, Communicated l»v John L. Myres. |Q 

I- 1.1 1 noi 1 1 confusion appears to have arisen among students of ancient ceramics, end 
particularly of the early pot-fabrics of the Mediterranean, from the use of tlie term 
* varnish" <n " varm*h~pigmeul n bo describe such painted ornament as exhibit- ■ 
lustrous Burfaee after firing* 

Pot this kind of pigment, the prop*? term in English is pol M varnish M but M f/fa:e % " 

ami rhv use of the word "rnrftish" is iltm to an ill advised attempt to translate 

Literally the German M FiV*tt«-fea/£r<?t. r This (Jennnu term was, I believe, firel need by 
Drs, Furtweugler and Loeeehke, it* ilicir MykenUche Vdsen t published in Jsst), to 
denote the third and mosf highly finished group of their classification of tfykeni 
pottery; i<« contra-distinctlon u> the second and more primitive group, to which* bees 
its colours are powdery and lustreless, tin 'v gave the name o|' y/trtt-mttferoh 

Now Ffrtt&fin German appears to be rightly used, both (I) for those pigments which, 
aj in the ease of the Ifyketueaa pottery, contain enough Fusible matter to vitrify in the 
Bring and so bo acquire r permanent glassy lustre; sod also (2) for those which, like 
ordinary boaaepainters 1 colours, or the characteristic "Kahylc pnHery " of Algeria, 

made up with gummy or resi lb matter, which, while it soon dries hard and gl 

a lustrous appearance to the surface of the vessel) ii easily scratched or washed orT with 
turpentine or othei lolvenl of the [natrons gum ; and, if exposed to even a dull red 

heat, lanns away alioget her, leaving || M > pigment chaired, powdery, ami easy 1o rnh ofl". 

In French, also, the corresponding word rcruii seems I" be properly applied either 
to u fusible or to a resinous surface covering-. 

In English, mi the other hand, the word u var$rish H has become restricted in 
common use bo as to denote the gummy or resinous pigments only ; while for vitrified 
pigments English potters regularly use the word u glaze" or "glazed-pigment," which 
has i lie advantage of suggesting atonoe the idea of something (flan-like or vitreons, ami 
is not likely, in descriptions of pottery at all cwnts, to eeuse confusion with the various 
lustrous snhatltutes, inch as starch <n albumen, u* which this term is sometimes popularly 
applied. It will, therefore, save much confusion ami inconvenience if those who have 
oocastoo to describe pofrfabrici with tnstrous ornaments will confine their use of the word 
■ k varnish 9 * to gummy and resinoni pigments only \ and of the word "glaze" to vitreous 
pigments; reserving bl u lustrous generic term (as in mineralogy) for all 

pigments the surface of which throw hack the light at all, hut of which the specifically 

vitreous or resinous character is not clearly apparent] ami tlie words f< burnished H or 

"polished" foi bboae on the surface, or parts of the surface, of which a lustre has 

subsequently been brought out hy mechanical friction. The only objection, *o far as 

I am aware, to thii generic use of the term kl lustre n is that "lustre-ware" has bee 

a common phrase for certain meditavai glazed wares which exhibit what in mineralogy 

WOUld be termed ■ H mStailU lustte" Hut 1 do led ihink that in practice there would 

be any difficulty on this sea 

Three othei useful terms may, perhaps, b< suggested, in conclusion, to describe 
kindred processes of decoration, which do net fall under any of the Foregoing, buf are 
1 find, frequently liable to confusion with them. 

1, The term u sUp n to usually employed in its eorred technical sense (correspond* 
ing exactly with the French enduii and the German tithe t ■! m § ) of a ooattng of finely 
I. vi. applied to the whole surface of the vessel by dipping it in a hath of day- 

f 98 ] 



[Nos. 78-79. 

and-water of the oonsis tency of -Tram. But it in also sometimes incorrectly nsed to 
denote i ooloored tayer applied with a brush to large areas of (fan surface, so as to leave 

tlir gTOUnd-Oolour of the t'asti only ihowiftg in delimited panels. In thlfi OaSC Mm' 

coloured layei ig not a slip 1 1 1 1 1 a paint ox ///r/zc. ami should be described accordingly. 
It should he remembered, also, that many clay*, if left to stand, or, better, if rotated fore 
few moments on the wheel after being thrown into tin 1 desired form, are liable to 

exude sufficient creamy UtOiStUie in produce automatically a scry linn dl iposit of line 
clay nil over the surface, which, if it is of appreciable tin*- ! meet difficult to 

distinguish from a true slip. In describing Cypriote vases, among which this phenomenon 
is very frequent, I have usually Specified a* ha\ini tnirt slip" tbote rase* 111 

which the slip Ei of different composition oi origin from the clay t »f tin ressel tt-<!f, or 
in which it showed definite signs of having beeo applied by dtppin 

*l f Sometimes, however, a dilute clay, suefa as might V need foi a slip (usual!] 
highly coloured), is applied to the surface of b vessel by means of a rag w n wisp of 

- bo :■> to cover the whole or nearly the whole area, after the manner of s slip, but 
so thinly or unevenly as ti> leave pale patches or even aotneJ factriMr, together with 
othei signs, snob ;<> brush-marks, oi longitudinal streaks, <*r the mode in whirl) the 
coloured coaling was applied. This kind *>t decoration is often called s u ii^ 1 ' lik« 
preceding; lint it results from ■ wholly different process and produces n different result, 
intermediate between ji true vi sKp n and ■ mere u painted" ornament ; and I have been 
accustomed myself to distinguish it by the descriptive name of a u *m€ar." I know no 
French or Herman phrase which corresponds, and ihc vases which exhibit a u #at«or M 
are usually described merely as having s tehlechi ftngebmchter U$berzu§^ or some similar 
phrast . 

il. Yei another way <>t modifying, and making uniform, the colour of potto 

commonly practised by primitive peoples, ts by treating the pot, after firing, with n 

vegetable decoction which -ink- into the porous elay, and is there carbonised in its 
substance, eitbel because the decoction is applied while the pot i> still tpiite hot (rum 
the furnace, or by a subsequent firing* The uniform black soot] inrfaee thus produced 
is ilien Bsnally burnished] either uniformly or in patterns, with a smooth pebble oi 

in early Cyprus) with a horse-tootJi. Examples of this carbonised pottery are, (1 ) tin 
Idaek ware of the lowest layer at llissurlik (Schlit in inn, flios % pages 218-880, where tin 
mode of manufacture IS only Inferred, and (2) the Muck wan: made in Torres Straits, 
ami collected 1>\ the r« « . m I hr idi;e Kvpcilifum ; in the lattei ease Dr. Hudilon tells 

me that he witnessed the whole process of manufactory This mode of decoration, and 

all similar modes in which a pigment is caused lo soak Into the texture of the clay, I 
would propose to Oall a stain, differentiating ftfWJMteSS), \m**ht -stiiin, * tirhontst it-sfatn, 
and the like ion may require. Such stains, it should he noted, can only be 

distinguished With certainty from a slip or a smear on a cross f raoture ; in which 
aspect a smear if too shallow t>> be «ble at all ; a true slip shows ■ moie or foes 

distinct layer on the surface of the coarser lay of the vessel; an automatic slip pro* 

dueed by surface deposition begins with a rim* t ex t u re at thi nirfaed and 
gradually eoarser til! it merges is the day u! the interim while i tfain has no surface 

11 layer," and shows only a gradual change of tint, strongest ;»i the surface, 
evanescent towards the interior. J, L. MYRKS. 

Norway: Folklore. Skeat. 

A Modem Trait ,>/ fi Commnntcated hj WT. W, ^#* 

it, M.A. 10 

Dr. Sti'n Konou, of Chrisitatiia, the Sanskrit scholar, who fa now employ©*! under 

Dr. Grieraon In connection with the work of the Lingu i India, recentlj 

related :i curious fact which seeuM to point to w *»f 

l M J 



[Nob. 79-81. 

nimistic " Sun-worship " in Norway. " As a child I lived " (ho sa ys) " in the parish 
" of Vang, in Valdres, Norway. The parish is situated in a valley surrounded by 
" mountains so high that the sun disappears for several weeks in the wiuter. The first 
" day when it is seen again (I was told) old people used to fill a spoon with butter and 
" place it in the window, iu order that the sun might * eat ' it." Can any of your readers 
throw further light on this interesting Norwegian practice ? W. \V. SKEAT. 


Pacific. Edge-Partington. 

An Object of Unknown Use and Locality. By J. Edge- Partington. Qf* 

The subject of this note was obtained several years ago on the island of 0U 
Rotumah by Mr. W. L. Allardyce. He could obtain no informa- 
tion as to its use. It is made from a flat piece of highly- 
polished wood of a beautiful grain and of a deep brown-red 
colour. The outer edge is sharp as if for marking or cutting, 
while the inner e<lge is squared ; the narrow end has a groove 
on both sides into which native white shell beads have been 
fixed hy black cement, of these beads only one now remains ; 
from the upper edge there is an oblong projection with a 
perforation as if for suspension. My object in sending in a 
drawing of this object is, in the first place, to try and find out its 
true locality, for I doubt it being of Rot u man origin ; and, 
secondly, its use. Perhaps some of our many readers will l>o able to furnish me 
with some information. J. E.-P. 


Pacific : Solomon Islands. Woodford : Edge-Partington. 

Native Ornaments from the Solomon Islands, recently presented to the British q* 

Museum by Mr. C. M. Woodford. Contributed by J. Edge-Partington. | 

Since Mr. Woodford was appointed British Commissioner of the Solomon Islands 

he has been a regular contributor to our national collections. From his last gift I have 

selected the following as being of particular interest : — 

No. 1 is an armlet from the island of New Georgia ; it is made from a small 
Pridacna shell of a dirty brown colour, probably so from age, the native name of which 

t?l0N6 ARMLt'I fwwiw 
I* An 0U) vttLACC ON 

G\1Q ki*iw loof 

N« | 

^Hiu Money 

MEW CftoftotA 

is " Bare he ," this represents so much money, ami is worth three or four bahehas. 
I'lifortimutelv Mr. Woodford does not say what particular form a bake ha takes. 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 81-82. 

No. 2 is a fragment of a native armlet of volcanic stone, discovered by Mr. 
Woodford on the site of an old village in the island of Gizo, while clearing the ground 
for a Government station. It was found at the height of 100 feet above the sea, but 
shows signs of having been at some time under water, as it is encrusted with what is 
apparently a growth of coral. An old native to whom he showed it said that it was a 
kind of armlet that used formerly to be made upon the island of Kulambangara, uear 
to Gizo. 

The above descriptions are from notes supplied by Mr. Woodford with the 
specimens. J. EDGE-PARTINGTON. 

Africa: Rhodesia. White. 

On the Khami Ruins, Rhodesia. By Fraukliu White. Abstract of a paper QA 
read before the Rhodesia Scientific Association. 0£ 

The Khami ruins are situated about twelve miles west of Bulowayo, and close to 
the river of the same name. Their builders took advantage of the knolls of granite 
which are characteristic of the neighbourhood, and the artificial defeuces are adapted in 
all cases to strengthen the natural fortresses which they provide. The walls are built of 
fairly regular blocks of grauite, varying from seven to eleveii inches in leugth, aud three 
to five inches in thickness, set for the most part end-on into the wall ; the centre of the 
wall behind them being filled up more or less loosely with fragments. The walls are 
laid dry without cement, and when carried to any considerable height, they are stepped 
back at every six or eight feet. The blocks usually break joint well, but departures 
from this rule are common. The builders were somewhat indifferent to the straightness 
of their lines, aud allowed their walls to turn aside to avoid boulders, or take advantage 
of them. Cross walls are built butting against the side walls, not built into them. For 
greater strength the walls are built thicker iu the neighbourhood of doorways, which iu 
the main walls are, apparently, very few iu number. 

The space within the enclosures is usually filled in to the level of the top of the 
walls ; but it is possible that this filling is due to more recent occupants. This idea is 
supported by the existence to the north of the main ruin of a wall, which must have 
been five or six feet high, with a gate or doorway in it. 

The ornamentation of the walls is confined to the u herring bone '* and chequer 
pattern, aud to the introduction of courses of a darker coloured rock ; as at Zimbabwe 
and similar sites, the ornaments are introduced without system, and begin and end of} 
abruptly. The ornamented walls face any point of the compass, but generally towards 
the west, the eastern walls being, as a rule, of insignificant size, as they are nearly all at 
the top of the precipitous river bank. 

There are four principal ruins, of which, however, one ouly has been at all fully 
examined by Mr. White and his party, besides other fortified knolls further to the 

The heaps of debris round the ruins show abundant signs of human occupation — 
lottery (showiug some tweuty-four different patterns, painted iu red aud black), bones, 
brass wire work, gold beads, fragmeuts of crucibles, implements for drawing wire, and 
eveu stone and iron implements, occurring iu layers of ashes several feet in thickness. 
In one place the wall of the central platform itself appears to rest on a layer of ashes, 
with bones and broken pottery of earlier date. Chips of flint, quartzite, and chalcedony 
are abuudant ; and stone arrow heads and scrapers, as well as other worked stones, are 
occasionally found. 

Another interesting feature is the presence of fairly numerous circles or walls of 
burnt clay, fifteen to forty feet iu diameter, generally raised on* a platform, also of burnt 
clay, coatiug a ring or layer of laid stones. Iu one instance the clay walls are still 

[ 101 ] 

1901.] . MAN. [No*. 83-88. 

standing to a height of five feet. They seem to indicate huts ; aud traces of posts in 
the thickness of the wall seem to show how the weight of the roof was supported. 

Near one of the ruins are the remains of two elaborate buildings, with circular 
central chambers surrounded by radial cells, with doorways and semi-circular thresholds 
of burnt clay. Mr. White is informed that in some districts the natives still make their 
dwellings iu a very similar style. 

Mr. White concludes by distinguishing three stages of culture: (1) a primitive 
stone age, prior to the building of the ruins ; (2) the civilisation of the ruin builders, 
whom he identifies with the representatives of the gold industry ; (3) that of the 
builders of the clay dwellings within the ruins, who are certainly subsequent, aud, like 
the modern Kaffirs, do uot appear to have been acquainted with gold working. 

Mr. White and his companions are greatly to be congratulated on the result of their 
exploration of these interesting ruins, which throw much new light on the early history 
of this part of South Africa : on the ruins of Zimbabwe, formerly described . by 
Mr. Theodore Bent and Mr. Swan ; aud on the very similar ruius of Dhlo-Dhlo, which 
Mr. White himself has explored, and has described in full at a recent meetiug of the 
Anthropological Institute [Man, 1901, 76]. It is much to be hoped that the intelligent 
interest in these monuments which is being so wisely fostered by the Scientific Association 
of Rhodesia may prevail to secure their preservation, and the systematic examination of 
the valuable objects which they not infrequently contain, J. 

Africa: Tripoli. Myres. 

Collateral Survival of Successive Styles of Art in North Africa. By John L. qq 
Myres, M.A., F.S.A. Oil 

The photograph appended to this note represents a part of the weekly market 
which is held outside the little town of Khoms, or Lebda, in Tripoli, the modem 
representative of the great trading city of Leptis Magna. Behind is the whitewashed 
wall of the Turkish fort, with part of the Government buildings ; in front is a group of 
local u Arabs " from the villages round, with stacks of pottery for sale. 

The pots, which were exposed for sale in April 189(>, when this photograph was 
taken, illustrated in a remarkable way the extent to which successive cultures may 
overflood an area without extinguishing, and almost without contaminating, the 
industries and the art of the peasantry. Three fabrics of pottery are shown in the 

1. The long-necked bottles, in front of the draped figures to the right of the view, 
with a heavy collar-like rim, arc of forms which are characteristic of Arab pottery 
throughout the whole of North Africa, and which have persisted unchanged since early 
niedueval times, if uot from the date of the Arab conquest itself. 

2. The huge ovoid water-jars in the foreground and to the left, aud the smaller 
wide-mouthed jars, oue-haudied jugs, aud open saucers, which are accumulated imme- 
diately behind them, reproduce a varied but characteristic series of the late (Sneeo- 
Roman types which immediately preceded the Arab couquest. They coexist with the 
Arab types, but show no trace of contamination of style. I was not able to discover 
for certain whether they are made by the same potters, or at the same potteries as the 
Arab types. 

.'$. Iu the middle of the photograph, a group of middle-sized bowls may be seen standing 
across a gangway between two groups of the ovoid jars of class 2. These (though 
the bright light does not show thb* very clearly) were of a dull, blackish clay, uniformly 
smoked in the tiring, and iu strong contrast with the creamy white surface of the Arab and 
Gra3co -Roman fabrics. Unlike them also, these vessels were wholly hand-made, and, so 
far as I could discover, their makers, who were country u Arabs " or ArabLzed Berbers 

[ 102 ] 



[No. 83. 

from i lie il employ i be |»»i b t all. 1 ls< form* « i 

Mm) clumsy, i •■ ■ 1 1 characteristic I itline of the body, 1 1 ■ ♦_* 

absence «>t ■ »tandjttg-ba*e,and the frequent ke spout Ml low down 

id il i 'wn iii tin- po1 tin uhir 

With i briO| tli i wliollv 

apurt bow tii <>ii»L seeing thai 

potter'd wheel wan Introduced >ni«> th< oeighbourbood ol Leptii noi 1*1 thi 

i . < , ami probabl ninth, tin able thai 

i survival from a yi eariiei period, Thw 

dtttion ii Llaelf borne oiil bj the comparison o1 nd (be manipulation, with 

tboae of the »i the Bronae Age iu Cyprus mid I on the one huod, 

hihI ol the Tunisian do) menu or the other. If &uythiug, iu fact, the modern example* 


■reman ntdoaud primitive time the real Hronzo Age potter) : In particular, then 

no trice <>f the rod-poliebed ilij» which i* so chai the wsrlief Bronze A^> 

i lie Baetern Mt«literranean- 

of thi- same ban 1-tnade pottery ar< eommou m the am Lesert 

between Lebda, Tripoli! and the Booarpmenl ol fa Tarhtu vherever the 

dril "t 

baaar i*t Kli«»nr- : Mi-v tnttv be onr)f with iin Soman pottery and h< 

foundations, with which they are often HHOC ir, thirdly I n- the 

neolithic aoJ en rhiefa h!m» abound In theee u&eutue :«i ^ the 

ell ii probably not •• i. and m 

the pre** rapidly i _ still ; hut th<_ age ol the deeetf aJiy 

affect the question of the age of the potsherds oq iu floor : and the ?t unity of 

[ 103 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 88-84. 

the hand-made fragments wherever they are found makes as much for, as against, the view- 
that, in spite of Phoenician, and Greek, and Roman, and Arab occupation of the country, 
a neolithic industry has been preserved practically unaltered to the present time. 

A noteworthy detail about the Gneco-Romau pots of cla«s 2 is that wherever they 
do show variation from the analagous types of Greece or Southern Italy, it is iu the 
direction of the series of older Gneco-Phcenician forms which is common to the 
necropolis of Carthage and the older Iron-Age tombs of Cyprus and the Syrian coast. 
Now Lebda, as has been noted already, lies almost ou the site of Leptis Magna, one of 
the most important centres of trade and industry ou the Tripolitan coast ; a town of 
Phoenician origin, which remained hostile to Greek enterprise as late as the end of the 
sixth century B.C., but became Helleuized rapidly in the fifth and fourth. We have 
here, therefore, in the midst of a series characterised by violent breaks* the survival of a 
group of forms which are the result of exactly the opposite phenomenon — gradual ami 
effective assimilation. J. L. MYRES. 

Left-handedness. Lueddeckens. 

Rcchts- and Linkshandigkcit. Von Dr. Fritz Lueddeckens. Leipzig, Wil helm *%m 
Eugelmaun, 1900. Pp. vi, 82, and Appeudix of Questions. 1 1 woodcuts, (j^p 
Price 2s. 

After mentioning iu his preface that by right and left handedness we imply 
that oue half of the body has a stronger development than the other, and that this 
fact has received too little attentiou in literature, and sayiug that the neglect of such 
an important fact for doctors or teachers and the whole of mankind is only to be 
explained by the circumstance that there is so much specialism now-a-days in all 
branches of scieuce, the author wishes the reader to note that he is far from libraries 
aud laboratories and is engaged in a very varied practice. 

The pamphlet is divided into various sections — an anatomical and ^physiological 
introduction, then the consideration of a higher blood pressure iu the left side of the 
head, eye, and braiu ; right-handedness, sleep, &c. Then a section dealing with those 
cases iu which there is an equal blood pressure on both sides of the head (double 
personality) ; and, finally, a section dealing with those cases iu where is a higher blood 
pressure iu the right side of the head, eye, brain, &c, development, mental powers, 
anomalies of speech, left-haudedness, aud sleep. 

There is an appendix of questions intended to still further elucidate left-handed, and 
to add to statistics. It is of considerable interest, and medical men aud anthropologists 
should try to use these questions, and thus aid the investigation of a most interesting 

Since Sir Thomas Browne wrote " Of the Right and Left Hand " in * 4 Vulgar 
Errors," many scientists and others have dealt with the subject, perhaps the chief 
authorities being Sir B. Wilson, Sir Charles Bell, Professors Gratiolet, Buchanan, and 
Struthers, aud Drs. Barclay and Brown-Sequard. They advance different theories, but 
probably Dr. Lueddeckens is correct in attributing the right aud left handed to the 
higher blood pressure in the opposite cerebral hemisphere, although we do not think he 
gives sufficient weight to habit, for in our experience quite young children cau be 
readily trained to use both hands with equal facility. Aud this, indeed, is the important 
point, and one to which the author gives prominence, that the weaker hand should be 
developed as much as possible, for there can be no doubt that, not only is it very useful 
to be ambidextrous, but that the coustaut use of both hands from earliest infancy 
iucreases brain power. Dr. Lueddeckens divides the human race into three groups : 
first, the majority, in which we find a higher blood pressure in the left side of the head, 

t 104 ] 

190L] MAN. [Nob. 84-86. 

brain, eye, &c, and right-hauded ; secondly, rare case* where, at least theoretically, we 
have an equal blood p res 8 u re on both sides of the head, &c, but we do not think that 
this conditiou in any way gives rise to dual personality, nor in these cases do wc think 
that there is so much alternation in the blood pressure iu the right and left sides of the 
brain as the author apparently does ; and thirdly, numerous persons iu whom the 
blood pressure is higher on the right side of the head, &c, and who are left-handed. 
No statistics are available to show what proportion these persons bear to the majority. 

Probably the most important part of this brochure is that which deals with the 
eye and the differences iu refraction, cuteness of sight, and size of the pupil met with iu 
persons who are either right or left handed. This subject should cortaiuly be further 
investigated, and it would be well if any of our readers who know left-handed persons 
woidd examine them according to Dr. Lucddeckeus' scheme and communicate with 
him. ,. , R. W. F. 

ScMeswig-Holstein : Bronze Age. Splieth. 

Inventor der Bronze- alter Fundc aus Schlvtwig-llolslcin. By Dr. \V. Splieth. #%•■ 
Leipzig : Lipsius & Fischer, 1900. 8vo. (9£ ins. by 6i ins.), 89 pp., with Ov 
illustrations in the text, and thirteen lithographed plates. Price, 5 marks (5s.). 

This is an admirable little book. A brief introduction is followed by a classifi- 
cation of ail the known discoveries ; first into general periods, which correspond with 
those established for Scandinavia by Montelius, aud for Denmark by Soph us MiUier ; 
second, within each period, according to the types of objects which occur. Then follows, 
for each period separately, a very full and detailed inventory of the individual fiuds, giving 
the place of discovery, the museum iu which the fiuds are preserved, the character of 
the finds, aud the number of specimens found of each type of object, the form of the 
interment, where that is known, and a reference to the periodical in which the discovery 
is described in detail. The characteristic types of implements, vessels, or oruameuts 
are figured at the end on thirteeu lithographic plates. 

The author is greatly to be congratulated ou the completion of a laborious and 
most valuable piece of work, which will be indispensable to' students of North German 
antiquities. J. L. M. 

Religion : Greece. de Visser. 

l)c Gr<ccorum Diis non rcferentibus specie m humantim. M. W. de Visser, QA 
^vo., pp. 70. Leyden. 00 

This treatise, l>oth iu length and iu value, surpasses the average staudard of the 
" Doctor -dissertation" of the continental universities. Its main object is to collect 
the evidence concerning the worship of stocks, stones, and trees, plants and animals in 
Ancient Greece, and its main theory is that the two latter superstitions may be 
traced back to totem ism. The. citations, partly from literature, partly from mouumental 
sources, fonn the bulk of the work, aud also its most valuable part. Having spent 
some time in gleaning in the same field, I am glad to express my obligation to 
Dr. de Yisscr's work, which has supplied me with some passages which I had over- 
looked. His collection has lieeu made with great care, and will prove of great assist- 
ance to auyoue who is working on the same ground. It is therefore all the more curious 
that he should have missed the references to the *04>*yfm<, the Snake-clan iu Cyprus 
aud at Pariou, from which the hypothesis of Greek totemism derives a stronger support 
than from any other evidence that has ever l>ecn brought forward. (Pliny N. II., 28, 30; 
Strab., 588 ; Varro apud Prisciau. X., .32). Yet Frazer has specially noted the 'O^M^m** 
in bis Totcmi*m> aud Dr. de Visser draws most of his totem istic ideas from this 
treatise. Tree- worship is rightly illustrated by the . ritualistic, practice of hanging 
images or. masks, on certain .trees ; but he might have euriched his store of illustration. 

t "* ] 

1901] MAN. [No. 86. 

by reference to the interesting story preserved by Plutarch concerning Charila at 
Delphi (Qmest. Grace, 12). 

While noticiug omissions, one may mention that the sacrifice to Dionysos in Teuedo.s 
of a bull calf dressed in buskins and a saffron robe, the occasional sacrifice to Athena 
on the Acropolis at Athens of a goat, the animal that was usually tabooed in her cult, 
the record concerning the Brauronian cult that in offering the goat the worshipper 
called it his daughter, are facts of importance for the writer's hypothesis, but have been 

1 should be inclined to regard as erroneous his explanation of the name KifocMt 
as derived from Ktfo* (p. 163) ; of Afyct7f as the Goat-Man (the name is probably an 
epithet of Poseidon from the Euboean city 'Egie) ; and one may protest against the 
indifference to etymological laws that confuses forms so distinct as Atftcaiof and Atfrci«c 
(p. 160). It is pressing his hypothesis too far to quote the cult-titles of *Hpa 9 \k%(ol and 
% kHip$ *\mc(aL iu support of it (p. 262), for these titles are not early, and are simply 
affixed to the higher deities as drivers of chariots, aud are not drawn from the same field 
of primitive belief as that to which the cults of the Horse- Poseidou aud the horse-headed 
Demeter beloug. 

On page 22.5 he seems to suggest that every animal offered to a divinity was 
once his tot3m-auimal ; but surely this is goiug far beyond the bounds of legitimate 
hypothesis. The same auimals are offered to most Greek divinities : and it is only 
when the sacrifice is accompauied with very peculiar ritual — when, for instance, the 
animal is usually uot offered, but reverentially spared, and only offered with expressions 
of sorrow aud contrition, that the totemistic hypothesis should be allowed a heariug. 

As regards the general character of his commentary and the main points of his 
thesis, one may commeud the spirit of the whole work, and regard it as an earnest of 
future scientific production. It is matter for congratulation that the younger generation 
of students in Holland appear to have shaken off the fetters of the theories of Symbolism 
and Nature Personification, under which many of the German writers on classical 
religion and mythology are still stumbliug. Also I am entirely in accord with some of 
Dr. de V laser's definite conclusions; for instance, with his view that the various myths 
and legends in Greece concerning stones point to an original stone-worship ; that some 
aya\pa, such as the Ilerme, formed the connecting liuk between the unicorn ic age and 
the period of idolatry (I had put forward the same theory, when it was more heretical 
to maintain it, many years ago in a paper in the Archaeological Review). I agree also 
with his objections to Dr. Jevon's theory thai the cult-pillars aud dpyo) a/0oi were 
originally altars. Nevertheless, some of the writer's argumentation appears to me thin 
and inconclusive, aud it would be better if he were more precise in the use of certain 
catchwords of Comparative Religiou, such as " Fetichism " : the Portuguese seem to 
have known what they meant by the word, but some later writers do not. 

There are certain serious gaps in his study, which he will no doubt be able to (ill 
up. The very a priori argument on p. 255, where he maintains that idolatry must have 
existed iu the Mycemoau age, will be probably modified when he has been able to study 
the mouumental evidence of that age more deeply, and especially Mr. Arthur Evans' 
recent discoveries (e.g., Journal of Hellenic Studies, xxi., 99 ff.). 

But it is chiefly iu his theory of Totemism that his views require to be reconsidered 
in the light of more recent evidence. It is from Dr. F razor's Totemism that most of 
them are derived : hence such terms as " sex totems," " individual totems," the propriety 
of which has been for some time matter of doubt, are allowed to appear in his account. 
More serious is the error which Dr. de Visser commits of supposing that the totemistic 
tribes of Australia and North America all count descent through the female (p. 7) and 
that, generally speaking, Totemism and Matriarchy are co-extensive and mutually imply 
each other (p. 230-231). Sufficient evidence against this is supplied by Mr. Frazer 

t 106 ] 

1901.] MAN. [9os. 86-87. 

himself, aud still more by Professor Baldwin Speacer in his book on the Australian 
tribes. But believiug that Matriarchy was indicative of Totem ism, Dr. de Visser 
should have more carefully weighed the question about the prehistoric prevalence of 
Matriarchy iu Greece. The indications are faint and doubtful, and the foolish story 
preserved or invented by Varro, which is the only citatiou giveu, is almost valueless. 

The evidence laboriously collected by Dr. de Visser concerning Totemjsm in Greece 
is cumulative, but is not convincing. The worship of animals is no proof of it, for this 
cau arise, as the writer is himself aware, from other causes ; the wearing of sacred skins 
is no proof of it, nor the appellation of an animal by a term of human kindred, as the 
Atheuian called the sacrificed goat his daughter. This may arise from a deliberate 
ritualistic fiction, or from afleetiou, as wheu a Sioux tribe speak of the Buffalo as " their 
little grandfather," though he is not their totem.* Nor need we be too prompt with the 
totemistic explanation, when all that we know is that certain families iu Greece and the 
Mediterranean called themselves by the names of animals or plants. We may regard 
Toteniism as proved of early Greece, only when we have discovered that certain clans 
called themselves by the names of plants or animals, whom they regarded as, in some 
way, akin to themselves, and, therefore, treated reverentially ; aud if this tribal usage 
were connected with exogamy, we should regard them, iu respect of this social institu- 
tion, as on a level with certain Australian and American tribes. But we never have 
found anything quite approaching to this iu Greece proper, uor are likely to find. The 
record of the Ophiogeneis iu Pariou and Cyprus satisfies the criterion best. Iu Italy wc 
find no valid support for the totemistic hypothesis, save Servius' story about the Hirpi. 
The extreme rarity of strong attestation of Totemism iu the Mediterranean area may 
excuse my quotation here of a passage in Diodorus (20, 58), who states that, in a district 
of Libya, monkeys were worshipped by the natives as divinities, were offered food aud 
shelter, that their slaughter was regarded as a heinous crime, aud that the Libyans called 
their childreu after the animals' names. 

In conclusion, it may be said that Dr. de Visser's l>ook somewhat overstates the 
Totemistic case, aud that he is dominated by the euthusiasm of a theory which, iu 
England, has sown some wild oats, aud is now being chastened by a more cautious 
spirit of criticism. Anthropologists are coming to see that Totemism is rather a secular 
and a social fact than a religious system, aud that no such important role cau be 
assigned to it in the evolution of higher religion as was once supposed. Whether any 
Aryan people ever possessed it as a tribal institution is a question that still remains open 
to anthropological inquiry. The answer from Vedic-Iranian record is mainly negative, 
from Hellenic very dubious, and no one has succeeded in following any track of 
Totemism among Teutonic aud Scandinavian peoples. 

Yet in regard to Greece, where there is much that is uou Aryan, it is well to weigh 
the question again aud again, and Dr. de Visser has done useful work in presenting the 
case with some approach to completeness. L. R. FARNELL. 

Colour Vision. Bosse : Holden : Rivers. 

lYimilive Colour Vuion. By W. H. R. Rivers. Popular Science Monthly, Q^ 
Vol. LIX., pp. 44-58, 1901. Of 

The Order of Development of Colour Perception and of Colour Preference in the 
Child. By W. A. Holden and K. K. Bosse. Archives of Ophthalmology, Vol. XXIX., 
pp. 2fi 1-277, 1900. 

The Colour Vision of the Eskimo. By W. II. R. Rivers. Proc. Cambridge Philos. 
Soc, Vol. XL, pp. 143-149, 1901. • 

* Doreey in Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, 1889-1890, p. 381. 

[ 107 ] 

1001} MAN. [No. 87. 

The first of these papers deals chiefly with the controversy as to the possibility of 
an evolution of the colour-sense of man within historical times. In the work of the 
Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits it was found that the natives 
of several Australian tril>es of the Fly River district of New Guinea, and of the eastern 
and western tribes of Torres Straits, showed different stages in the development of the 
nomenclature for colour which corresponded closely with those arrived at by Geiger 
from a study of ancient literature. The Australians of the Gulf of Carpentaria only 
seemed to have definite terms for red, white, and black ; the Papuans of the Fly River 
had, in addition, a definite term for yellow and an indefinite term for green, while blue 
and black were still eon fused. The members of the eastern tribe of Torres Straits 
had no native term for blue, but had adopted the English word, while the members of 
the western tril>e had two words, used for green and blue, but these were very frequently 
confused with one another ; the two words had not yet become terms by means of which 
the two colours could be definitely distinguished from one another. 

Gladstone and Geiger believed that the defective language for colour found in 
ancient literature indicated a corresponding deficiency in colour sense, but their views 
have received little support, aud it has been generally held that there is no relation 
between language and sensibility, aud that people whose language for colour is entirely 
defective may have a well-developed colour- sense. 

In general, there is little doubt that- the latter view is the correct one, and that 
Gladstone and Geiger went too far in their conclusions, but, at the same time, 
there is something to be said in favour of their main position, that there has been a 
development of the colour-sense in man. 

In Murray Island it was found, on quantitative investigation, that the natives of this 
island showed a distinct degree of insensitiveness to blue, i>., to that colour for which 
they had no native name. This deficiency was only partial, and may possibly be 
explained by the influence .of the pigmentation of their ayt^ but, nevertheless, it is 
significant that the colour to which they should have been fouud to 1x3 insensitive should 
be that colour for which they have no name, aud which they tend to confuse in 
nomenclature with black. 

There is little doubt that any physiological insensitiveness which may exist in 
Papuan and other races cannot wholly explain the indefiniteness in the nomenclature 
for blue which is so often fouud to exist, and in the paper cited various other factors 
are considered which may have contributed to produce the predominance of red and 
insignificance of blue in primitive colour nomenclature. 

In relation to the general problem of the evolution of the colour-sense in man, it is 
pointed out that, in additiou to the evidence of language, other departments of knowledge 
must be called upon for help. 

The archaeological evidence is ♦ rapidly accumulating, and requires more careful 
consideration from this point of view than it has hitherto received. The monuments, 
pottery, &c, of some races, as the ancient Egyptians, seem to show a high degree of 
appreciation of green and blue, while beads of both colours have l>een found even in 
the graves of the prehistoric Egyptian race. In the sculpture of the Greeks, however, 
there seem to be instances of eccentric use of blue, which, taken together with the 
evidence of language, strongly suggest that the sensibility for blue may have been 
imperfectly developed. 

The existence of a well-developed colour-sense in many animals, especially in 
insects and birds, has been by many regarded as a conclusive argument against the 
existence of any imperfection of the colour-sense in primitive man. In the animals 
most nearly allied to man, however, the evidence for the existence of a colour-sense is 
very inconclusive, and there is, on biological grounds, no inherent i in probability in the 
view that the colour-sense has developed fie novo in man. 

[ 108 J 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 87-88. 

There seems to lie little doubt that the power of appreciating colour is of com- 
paratively late development in the individual human being, and if the history of the 
individual is any guide to the history of the nice, the colour sensibility of the child 
seems to support Geiger's view. Nearly all workers on this subject agree that the 
child logins to appreciate colours comparatively late (18 months to two years), and then 
distinguishes red and yellow earlier than greeu and blue. One of the chief difficulties 
in the experimental investigation of the colour-sense, both in the animal and in the 
child, is to ascertain that the subject is reacting to a difference of colour and not merely 
to a difference of luminosity. There is little doubt that l>oth animals and infants tend 
to react to bright colours, and most investigators have not taken adequate precautions 
to overcome this difficulty. In the second of the papers cited at the head of this notice, 
Holden and Bosse have paid especial attention to this point, and have noted the 
reactions of a number of children when patches of colours are placed l>efore them on 
backgrounds of the same luminosity as the colonrs. They find that reaction to colours 
occurs earlier than is usually supposed, viz., at six to eight months, and that up to ten 
months infants react more readily to red, orange, and yellow, than to green, blue, and 
violet. They also tested a large number of children of different ages to find which 
colour was preferred, and found that below the age of two the preference for red was 
universal, while above this age blue is often chosen, and above the age of four years 
the preference for blue Incomes almost as general as is the preference for red at an 
earlier age. 

The subject of the evolution of the colour-sense is not one upon which any definite 
conclusions are, at present, possible. The facts of colour-blindness and the nature of 
the vision of the peripheral retina of the normal eye have led many to suppose that, in 
the development of the colour sense, the sensibility for yellow and blue has developed 
earlier than that for red and green. The physiological evidence seems to point to a late 
development of red, which is difficult to reconcile with the predominance of red in ancient 
literature, in the languages of existing savage and barbarous races, and in the colour- 
vision of the child. We are, at present, almost wholly ignorant as to the causes and 
essential nature of colour-blindness, and in this condition of ignorance it seems as if the 
philological evidence should not he wholly disregarded by those who are endeavouring 
to trace out the path along which the colour-sense of civilised man has reached its 
present stage of development. 

The third of the papers cited at the head of this notice is chiefly devoted to an 
accouut of the colour vocabulary of a party of the Labrador Eskimo who were recently 
in London. These people had a perfectly definite term for blue, and showed, in general, 
a high degree of development of colour language, nearly all shades and tints of colour 
being denoted by modifications of six words for white, black, red, yellow, green, and 
blue. It seems remarkable that people living in Labrador should have a more fully 
developed language for colour than those living in tropical lands, and it is suggested 
that possibly when colour is only a trausieut occurrence in the year's experiences, it 
may receive more attention and therefore receive more defiuite nomenclature than in 
those parts of the world where luxuriance of colour is so familiar that it awakens little 
interest. VV. H. R. R. 

Aryan Race. Penka. 

Die Ethnologisch-ethnographisehe Bedeutung der mcgalithischen Grabbauten. rtft 
By Karl Penka. 1900. Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in QQ 
Wien. xxx, pp. 25-43. 

In this short paper Dr. Penka estimates the result of recent study of northern 
antiquities and social institutions in their bearing on his own view that the tall, blond, 
long-beaded race of North-western Europe is to be regarded as the originator of Aryan 

l 109 J 

190L] MAN. [No. 88. 

language and culture. At the same time he replies to a mini her of criticisms of hip 
view which have appeared since the publication of his paper on the " Home of the 
Germans." {Die Hcimat tier Gcrmanen. Mitth. Anthr. Ges. Wien. xxiii, 64 pp.) 

The starting point of his argument is the interpretation which should be given to 
the megalithic toml>-strueturcs of Northern and Western Europe, with their counterparts 
iu North Africa and Syria, in the Crimea and the Caucasus, and in India. Recent 
investigators agree that the similarities of type, and even of detail, among these 
monuments, preclude the idea of coincidence, and argue for their builders a common 
culture, if not a common race. Both Montelius aud Sophus Miiller interpret the series 
from East to West, and from West to North, aud ascribe this type of tomb-structure to 
44 Oriental influences." Penka, on the other haud, while accepting the conclusion that 
the dolmens represent a common culture, disputes the hypothesis of Oriental influence, 
and reads the series the other way, pointing out that while in the North these monuments 
go back into the Stone Age, in France and the South they l>elong to the Bronze Age ; 
and that if they embody beliefs which came from the South and East, then ideas must 
have travelled faster than the knowledge of metal tools, whereas iu the transmission of 
culture the reverse order is the rule. Montelius's view, moreover, that the 4 * Aryans" 
entered Europe by way of Asia Minor, contradicts all that is known of the early 
movements of Aryan-speaking peoples in the Hellespontine area. 

A survey of the history of the problem shows : — (1) that the " Keltic " theory of the 
origin of the dolmens and the subsequent " prc-Aryan " or " Finnish " theory rested on 
insufficient knowledge of their distribution ; (2) that the discovery of dolmeus in North 
Africa and Syria (which has given rise to the dominant " Berber " theory), has pro- 
ceeded pari passu with the discovery both of actual survival of a tall blond dolicho- 
cephalic race in the same areas, and of evidence in Egyptian portraiture of its wider 
extension in the second millcnium B.C. Penka, therefore, adheres to his old view that 
the culture represented by the dolmens originates with the do lie ho cephalic blonds in 
Southern Scandinavia and the Danish peninsula (where alone a * 4 mesolithic " transition 
can be followed from the pahvolithie to the neolithic stage) ; aud that the apparent 
intrusion, in Pomerania and Bohemia, of later typos of implements from the north-west- 
ward is the counterpart of the spread of dolmen building in Western Europe. 

The stress laid by Montelius and Sophus Miiller on the view that the megalithic 
tomb-structures perpetuate the characteristics of the houses and mode of life of the 
living, leads Penka further to the conclusion that the houses of the dolmen-builders were 
of the same simple one-room type, with porch or proriomos, which is characteristic of 
the houses of the earliest Aryan speaking intruders in the south ; — the Alban hut-urn, 
the tempi urn in a/tfis, and the Homeric rnvrpiran. This one-roomed house leads, among 
pastoral and agricultural peoples, to the " homestead " typo of settlement (Einzelsiede- 
htng)i consisting of a number of single store-houses grouped round a courtyard ; where 
the single living-chamber was distinguished from the barn, the byre, and the stable, 
only by its hearth fire, and by the consequent smoke-stains which gave it the names 
of atrium and melathron. We are thus led to the courtyard type of homestead, which 
forms so great a contrast to the " Saxon " type of house, and which with its many 
departments uuder a single roof, Penka regards as later, and as a result of life iu 

Again, the fact that, unlike the clustered tumuli of the Bronze Age, the megalithic 
tombs lie singly, leads Penka to the inference that their builders lived, not iu villages, 
but in scattered homesteads of the type above described. Now this homestead-type of 
settlement, with its simple land-system of self-contained and continuous farms, extends 
from Ireland and Wales to Belgium, and all over Southern and Western France, as far as 
the Pyrenees aud the Maritime Alps ; surviving also in Westphalia aud Friesland, and 
reappearing among the early Slavs. This state of society Penka compares with the 

[ no ] 

1901] MAN. [Nob. 88 89. 

fact that Aryan speech has no word for " village," and that all the words, which in this 
or that Aryan language mean "village," can be traced in use elsewhere in the earlier 
sense of " homestead." 

Meitzen's theory that the "homestead" typo is specifically Keltic, ami Heuning's 
criticism of it, both contain valuable suggestions, and can be reconciled by adraittiug 
Penka's own hypothesis that the spread of his blond Aryan dolmen -builders was 
effected in two distinct stages, each with its appropriate type of settlement. So long 
as no serious resistance was met. expansion was very gradual, and the homestead type 
was adequate to the needs of the settlers (as it still is in America, Africa, and 
Australia) ; it is only when later comers are attempting to establish themselves in 
an area which already supports a homestead population {adificiis occupatis, like the 
Usipetes and Tencteri, Caesar, B.G, iv. 1) that the need arises for the closer organisation 
of the village communities, which we find among the Kelts in Spaiu and Italy, the 
Hellenic invaders of Greece, and the Germanic peoples of the north. The Slavonic 
" Rundling," which Henning has already shown not to be truly Slavonic, Penka 
attributes to " re-Germanisation " of the areas in which it is found. 

The presence of " uufree " members in all early Germanic communities shows that 
considerable numbers of this non-Germanic population survived among their conquerors 
and the children of "free" and "uufree" alike were brought up together without 
distinction of culture : dominum et serrum null is educations delicti* dignoscas 
(Tac. Germ. 20). Under these circumstances it was inevitable, even without racial 
mixture, that the children of the blondes should pick up a debased form of their mother 
tongue. Inevitably also, however, in spite of all discouragement, cross-breeding did 
tttke place even among the purest blond races. In Central Sweden, for example, there 
i-* considerable admixture of dark blood, and S.W. Norway shows a blond but strongly 
brachy cephalic strain. There is, therefore, every reason to expect that corruption of 
"Aryan" speech in the immediate neighbourhood of the " Aryan Home " which is 
actually found to exist among the Germanic languages. 

It is not to be expected that Penka's vigorous reassertion of his original hypothesis 
will pass unchallenged among either philologists or archaeologists, and his criticism of 
the current interpretation of the dolmen-series in particular is certain to provoke a 
reply ; for it certainly seems to touch a weak point in the argument as stated hitherto 
by its leading exponeuts, and it will be of interest to see what modifications it will be 
found to require, or what vital point, if any, has been omitted from Penka's calculation. 

J. L. M. 

Proceedings. Soc. d'Anthr. de Paris. 

Sommaire des Prochs-rerbatuc de la Seance du 6jui/i 1901. *%** 

Le President faite connaitre qu'il a assiste, le 28 mai dernier, h\ a seance de "O 
I' Inst i tut anthropologique de la Grande- Bretagne et de l'lrlande, a Londres. II a ete 
accueilli avec la plus graude courtoisie et il est particulierement henreux de s'aequitter 
de la tuehe agreable dont il a ete charge, de transmettre a ses collegues de In Soeiete 
d' Anthropologic de Paris 1'expression des sentiments de cordiale estime des membres 
de rinstitut anthropologique de Londres. 

M. Meyer preseute des photographies de femraes tie la vallee de Minister et 

M. Giraux preseute des photographies de monuments mt'galithiques du depart ement 
de TEure, 

[ 1U J 

1WL 1 MAN. [Hos, 8»-90. 

M. Zaborowski offre au nom de Mme. Spencer Warwick nn moulin a prieres du 
Thibet et un vieux Coran, en urabe. 

M. Delvincourt, palethnologue est elu membre titiilaire et M. Moriz Hcernes membre 
associe ctrauger. 

M. Thieulleu— Os travaille a l'epoque de Chelles. 

M. le Dr. Anthony fait nne communication sur les modifications des muscles 
consecutives n des deformations osseuses. Discussion: MM. Manouvrier, Sanson, 
Laborde, Regnault. 

M. Yves Guyot fait nne communication sur les races indigenes de PAfrique <lu Slid 
dapreslVmqucteomVielle faite par "The South Afriean Commit fee" preside par M. John 
Maedoncll. Discussion : M. Letonrneau. 

Proceedings. Anthropological Institute. 

Ordinary Meeting, J nne 1 1, 1901. Dr. A. C. Iladdon, F.R.S., President, in 


the chair. 

The election was announced of Rev. Canon Hewitt and Mr. \V. D. Webster ns 
Fellows of the Institute. 

Mr. R. Morton Middleton exhibited, on behalf of the South American Missionarv 
Society, a large series of implements and other objects, including swan-gullet necklaces, 
whalebone snares, feathorwork, &c, from the Vahgans of Tierra del Fuego, and intro- 
duced Mrs. Burleigh, who spent some lo years among the Yahgans, and gave a nnml>er 
of additional data in regard to theni. The exbibit was discussed by Dr. Garsou 
Mr. Balfour, and the President. - 

Mr. G. Coffey read a paper on Irish Copper Celts, which was discussed by Dr. 
Gladstone, Mr. Lewis, Mr. My res, Mr. Balfour, and the President. The thanks of the 
Institute were returned to the authors of communications. 

The meeting then adjourned until June 19 for a joint meeting with the Folklore 

Extraordinary Joint Meeting with the Folhlore Society, June 19, 1901. Prof. 
A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., in the chair. 

Prof. Haddon vacated the chair in favour of Mr. E. W. Brabrook, President of the 
Folklore Society. Mr. Brabrook alluded to the loss tsustained by the Society through 
the death of Miss Florence Grove, a member of the Council. 

Mr. E. S. Hartland, F.S.A., exhibited the collection of Musquakie bead-work and 
other objects, preseuted by her to the Folklore Society, and to be deposited in the 
Museum of Ethuology at Cambridge. The exhibit was discussed by Messrs. II. Balfour, 
Haddon, R. C. Temple, Rev. J. Sibree, and the President. 

Mr. R. Shelford exhibited two charms against stomach-ache from Borneo. 
Mr. II. Balfour read a paper by Mr. W. G. Aston, C.M.G., on "Japanese Gohei 
and Ainu Yuao." 

Mr. N. \V. Thomas read a paper by Mr. E. Tregear on the u Spirit of 

The thanks of the meeting were returned to Miss Owen, and to the authors 
of the papers, which will be printed in full in the Journal of the Institute, Vol. 

Printed by Eybe and Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, Bast Harding Street, E.C. 

Man, 1901. Plats H 


1901] MAN. [No. 91. 

Egypt: El Khargreh. With Plate H. Myers. 

Four Photographs from the Oasis of El Khargeh^ with a Brief Description ft* 
of the District. By Charles 8. Myers. U I 

The four photographs, forming the subject of thin uote, were taken by me in April 
of this year, during a visit to the Egypt iau Oasis of El Khargeh. Shortly after my 
return, the National Printing Department of Cairo pnhlished an elaborate work on the 
topography and geology of this Oasis, by Dr. John Ball, of the Government Survey. 
No future writer ou the subject, it appears to me, con avoid incurring a debt to him, and 
most of my remarks will be found already incorporated in his book iu some form or 
other. So few photographs, however, have been taken in this Oasis, that it seems 
desirable to place my own ou record. I trust that the following description will not 
prove uninterestiug : — 

The Oasis of El Khargeh is situated uliout 200 kilometres from the west bank of 
the Nile, extending roughly between the latitude of Girgeh and Edfu, that is, from 
26° 2' to 21° 5' N. From the Nile valley roads lead to it from Assiut, Girgeh, Esneh, 
and So hag, probably also from Tahta, Farshut, and other villages. I myself started 
from the village of Mehasuch, and followed the Girgeh road. My companions were 
Messrs. Mace and Anthony Wilkin, whoso sad death shortly after robl>ed the world of 
so promising a traveller. The roads to the Oasis, or IVah, are gained by a steep accent 
to the plateau overlooking the valley of the Nile. Thence they stretch across a wide 
plain, generally uninlcrestiug, save for the worked flints and areas of broken pottery 
scattered upon it. A desert " road " is nothing more than a series of parallel tortuous 
tracks, trodden and worn during ages past by the feet of camels. Here and there a 
camel's skeleton attests the ill luck of some belated traveller. From Girgeh to the chief 
village of El Khargeh Oasis, called by its name, is a distance of some 198 kilometres, or 
a ride of between fifty and sixty hours. The extent of the cut ire Oasis is over 
3,(MX) square kilometres, of which only an infinitesimal (portion, of course, is under 
cultivation. The Oasis depends for its fertility on the water obtained from numerous 
springs and wells. In former times El Khargeh formed the last of a series of resting 
places iu the slave trade-route from Darfur to Assiut. Increasing poverty has 
resulted from the diversion of all trade from the desert to the valley of the Nile. The 
wells are now allowed to be covered with sand. Every year less laud appears to be 
under cultivation. An oasis does not, as is popularly supposed, consist of a mere 
collection of date palms, standing near a stagnant pool, and surrounded by a small 
village : it is a wide area, excavated to a depth averaging, perhaps, 300 metres out of the 
surrounding plateau. Thus the Oasis ap]>ears at first sight far more desert-like than this 
plateau of the Libyan desert. From the north-east cd^ of the Oasis to the village of 
El Khargeh, in whose neighbourhood these photographs were taken, the distance is rather 
less than 35 dreary kilometres. Along this floor of the Oasis the sand is blown from 
north to south as the wind sweeps it down from the surrounding plateau. The ground is 
strewn with sand-dunes which are, as Dr. Hall notes, slowly but constantly moving owing 
to the incessant action of the winds, especially in early summer. As to the origiual 
formation of the Oasis, Dr. Hall concludes that the excavation, though probably l>eguu by 
the action of water, was continued, and indeed is still being continued by this combined 
agency of wind and sand. Thus the sandy character and the spread of the Oasis are 
e\er increasing. 

Iu the reign of Thotracs III. (about 1500 B.C.) the western oases were divided 
into the Northern and Southern oases, the latter of which probably comprised those of 
El Khargeh and Dakhleh. These two, or perhaps ouly the former, became afterwards 
known as the Oasis magna. From an early time, certainlv before 10(H) B.C., 

;[ ns ] 


[No. 91. 

El Klnu-pli vv uii-htin n 

exiled bi tigions convictions, Tin 

flint fin* remarkable nocropi ob ol which ii uown (Fig. t), nod mil 

mow ipecivJly north end <>t ill* 

ol bh followers have left behind. A\ the present da j the Oaatt 

devoi lation. No doubt, alter Li tmmedan 1 1 * « 

Fie. |. 

nth centm i«»r the < protect theinaclvos from fit 

attacks oi lawin without theaupport which tin G m bi 

ten in :i them. 

This Christian necropolis, celled * k < commending hill, 

about I kilom ol Kha I eoii&ial • >! sonic two hundred 

ruins* which era bo built thej tbej reecinble the booses ol some long deserted lowi 
her than Mi" tomba <>f ■> disused cemetery. The buddings varj the] 

ell rectangular and of unburn! brick. The e, perhaps* 12 metre* high, 

usually ormuneuted with I columns; the smelter ere covered witl 

bive shaped roof, thai resembling the ordinary sheikh** tomb of tin- present day n 

pt. Theee buildings are coated with plaster on the inside* and their w« 
covered with scribbling in Greek, Coptic, or krabic ct cf the tombs 

eonsi bamber, in the centre of 1 the floor of which is ;i pit. The |>n, my 

native guide told me, lead* down to u one «»i which the corpse 

buried. Etoskina, writing Eu l$3? t found mummy-cloths of various qualities scattered 
uIhmji theee tombs. Not only Id their intermeut ?h the distant end of a baft 

mikI in mummifying their dead did thus coul 

the oldei Egyptian pni but they appear ul*<> to have persisted In using the 

uppei chac leptaole of tin ofl* the soul of the deceased) for on the 

walla of tombi that I visited I noticed sniaU niches which were do doubt a 

foi this purpose. Moi oral "i the tombs and in the largest building <>l all, 

which must certainty have been a chapel, th&anch y, the ancient and familiar symbol 
of l<h. was painted. I' appears to have preceded the nee of tin- cross in the Oasis, I 
regret i i i^i t I <li«l not photograph the interacting nhepol I bate ju>i mentioned. Thi 
arches, two pointed and the i-liinl rounded, d *<n each side s narrow aisle from 

the cent building. A partition wall arc separated the bodi 

the chapel fr< anil transverse alley in the rear, to which a m hwaj in tin 

centre of the wall gave eocess. < J i archway the wall of I 

bore o niche and s fairlj preaerved but crude painting entitled ABPAAM and K'AK. 

A Ear « perfect and a realty well en uting oni ICr, Mace) disoov 

in it i :» -mailer brick building. Here oo the white plasti depi 

[ IM J 



[No. 91 

hesfitig U»nihinn« 

[ttMtey Barah, kdam, Km. Thekla, Paul, , ESucbe, !>»' 

Daniel, and [rone, Irene bold* Abraham 

two kuivi band, w\ - oui oJ the bush. Noah standi with n 

com] a i radeljr made ark, Ktomaios of pottery suggest thai r li«- (own to which 

Mill [}OW |H«Hit ,M\r-| lli ttOr Of tUi l"|rri|». 

in- village "t Khargefa stands the n of Jft'At*, bui 

g&odstooe, which ia pleotifu r purl vraeerected bj Mm Persian 

kings, Dariua I- and I 521 and Ji i> one of the most 

important monuments of tl in Egypt* Cam- 

1 1 v -^ f is believed to have visited tin Omm writfa in army, « d in 

the denerl immediate!; rard*< This &em| also the names of the king 

1 li dyneel -<»<li dynasl p, I hi 

iae photograph < Plat II., F$g, the 

of Daritts | ■ r { Plate II„ I* ig, 2 1 q! 

Persian King making offeringa insTon l '■_■ ■■■!.- on i vrall which b nisi} 

bi en restored, probably by 
ow !uir Roman < m 

ett e/ho look some ihi» 
in antiquities. * »n the I 
pylon of tin' in ii ] .!■ 


garden of a peasant is :■ 
iptiofi "l ii Bo« 

the time 

i ! dba, i d 

Tin rf] K'/txn/t h 

q the Omnia, 

containing el i l^SQO in- 

habitants, and ih*- qui 

Egyptta i ;; 

-in- pari of the mu« 
iliiiv;ili ol Aaaiut, 
which and I ipal \il- 

toigbtty post 
rtablishod. Dr. B 
notes thai the numbei of palm 

\2) taxed in I 

in the i ntin Oasis. Be- 
of palm 

I Ml I 

• lj ing plo 

d, Bill the ftihabil 

>r, and ap i-fed aod 

pooi pbydqne. Khari 
coal I |,, 

oovered in iritfa In 

pstfm branch form 

long dark fcuniti u i 

i it, j 



[Nos. 91-93. 

metre wide and 1 J to 2\ metres high. The side walls are made of mud, into which 
are built the doorways of the peasants' houses, with rooms occasionally extending" over 
the street. Through such dark, tortuous, narrow alleys the stranger gropes his 
way, now emerging into daylight (as shown iu Fig. 2), but soon plunging again 
into the general gloom of a rabbit warren. The streets branch in a bewilderingly 
complex fashion, so that occasionally the wanderiug visitor discovers that he 
has entered a cul de sac, or perhaps finds himself uncousciously straying within a 
peasant's hut. Formerly the streets of the bazaars in Cairo were somewhat similarly 
covered iu. And to this day the bazaars in Assiut are so protected. Mr. Somers Clarke 
informed me that he had seen roofed streets in certain disused villages of the Nile- 
valley ; they appear to be common also in those of the Berbers. As a village of Egypt, 
Khargeh is noticeable for the scarcity of its dogs aud for the politeness and lack of 
curiosity displayed by its folk towards strangers. The general stature of the villagers 
is small, probably less than 170 centimetres. The hair of the head is shaven, somewhat 
curly, black and fine. The skin varies from a yellowish to reddish brown, according to 
the extent to which it has been sunburnt. The nose is short, straight, and prominent, 
wide, but not very flat. The eyes are curiously small and brown, the cheek bones and 
parietal eminences are prominent. The forehead is narrow aud sloping, the chiu feeble, 
the lips thin. There was an absence of strong Soudanese admixture. I took measure- 
ments upon some sixteen people. These I shall incorporate later iu a geueral 
anthropometric survey which I hope to make during the ensuing winter in the Nile 

New Zealand : Forgeries. Smith : Edge-Partingrton. 

Forgeries of New Zealand Stone Implements, Communicated by J. Edge- QO 
Partington. \3mL 

Mr. W. W. Smith, in an article in the Polynesian Society's Journal, Vol. VII., 
p. 244, warns ethnologists of the number of spurious stone implements which are now 
being sold by dealers and others in New Zealand as genuine relics of Maoridom. The 
ones he had examined were either of a somewhat dark-coloured limestone, argellite, or 
greenstone ; sawn into size and shape, and afterwards ground smooth on the grindstone. 
The polishing had evidently been done with very fine emery paper. Apart from this 
their faces and sides were too flat and too level, and were all tor) broad at the part 
where they begin to bevel to the cutting i:d^c 9 which is too flat, instead of being neatly 

The writer draws attention to the remark in Evans' Ancient Stone Implements of 
(treat Britain upon European forgeries on page 608, " When the demand for an article 
fci has exceeded the supply spurious imitations of these have been fabricated, and in 
" some cases successfully passed off' upon avid but unwary collectors/' 

The difficulty of collectors is, I think, also greatly enhanced by the fact that the 
Maoris themselves purchase these forgeries for sale to tourists. J. E.-P. 

Pacific : Forgeries. Ling Roth. 

Note on the Occurrence of Forgeries in the Pacific, By II. Ling Roth. cf. {%t\ 

Man, 1901—56. UU 

The manufacture of forgeries, noted lately in Man* by Mr. Edge Partington, is not 

by any means a new one. Berard, who visited Apia in April 18.50, after buying some 

weapons there, writes : — 

u We perceived too late that we had fallen amongst people who were smarter at 
business than we were, for we had paid in fair aud square money for clubs and lauces 

[ 116 ] 



[Nos. 93-94. 

the freshness and the decorations on which showed that they were trade good* for the 
natives of Apia." — Campugne de la Corvette L'Alciniire en Oceanic, Paris, 185-4. 



Australia. Balfour. 

St ran yUng -cords from the Murray River, Victoria, Australia. Communicated 
by Henry Hal four, M.A., Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. 

Two of these extremely rare instruments have recently In-en secured for the Pitt 
Rivers Museum, having formed part of Mr. Norman Hardy's collection. 1 believe* that, 
these are the only specimens in England. Brough Smyth (Aborif/. of Victoria, 
1878, I., p. 351, fig. 169) figures one of them, and gives the native name of tierum. He 
descril>es it as consisting of a kangaroo-fibula pin, 6\ inches long, attached to a cord 
made of seven strands, doubled and twisted loosely to form a 14-strand cord, with a loop 
at one end and the pin at the other. "The alniriginal carrying this noose tracks is 
" enemy to his miam, and having marked the spot where he has gone to sleep, he 

" approaches him stealthily, slides the bone under his neck, puts it through the loop, and 
*• quickly draws it tight, so as to prevent him from uttering the slightest sound. He 
" theu throws the body with a jerk over his shoulder, ami carries it to some secluded 
" spot, where he can take, securely and at his ease, the kidney fat." The two specimens 
to which I now refer were obtained by Mr. John R. Peebles as longago as 18o7 from the 
Watty-Watty or Litchoo-Litehoo tribes (now extinct) in the neighbourhood of Tyntynder, 
Murray River, Victoria. The one figured herewith is practically identical with that 
described by B. Smyth, both in size and structure, the length including the pin is 
exactly que yard. The other example is somewhat larger, the kangaroo-fibula pin l>eing 
8 inches long, in other respects it is similar to the other. Both correspond with 
B. Smyth's specimen in being made of seven strings of twisted fibre doubled back to 
form a single loosely-twisted cord of 1-1-ply. The two sots of seven strings at the end 
away from the pin are separated for a short distance, so as to form a loop which is 
neatly " served " with kangaroo sinews, which material is used for the attachment of 

[ m ] 

WOt] HAN. [Wo*. 94-96. 

the \*t\%tt pin. The string* are ruddled witli red ochre and fat. The Loddon River 
D*tivfc» call this instrument Knarmrm. H. B. 

Torres Straits : Pottery. Haddon. 

C&rmiion. Ot 

Mr. Myre«' memory has unfortunately played him false with regard to Papuan Uu 
earlionised |*>ttery (mw Mav, 1901 — 78). No jittery is made in Tones Straits. I 
have exhibited lantern slides at the Anthropological Institute and elsewhere showing 
the whole process of pottery-making at Port Moresby, including the application of a 
decoction of mangrove l«irk to the red-hot pot. This application darkens the pottery, 
hut dorrs not muke " black ware"' of it. I have given the distribution of pottery 
manufacture in British New Guinea in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Societv, 
Of-tiitar, MKK), page 429. * A. C. HADDON. 


Obituary: Peek. Rudler. 

Sir C. K. Perk, Burt., M.A., F.S.A. 

By the premature death of Sir Cuthbert Edgar Peek, the Anthropological 
Institute lias bad the misfortune to lose a staunch friend whom it could ill spare — one 
who had ungrudgingly devoted time and thought to the administration of its affairs, 
and from whom much further assistance might reasonably have been expected. Born 
on January .'10, 18/55, he was but little more than 46 years of age at the time of his 

Sir Cuthliert was the only child of the late Sir Henry William Peek, the first 
baronet— himself a valued member of the Institute — to whose title and estates he 
succeeded in 181)8. Sir Cuthliert was educated at Eton and at Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1879." Practical astronomy and surveying he studied 
under Mr. John Coles, of the Royal Geographical Society ; and in 1881 he undertook 
some journey* in Iceland, uccompanicd by Mr. Delmar Morgan and Mr. Coles. The 
results of this exploration were presented to the Geographical Society and to the British 
Association, and also formed the basis of Mr. Coles's work entitled Summer Travelling 
in Ireland. In 1882 Sir Cuthhert presented to the Geographical Society the sum of 
1,000/. consols, the interest of which forms the " Cuthbert Peek Prize," awarded for 
scientific exploration. 

Astronomy was a science to which Sir Cuthl>ert was greatly devoted. In 1894 he 
established and equipped an excellent observatory on his estate at Rousden, in Devonshire, 
between Ax mouth and Lyme Regis. Assisted in his researches by Mr. C. G rover, he 
earned out a series of observations on certain variable stars, systematically recording the 
cluiugcs of light, with the view of determining .the cause of variability. Sir Cuthbert, 
in the early part of his career, joined a party of observers in a journey to Queensland for 
the purpose of studying the transit of Venus. His observations on the geysers of New 
Zealand made on this occasion and hU notes on Maori customs wen* presented to the 
British Association in 188,'i. 

It was in l88o that Sir Cuthhert Peek Uvame a member of the \uthto|tological 
Institute, ami in 18*)1 he was elected honorary secretary, a position which he held with 
much advantage 10 the Institute for five years. I>uring hi* <.eervnu\ *hip he introduced 
great improvements into the administration, devoting himself e*p«vi:il!\ io the dexelop- 
meat of the library, the collection of ethnological photoglyph*. mid \h< ■.'."■- * ion of the 
journal. In IS*H he started a "vocabulary publication tued." ».n wiueh he was a 

I US % | 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 96-98. 

gertterous contributor. Sir Cuthhert was a judicious collector of objects of ethnological 
interest, and formed a museum of considerable value. His ideas on the arrangement of 
museums were submitted to the conference of delegates of corresponding societies at the 
Oxford Meeting of the British Association in 1894. 

Sir Cuthhert Peek married in 1884 the Hon. Augusta Louisa Brodrick, eldest 
daughter of Viscount Middlcton and sister of the Right Hon. St. John Brodrick, the 
Secretary of State for War. 

As will he inferred from this brief notice, Sir Cuthhert was a man of many and 
varied scientific interests — astronomy, meteorology, arclueology, geography, and anthro- 
pology equally claiming his attention — hut he was also an excellent man of business. 
Tt is sad that his useful and active career should have been brought so early to a close 
by the attack of an insidious disease to which he succumbed on Saturday, July 6th. 

" F. W. R. 


America. Dellenbaugh. 

The North Americans of Yesterday. A Comparative Study of North 
American Indian Life, Customs, and Products, on the Theory of the Ethnic 
Unity of the Race. By F. S. Dellenhaugh. Pp. xxvi + 487. With 350 illustrations. 
New York and London : Putnam, 1901. Price 21*. 

The mass of literature relating to the redskins, or Amerinds, as our author prefers 
to call them, is so enormous, that he must needs have a bold heart who attempts to read 
it all. Mr. Dellenbaugh has not set himself the task of covering the whole of the 
ground ; he aims at making accessible to the geueral reader the information stored up in 
the volumes of the Bureau of Ethuology and similar institutions, with the object of 
stimulating public interest iu the collection of material. We have in the book before us 
a convenient epitome of a great mass of information ou the language, arts, and crafts, 
mode of life, organisation, amusements, and customs of a branch of the human race 
which was, until 400 years ago, almost as remote from outside influence as if it inhabited 
the moon ; we have, it is true, in patolli a game whose Asiatic origin has been 
vigorously maintained. Mr. Dellenbaugh does not mentiou this curious coincidence, if 
it is nothing more, between the games of Asia and Mexico, though he somewhat 
unnecessarily combats the fantastic theory of a bodily migration of the population of 
America from Asia within the last thousand years. 

He has on some points put forward theories of his own, among others that of the 
utilitarian origin of cup markings on stones ; these he regards as having been intended 
to point the drill used in fi remaking. But inasmuch as they are often only half-au-inch 
deep, and sometimes three inches broad, the explanation is hardly applicable to the mass 
of such markings. 

The folklore of the Indians receives, perhaps, less than its due share of attention ; 
as the author is also less succinct in this section, the result is, perhaps, a little 
disappointing, but the theme is oue which is naturally less easy to treat at once concisely 
and clearly. It is unfortunate that no references are given in the text to the pictures 
illustrating it. Oue would hardly look on page 369 among customs and ceremonies 
for an illustration of the mocassins described on page 150. N. W. T. 

New Zealand. Reeves. 

The Long White Cloud. By William Pember Reeves. Loudon : Marshall QQ 
& Co., 1898. 8vo, pp. xv, 430. Price 6s. uO 

The author of this work on New Zealand, who is at present acting as Agent- 
General in Loudon for that Colon v, is well fitted to write of a country which he " has 

[ "9 ] 

190t] MAN. [No. 98. 

seen and studied from end to end." Of late years there have been mauy books written 
about New Zealand, but few of them are reliable, excepting, of course, official publica- 
tions, which are of an uninteresting nature to the geueral reader. Mr. Reeve's object lias 
been to write a history " in which the picturesque side of the story shall not be ignored," 
and in this he has been eminently successful. 

The work opeus with a " sketch -history " of the early colonization by Europeans, 
and of the general geographical features of the country. The writer then proceeds to 
describe the earlier colonization by the Maories, who, he says, " unquestionably came 
" from East Polynesia. They are of the same race as the courteous, handsome people 
44 who inhabit the South Sea Islands from Hawaii to Rarotonga — the Rarotongans call 
44 themselves 4 Maori,' and can understand the New Zealand speech." He quotes 
Mr. Percy Smith's theory (but without reference) 44 that the ancestors of the Maori 
44 emigrated from the Society Islauds and Rarotonga about 500 years ago. It seems 
44 likely enough, however, that previous immigrants had gone before them. One remnant 
44 of these, the uow almost extinct Moriori, colonized the Chatham Islands." The daily 
life of the Maori is fully described, with accounts of his food and his manner of obtaining 
it, of his canoe and house building, of his clothing, and of his tattooing ; of this last art 
the author says, 44 Among the many legends concerning their Jem i -god Maui, a certain 
44 story tells how he showed them the way to tattoo by puncturing the muzzle of a dog, 
44 whence dogs went with black muzzles as men see them now. For many generations 
u the patterns cut and pricked on the human face and body were faithful imitations of 
44 what were believed to be Maui's designs. They were composed of straight Hues, 
44 angles, and cross cuts. Later, the hero Mataora taught a more graceful style, which 
4 * dealt in curves, spirals, volutes, and scroll work. Apart from the legend (a full 
44 account of which the author gives on p. 62) it is a matter of reasonable certitude that 
44 the Maories brought tattooing with them from Polynesia." Their marking imple- 
ments and observance in connection with the operation were virtually the same as those 
of their tropical brothers. The inspiration 44 of the pattern, whether on wood or skin, 
4 * may be found iu the spirals of sea shells, the tracery on the skin of lizards and the 
44 bark of trees, and even, it may be, in the curious fluting aud natural scroll work on the 
44 tall cliffs of calcareous clay called papa" 

Of their Pas or entreuched villages, aud of their mode of warfare, the author gives 
a full and graphic description ; he particularly mentions the throwing of darts and stones 
by meaus of the whip stick figured in Vol. XXIX. of the Journal of this Institute. 
44 With the help of these, wooden spears could be thrown more than one huudred 
44 yards, r.nd red-hot stoues could be hurled over the pallisades among the rush-thatched 
k4 huts of an assaulted village." 

Upon the subject of the decadence of the native race, it is pleasing to find the 
subject treated from a common-sense standpoint, without sounding the missionary note 
of the " white man's vices." The author traces this decadence to their partial civiliza- 
tion. " It has ruiued the efficacy of their tribal system without replaciug it with any 
44 equal moral force aud industrious stimulus. It has deprived them of the maiu 
44 excitement of their lives — tribal wars — and giveu them no spur to exertion by way 
44 of substitute. Every man was a soldier, aud under the perpetual stress of possible 
44 war had to be a trained, self-denying athlete. The pas were, for defensive reasons, 
44 built on the highest, aud therefore the healthiest, positions." 44 The tribes," he says, 
44 still hold land in common, aud much of it. They might be very wealthy landlords if 
44 they cared to lease their estates on the best terms they could bargain for ; they could 
44 be rich farmers if they cared to master the science of farming ; they might be healthy 
44 men and women if they would accept the teachings of sanitary science." The one 
ray of hope is that lately the Government 44 has reorganised the native schools, where 
" the children arc being taught sanitary lessons ; aud, better still, the Maori youths are 

[ 120 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 98-99. 

44 awakening to the sad plight of their people." Under the heading of " The Maori and 
the Unseen," we have the native's idea of the Universe, his mythology, his legends and 
myths, including that of the great flood and the origin of the human race ; and we are 
told how these myths were handed down from father to son in priestly families by means 
of sacred colleges. The system of tapu and mum are fully described, followed by the 
ceremonies in connection with death and burial. 

The early intercourse between uative and white man is one long chapter of horrors. 
Ky the introduction of the rifle alone "between the years 1818 and 1838 at least a 
fourth of the race perished." The way to better days, however, was being paved, first 
by " the whalers, who settled at various points along the coast, chiefly from Cook's 
" Straits southward to Foveaux Straits, and who were engaged in what is known as 
44 shore-whaling " ; aud secondly, by the missionaries, who " were slowly winning their 
44 way through respect to influence in the Northern quarter." It remained, however, for 
Edward Gibbon Wakefield to lay the foundation stone of the Colony by forcing the 
Colonial Office to annex New Zealand. 44 Iu June 1839 Captain Ilobsou of the Royal 
44 Navy was directed to go to the Bay of Islands, armed with a dormant commission 
44 authorising him to annex all or part of New Zealaud, and to govern it in the name of 
44 Her Majesty, and ou January 1840 he stepped on shore at Kororareka. It is from 
44 this point, or rather from the signing of the treaty of Waitaugi in May of the same 
44 year, that the history of New Zealaud as a portion of the British Empire begins." 
The next fourteen chapters give a complete history of the Colony from this period to 
the present day. 

The work is well illustrated, and the tail pieces are from specimens of native 
carving. It is a pity, however, that in the illustration facing page 40 so evident a 
mistake should have been overlooked as calling the stern post of a canoe a " prow," 
more especially as the author further ou in the work figures a stern post from the British 
Museum collection, but without acknowledgment. On page 43 another clerical error 
appears, where the author speaks of mother-of-pearl shell as being used for decorative 
purposes, instead of haliotis shell. These, however, are but unimportant blemishes in a 
work of very high merit, which can be read with interest alike by the general reader 
and the anthropologist. J. E.-P 

Siam. Young. 

The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe : Being Sketches of the Domestic and QQ 
Religious Rites and Ceremonies of the Siamese. By Ernest Young, with illus- 5151 
trations by E. A. Norbury, R.C.A. Westminster : Archibald Constable & Co., 
1900 (new ed.) 8vo, pp. xiv + 399. Price 6*. 

The title of Mr. Young's book is perhaps somewhat misleading. The work does 
not in reality give any general account of Siam, or of the races inhabiting it. The 
44 City of the Yellow Robe," would have been more applicable, as it is a description, 
pleasantly and accurately written, of the city of Bangkok and the general everyday life 
of the Siamese in it, with instructive chapters on their religious ceremonies and their 
customs and ideas. On these subjects the work is decidedly valuable ; Mr. Young had 
considerable opportunities for observiug and recording the ways and thoughts of the 
people when residing as an officer of the Education Department in Bangkok. The 
author is not without humour and that kindly appreciation of the light side of life which 
is necessary to all who would understand life in IndoChina. In a series of chapters 
the main events in the life of a son of the people are recorded, from his birth to his top- 
knot cutting, his schooling, his temptations and indulgences, his merit making at the 
monastery, his marriage, his easy-going manhood largely dependent on an energetic wife 
who very literally is his better half, until the day when the priests are summoned to 

[ 121 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 99-100. 

perform the last rites, and the last remaining ashes are placed in the family urns. A 
chapter is devoted to Buddhism as practised in Siam, and some very cogent remarks 
occur in a chapter on " The Temples," regarding the extent to which the teachings of 
Buddha are corrupted and misunderstood among the majority of so-called Buddhists. 
Clojiked in the Pali language, which, to the majority of Siamese, conveys just as much 
as the Latin liturgy of the Roman church does to the majority of its devotees, the grand 
precepts of Buddha are rohhed of that simple directness which constitutes their great 
charm, with the results which are inevitable among a simple and credulous people. 
The essentials of the great founder's teachings are too often lost in a maze of traditions 
and superstitions, or swamped by the remains of the old nat or spirit worship of 
Indo-China, which is still very much alive in all the races of the great peninsula. 
Under the heading of " Religious Ceremonies" the author gives an account of many 
interesting customs, and recounts some of the miraculous stories which are the delight of 
the Eastern mind. The last two chapters of the hook are hardly as well stored with 
matter as the rest, the chapter on " The Elephants " being especially meagre considering 
the interest of the subject. Mr. Norbury's wash drawiugs, with which the book is 
copiously illustrated, are very charming, and give with great truth the spirit of the 
scenes about Bangkok. The pen-and-ink drawings may be accused of being a trifle 
heavy in detail, but are full of life, and add greatly to the interest of the book for the 
ordinary reader. H. W. S. 

West Africa. Kingsley. 

West African Studies. By Mary H. Kingsley. Second edition. Loudon : 4Afl 
Macmillan, 1901. Pp. xxxii, 507. Price 7*. M. lUU 

Before Miss Kingsley made her fatal voyage to South Africa she arrangod for the 
issue of a fresh edition of the volume which had contained the expression of much 
of her later thought on West Africau subjects. The important additions now made 
practically represent her latest conclusions. They consist of the Hibbert lecture on 
African Law and Religion delivered in 1897; portions of articles in the Morning 
Post, July 1898, on West African Property ; a lecture on Imperialism taking 
up the points of Mr. Wallace's paper on The Seamy Side of Imperialism of 
June 1899 ; and her lecture ou Imperialism in West Africa given in London, 
February 1900, just before she started. The well known Oxford lecture was an earnest 
aud strikiug effort to sketch the fundamental lines of native beliefs and laws, and to 
show how the two, the spiritual aud the practical, are necessarily intertwiued ; it 
opened the eyes of many and emphasised the " great human importance of the study 
of the religion, laws, and social status of the Africau native." This study was 
continued in the Post's articles (here misplaced as to date), which deal with several 
tribes but chiefly with the "true negro," a race for which Miss Kingsley had a great 
admiration. Here should be noted, in connection with recent deplorable attempts in 
West Africa to gain the "golden stool," the explanation — too short— of "Ancestral 
" property connected with the office of Headraauship, the Stool as the true negroes 
" call it, the Cap as it is called in the wreckage of the kingdom of Kongo." The 
need for the understanding spirit and the seeing eye in dealing with natives, so strongly 
insisted on by Miss Kingsley, was never better exemplified than iu this instance. 
Her last discourse in London, imbued with the same principle, is an impassioned plea 
for governing the West African colonies by an enlightened overlordship which shall 
recognise the native customs aud sense of right and wrong, giving them liberty, justice, 
aud representation in the forms suited to them ; above all impressing the sacredness 
of keeping word and oath, well understood by the " untutored mind." Illustrations 
of the tribal systems and of secret societies, as well as of the difficulties in getting 

[ 122 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 100-101. 

true information should render the last pages of this discourse of much interest to 
anthropologists as to others. 

To make room for the new matter, the appendices by the Comte de Cardi aud 
Mr. Harford are left out in the present edition. Mr. George Macmillan writes an 
introductory notice of the lamented authoress, characterised by taste and feeling, in 
which he priuts a remarkable letter written by her on the way to Cape Town to 
a native gentleman in Liberia, begging him, on his side, to make known " that there 
44 is an African law and au African culture ; that the African has institutions and 
44 a state form of his own.' 1 In her mind the African has also his duties towards the 
Empire. A good portrait adorns the volume. L. T. S. 

Africa: Ashanti. Freeman. 

Travels and Life in Ashanti and Jaman. By It. Austin Freeman. West- </%< 
minster: Arch. Constable & Co., 1898. Pp. 551, al>out 100 illustrations, and lUI 
2 maps. Price 21*. 

This book should be widely read at the present time, when recent events in Ashanti 
are fresh in the memory. It has, however, a more permanent value, as the author, 
Dr. Freeman, has given, with considerable success, an account of the country, the life, 
the dress and personal ornaments of the people, and has followed this by a resume of 
the historical facts connected with Ashanti, and the results of British ]M)licy there. 
There is a good chapter on the subject of malaria, and finally one on the commercial 
possibilities of the country. 

The interest of the book to anthropologists is, that the opportunity to study the 
interesting and remarkable people has almost completely passed, owing tJ the abolition 
of native rule. " Henceforward their religious rites will be performed in secret, aud 
44 their laws administered secretly or replaced by those of the white man, while the 
44 distinctive arts of the country hitherto mainly fostered by the magnificence of the 
44 court, and the love of gorgeous display on the part of the royal personages and chiefs, 
44 finding no occasion for their exercise, must inevitably die out/ 1 

We do not possess much literature on the subject of Ashanti, Bowdich (isly) and 
Colonel A. B. Ellis being practically the only two writers who have done justice to the 

The work is profusely and well illustrated by drawings made by the author, and 
from photographs, which are excellently reproduced. 

This liook needs careful reading, l>ecause a great deal of interesting anthropological 
detail is scattered throughout its pages, incorporated in the account of the journeys and 
the various palavers in which the author was engaged ; heuce, unless care is taken 
much that is of value is apt to be missed. 

In describing Kumassi, Dr. Freeman says, that amongst the numerous objects of 
interest there were none that made a greater impression upon him or seemed more 
significant than the sculptures with which most of the better class houses were adorned. 
The hut which he occupied presented varieties of every example of architectural 
ornament met with in the town. These sculptures may l>e divided into three classes, 
first, simple incised pattern on flat surfaces : second, designs in low relief ; third, 
perforated designs on fretwork. The incised ornaments were not numerous, generally 
simple in character and executed in red clay ; the raised designs were more elaborate, 
some indeed extremely intricate, and were used in two ways. Executed in red clay and 
in comparatively simple forms, they were used to enrich the fronts of the bases of houses, 
the lower meml>crs of walls, or the dies of pilasters. In more complex forms they were 
employed in panels in the middle members of walls, in friezes, in interior dados, and in 
tympana or gable ends. The third variety, the perforated or fretted ornaments, were 

[ 123 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 101. 

almost exclusively used in one form of house construction. In the better class of bouses, 
the front, instead of being entirely open, was closed at each end, by this latticework, of 
very elegant design, the central part only being open. In some cases the central 
opening was quite narrow, forming merely a doorway of ordinary width, while in others 
a comparatively small space at each end was thus closed in, the greater part of the 
house remaining open in front. The most common motives in these designs were, 
1, the spiral or volute ; 2, a kidney-like form derived from the volute ; 3, the circle 
(rather rare) ; 4, the zigzag ; o, a form somewhat like the stone arrow-head, so 
commonly used as an ornament by the Kansas, Soudanese, and Arabs ; aud various 
rectangular and other forms, which the author was not able to classify. These various 
ornameuts arc well illustrated in the text. 

Though not dealing with the subject of fetish with the same detail as the late 
Miss Kingsley, Dr. Freeman has some interesting information on this subject, as 
also upon the music, the salutations aud the dances of the people ; and the dress, 
too, ami manners and customs, and method of life are all sufficiently elucidated. 

A few of the people's folk-stories are given, as, for instance, " The Crow and the 
Vulture" (p. 284). 

On p. 331 there is a very interesting illustration of a " Saffi " or charm, written for 
the author by the Almani of Bontuku, to ensure safe return to the coast and subsequent 
good fortune. It is very like the charms used in the Egyptian Soudan and on the East 
Coast, as well as, we believe, in Arabia. 

Dr. Freeman says there seems to be a general agreement among all nations, civilised 
and barbarous, that the human body, as turned out by nature, is a crude, unfinished 
production, distinctly lacking in ornamental qualities, and requiring certain artificial 
touches to bring it up to the required standard of beauty. For this reason, in Africa 
tattooing is in vogue, ami the people make use of three kinds of markings. First, true 
tattoo marks ; second, plain incisions into the skin ; third, raised cicatrices. The first 
of these is very rare, however. 

It is interesting to notice that amongst the Ang-laws it is customary to distinguish 
certain members of the family by characteristic face marks — the elder of twins, for 
instance, l>eing distinguished by an oblique line passing downwards from the ala of the 
nose. And amongst the Gruiusi the slaves have as a mark a series of three broad lines 
radiating from the outer angle of each eye in addition to the ordiuary three lines on the 
face, which are almost universal in Central Africa. 

There are some very interesting remarks with regard to names. For instance, any 
remarkable circumstance connected with a child's birth will be commemorated by an 
added name ; twins receive additional names setting forth the peculiarity of their birth 
and differentiating them into male and female, elder and younger ; a posthumous child 
is distinguished by the added name, Doku. As the child grows up, some personal 
peculiarity may give rise to an added name, or a name may be given to indicate the 
social status, as "Koffi Donkor," meaning Koffi the foreign slave (in this case the 
" Koffi " would commemorate the day of purchase, not the day of birth). Then names 
occur very commonly which can be regarded only as nicknames, although they become 
after a time the recognised names of the persons to whom they are given. Among 
Hausas and other foreigners in the Gold Coast territories the names generally indicate 
♦ be place of birth ; as, for example, Yusufu Daudaura (Yusuf or Joseph of Daura- 
Da-n-Daura, meaning a son or native of Daura), &c. 

These remarks must suffice to show the interesting nature of this volume. 

YVe are glad to uotice that the human sacrifices are thought to be greatly exaggerated, 
the author remarking that every skull seen was put down to "a sacrifice," as also all 
legal executions. R. VV. F. 

[ 124 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 102-103. 

Anthropology, Schurtz. 

Urgeschichte dcr Kultur. By Dr. H. Scktirtz. Pp. xiv, 608, with [23 pi. Ag\f% 
and 434 blocks in the text. Leipzig : Bibliographischcs Institut, 1900. |UZ 
Price 18*. 

Dr. Schurtz has written a work which is worthy of his reputation. His history of 
civilisation supplies a distinct want ; it deals with the origin of trade and industry, with 
primitive art, sociology, religion, and science, and with the causes of national progress 
and decline. It is clear that no man can cover this grouud single-handed. Dr. Schurtz 
has been amaziugly industrious ; his work is in no sense a compilation ; but he would 
be the first to admit that he has had to rely on the results attaiucd by others in many 
parts of the field covered by the book. Unfortunately he has given us no references 
and no list of authorities ; we are therefore often in the dark as to the authorship of a 
theory or a statement and the foundation on which it stauds. Where, as in the dis- 
cussion on the origin of marriage, Dr. Schurtz meutious his authority — E. Westermarck 
— the importance of whose criticism of Morgan's theories he has over-rated, the reader 
can form an opinion for himself without much difficulty. Where the theory, as often 
happens, takes the form of an apodeictic assertion, the general reader, to whom the lx>ok 
will also appeal, canuot pursue the subject if he will, and cannot tell how far there is 
authority for the views expressed. Both a good classified bibliography and a fair 
number of references should be added in a future edition. 

These errors of judgment are, so to speak, external. It is of more importance that 
there is a certain lack of clearness in the treatment, or perhaps, we should say, an absence 
of definitions. We read, for example, on p. 556, that fetichism is, properly speaking, 
the worship of a chance object. Fetichism is a term actually used in more than one 
sense ; it may, indeed, be doubted whether the primitive savage ever does worship a 
chance object without regarding it as the abode of a spirit, but it is often understood to 
mean this ; further, fetichism, as Schurtz says, is by no means the same everywhere. It 
is therefore quite clear that, for the general reader at any rate, the term should be clearly 
explained, even if, which is very desirable, its use is not, in the interests of mutual 
intelligibility, restricted to one class of religious phenomena. These are, however, 
small points. On the whole Dr. Schurtz's book may be commended unreservedly ; not 
only will it interest the general reader and give him an insight iuto problems that have 
so far not prcseuted themselves to his mind, it will be a welcome addition to the library 
of the anthropologist. Some portions of the book, which deal with fields in which 
Dr. Schurtz has specialized, arc naturally more authoritative than others. But even in 
dealing with those subjects which he has not specially made his own, Dr. Schurtz has 
been able to avoid the pitfalls which beset the way. 

England is far behind other countries in works of this sort ; perhaps that is why 
anthropology is not yet regarded by the Government as a branch of investigation that 
should receive support from the national exchequer. A work of this kind in English 
might do much to raise anthropology to its proper place in this country. N. W. T. 

Pacific. Brigham. 

An Index to the Islands of the Pacific Ocean. By VV. T. Brigham, A.M. 1ftQ 
Honolulu, 1900. 4to., 170 pp. and 24 maps. IUJ 

This new publication of the Director of the Berniee Pauahi Bishop Museum at 
Honolulu is described as a handbook to the chart upon the walls of the museum, but its 
utility will assuredly not be confined within sueli narrow bounds. It is intended to 
assist those who arc engaged in the study of Pacific ethnology to locate with precision 
the multitudinous groups of islands and atolls which the ordinary atlas cannot attempt 

[ 126 ] 

1901] MAN. (Tfo. 108. 

to register. When it is mentioned that the index contains considerably more than 
3,000 names, it will be seen that the author's task has been by no means a light one. 
Findlay's valuable Directories of the North and South Pacific cover the same ground and 
more, but they arc expensive and primarily written for the use of navigators. It thus often 
happens that they give much information which those who consult them for purely ethno- 
graphical purposes do not require, and their charts are unnecessarily elaborate for purposes 
of speedy reference. The simplicity of Professor Brigham's maps is one of the many 
advantages of the Index, for the eye is not wearied by a mass of fiucly printed names 
obscuring the one or two which form the object of one's search. All the maps have 
been compiled from the best available material, Admiralty charts, &c, but finality has 
naturally not been attempted, for until exact surveys of the whole region have beeu 
completed the positions of many islands caunot be given with certainty. The author 
makes a wise protest against the notion that publication of useful matter should l>e 
constantly deferred in the hope of achieving perfect knowledge ; were such a system 
adopted, progress would, as he truly says, be indefinitely delayed. The orthography of 
native names is a perpetual source of difficulty, and it is here perhaps that students of 
language might be most inclined to join issue with Professor Brigham. But here again 
we may suppose that perfection is not attainable, and the modesty with which possible 
shortcomings in orthography are discounted in the preface must do much to disarm 
criticism. It will probably be uuaniinously conceded that the author has taken the only 
satisfactory course with regard to nomenclature, in reverting to native names wherever 
such can be proved i-o exist, and in their default adopting the name given by the first 
discoverer. If we are not mistaken this is the principle for which Dr. Von Luschan, of 
Berlin, has always so strenuously contended ; and with its general adoption, names like 
"Sandwich Islands "and "New Mecklenburg" must disappear from the map in favour 
of Hawaii and New Ireland. 

The information iu the index is confined to essential facts, and its character will be 
best understood from an example taken at random : — 

Huaiikin'E, easternmost of the Leeward group of the Society Islands, discovered 
by Cook, July 1769; 20 miles in circumference, divided at high water into 
Huaheine nui and Huahcine iti. Population, 1,100. 16° 42' 30" S., 
159° or 15" W. 20. 

Here the reader may look under the heading Society Islands for the general 
history of the group, and at Map 20 for the actual position of the Island. As an 
example of the thoroughness with which the author copes with difficulties of pro- 
nunciation, another example, also taken at random, may be quoted. For the general 
reader the island spelt Cicia but pronounced Thithia is likely to prove a source of 
confusion ; the cross-reference is duly given, so that the difficulty, probably created in 
the first instance by missionaries, is at once obviated. 

The Introduction, of some 30 pages, provides a short history of Pacific discovery 
from the early 16th ceutury onwards, with some important remarks on oceanography, 
on flora and fauna, ethnology, the whaling industry, missions in their relation to the 
native raoes, caunibalism, religion, language, and on the partition of the Pacific by the 
Powers, the whole intended to give the general reader a concise notion of the phj sical 
constitution and the occupants of the vast region with which the index deals. At the 
end of most sections is a short bibliography, making it easy for those who wish to do so 
to pursue their studies further. It should be added that throughout the hounds of the 
Pacific are taken to be on the north 30 u N., on the east 10.5° VV., on the south oo° S % 
on the west 130° E. ; the reasons for this definition will be found in the preface. To 
those, and they are many, who read much iu books of voyages and travels Professor 
Brigham's work will be a veritable godsend. Even the laziest reader can now, without 
consulting heavy atlases and cumbrous books of reference, find out his bearings and 

[ 120 ] 

190L] MAN. [Not. 103 104. 

realise exactly where be is. Deficiencies there amy hv in those useful pages, hut 
it must be remembered that the hook is professedly only a primer : as the author 
remarks, the primer must come before the reader, and if it clears the path by giving 
ground for just criticism it will not have beeu offered iu vain. By its various pub- 
lications, of which the present is a worthy example, the Bishop Museum is establishing 
a claim on the gratitude of all students of the ethnology of the Pacific Islands. 

O. M. 1). 

Folklore: Scotland. Campbell. 

Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland ; collected entirely IftA 
from Oral Sources. By John Gregorson Campbell, Minister of Tiree. IU" 
Glasgow : Mac Le hose & Sons, 1900. 8vo, pp. 318. Presented by the Publishers. 

In this work is published the first instalment of the materials collected by the 
late Minister of Tiree, after whose death the l>ook was entrusted to an editor, who 
remains anonymous. This is not in itself an objection, but it would have been well 
to inform the reader whether the work is published as Mr. Campbell left it, and, if not, 
how far the responsibility of the editor extends. If, in the absence of any definite 
statement, we may assume the former, we can only regret that Mr. Campltell did not, 
in the case of the tales, give more precise details as to sources ; it would have been 
advisable also to localise them and the superstitions more accurately thau has l»een done 
by the author, who remarks : "The beliefs of one district do not differ essentially from 
those of auother." Even were this true, the local variations of custom are always 

The greater part of this volume is devoted to fairies and similar Mugs, but the 
term fairy is understood iu a wider seuse ; the sit he It cam are of all sixes, from dwarf 
to giaut ; so far from being beautiful they frequently have some personal defect : the 
whirlwind, commouly regarded as the witch's chariot, is hero "the people's putV of 
wind"; ami like witches in other countries they arc kept at bay by strong odour*. 
Somewhat curiously handmills arc protected from them by Inking turned deiseal % sunwise; 
elsewhere the left turn is commoner in couutcrcharms. 

Among animal superstitions we read of the king otter, who is not, however, all 
white, as is usually the case; the one white spot is the only vulnerable one. In 
Sutherland the otter king is stated to l>o white (Folklore: I. vi, *Jli>) and thi* 
agrees with the belief found far outside the limits of Kuropc that I lie king of a 
species is white. The white animal is the favoured victim over a wide area. Serpent* 
and clock-beetles arc mercilessly killed; the dungheotle, us in Scandinavia and 
Germany, is spared ; in Scotland there is nothing recorded to conned it with tin* 
cult of Thor. 

Of the many other interesting facts the following are «pcciiiieii* : In u hoiii, object n 
are not to be called by the same names us on shore ; in Sk\e liien li^hleil on liuu«lli%u«lri nl 
the beginning of winter arc believed to attrnct the hen inpn, jiih an (lie liion ol iNoNcmhei 
oth at Hastings; meeting "plain soled " people is imhiek> ; \so liiul mnmii uialdiiii and 
seal- people ; the raven's nest courains a magic stone; and iiioiibIiiiuI blood in a pio 
phylactic against the evil eye. The more collection* of ihin miU we pel lite heller Mill 
be the verdict of all who read this interesting book ; and those who look al ihe question 
more from the scientific point of view will eche ihe wish. N. \\ . I\ 

l >-'7 J 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 105-106. 

Proceedings. Soc. d'Anthr. de Paris. 

Sommaire % des Proces-verbaut de la Seance da 20 juin 1901. IfilL 

La Societe nccepte )e principe d'uiu' conference internationalc pour etablir IU%I 
uue bibliographie anthropologique a la condition que cette bibliographie soit iudepeudante 
de toute autre publication. 

M. Thiot presentc des objets provonant d'tine station prehistorique de I'epoque 
tardenoisienne a Warluis (Oise). Discussion : MM. Atgier, Tate, Thieullen. 

M. le Dr. F. Regnault fait uue communication sur le femur ; empreinte iliaque, 
angle dn col. 

M. le Marquis de Cacqueray de Lorme presente des photographies et des pieces ile 
la Nouvelle Guiuee anglaise. Discussion : MM. Tate, Atgier, Thieullen, Sanson 
d'Echerar. Zaborovvski, Verneau, Lejcune. 

M. Paul-Boucour fait uue communication sur des modifications squclcttiqucs «les 
os longs du membre superieur dans rhemiplegie infimtile. Discussion : MM. Manouvrier, 

M. Fouju : Decouverte d'uiie sepulture neolithique a Presles (Seine et Oise) avec 
gisement de silex aux aleutours. 

Sommaire des Proces-verbaax de la Seance da \juillet 1901. 

Presentations. — M. A. de Mortillet : Objets tertiaires du Cantal. 

M. Laville : Vase canaque et silex tallies des environs de Beauvais. 

M. P. do- Mortillet : Dent d'elepluuit et coup de poing chclleen du Vesinet. 
Discussion : M. A. de Mortillet. 

M. Zaborowski : Portraits de femmes de la Vendee des Dcux-Sevres etde la Vienne. 
Discussion : MM. A. de Mortillet et Sebillot. 

Communications. — Mine. Alexandra Myrial : Lea Mantras aux Indes. Discussion : 
MM. Garnault, Atgier, Zaborowski, Regnault. Mine. Myrial. 

M. Yves Gnyot : Sur les Vaal pens, race aborigenede PAfriqne du Sud. Discussion : 
MM. Verneau, Zaborowski. 

M. R. II. Mathews : Organisation dos tribus aborigenes de TAustralie. 

M. Pommerol : La fete des brandons et le dieu Grannus. 

Proceedings. Anthropological Institute. 

Summer Excursion, June 22, UK) I. At the iuvitition of Mr. and Mrs. Edge- IOC 
Partington the Institute visited Park Hall, (treat Bardficld, to study Mr. Edge- IUO 
Partington's ethnographical collections. After lunch the president proposed a hearty 
vote of thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Edge-Partington for their hospitality, which was carried 
by acclamation. The party theu proceede 1 to inspect the collections uudor the guidance 
of Mr. Edge-Partington, who called attention to the various points of interest. 

Extraordinary Meeting , June 25, 1931. Prof. A. C. Haddou, F.R.S., president in 
the chair. 

Dr. W. II. R. Rivers read a paper, illustrated by lantern slides, on " The Colour 
Sense of the Natives of Upper Egypt." The paper was discussed by Prof. Sully, Miss 
Pengelly, and Messrs. MacDougall, Edridge Green, C. S. Myers, and W. H. Winch. 

A paper by Mr. Basil Thompson on " The Natives of Savage Island " was taken 
as read. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Dr. Rivers for his paper. 

Correction — Man, 1901 — 90, line 11 from bottom, read "collected by Miss Owen 
and presented by her . . ." Line 6, for " Yuao " read " lnao." 

Printed by Etre AND Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, E.C. 

Man. 1901 Plate I-J. 


1901] MAN. [Nos. 107-108, 

Egypt. With Plate I- J. Petrie. 

An Egyptian Ebony Statuette of a Negress. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, Ifl"? 
Edwards Professor of Egyptology at University College.. l\3t 

The ability of the Egyptians in expressing the characteristics of a race is well 
kuown, and it has never been better shown than in this statuette. The 6gure is carved 
in ebony and highly polished ; it is of the size here shown. The original motive is 
that the girl has before her a monkey walking upright with a tray on its head ; the 
marks of the edge of the tray are seeu on the breasts and sternum; the hands of the 
girl were occupied in steadyiug the tray. The figure of the monkey is. however, by an 
inferior hand, and it is, therefore, omitted here in order to show the girl's figure better. 

The race is that of the negroes of the upper Nile, who were brought into Egypt in 
large numbers as slaves, especially in the time of the Eighteenth Dynasty, to which this 
figure certainly Wongs. The same small tufts of hair are shown on negro children in the 
well-known group figured in Wilkinson's Manners and Customs, fig. 88. 

The prognathism of the profile is uot at all exaggerated, and the good modelling of 
the jaw and lips is noticeable. The expression is admirably given ; the intent careful 
air, looking down at the tray which is being carried ; the complete childish innocence, 
and absence of self consciousness. The perfect treatment of the under side of the jaw, 
its junction with the neck, and the pose of the head, are points which show a fine artist. 
The ears are pierced in the lower lobes. 

The shoulders and the hips are excellently modelled ; the rounding of the muscles 
of the back, firm and full, can scarcely be appreciated in the side view. Iu the lower 
limbs the rendering of the action is very lifelike ; the left leg is firm and supporting, 
the right is being slowly raised at the heel for the gentle forward movement of guiding 
the monkey iu front. The balance of the whole figure leaves nothing to be dosired. 

Jn comparison with the other statuettes made by Egyptians, now at Bologna, 
Florence, and elsewhere, this is by far the best ; to the present, this stands as the 
finest piece of Egyptian sculpture on a small scale. It was found at Thebes about 
1896, was sold by Ali Arabi at Cairo, aud is uow preserved at University College, 

Bibliography. Thomas. 

Suggestions for an International Bibliography of Anthropology. By N. W. Af\f\ 
Thomas, M.A. |UO 

It has often been pointed out that the second discovery of a fact is sometimes less 
easy than the first. In the absence of an adequate bibliography, the specialist has to 
ransack an enormous mass of literature iu order to discover what facts bearing on his 
subject have already been recorded. It lies in the nature of things that the anthro- 
pologist suffers more from this cause than other scientific workers ; information with 
regard to l>eliefs and customs is easily gathered, aud the last thing which enters 
the non-anthropological mind is the idea that such information is of value to the 
anthropologist and should be put at his disposal. It is too often dumped down iu the 
most inaccessible places, and chauce alone brings it to light again. 

Mauy partial bibliographies exist ; most anthropological societies make the attempt 
to keep their members more or less informed of new discoveries. But by a very natural 
limitation the smaller articles cither escape notice or are not considered worth noticing, 
with the result that they seldom or never reach the anthropological world at large ; they 
have at most a circulation in their country of origin. As I recently pointed out in 
Globus (LXXX, p. 37), even the bibliography of the Archiv fiir Anthropologies which is 
in many respects a model, is extraordinarily incomplete wheu one looks into the details. 

[ 129 ] 

19010 MAN. CHo. 101 

lu a receut volume English folklore was represented by six items ! If this is the case 
with the A re fur, which takes years in preparation, it is i fortiori true of other 
bibliographies. The mass of anthropological matter in periodical and other literature 
is ho large that the horizon of the bibliographer does not extend much beyond the limits 
of his own country, even if — which is not always the case— it includes all home 

It might lie {wssihle for a single society to produce a fairly complete bibliography. 
The work must, however, inevitably have its commercial side. I venture to thiuk that 
no society and no publishing firm would care to embark single-handed ooau undertaking 
which would involve the assistance of paid contributors in most, if not all, civilised 
countries. If they did, business considerations would necessarily in the long run have 
an influence on the completeness of such a bibliography. 

The question is essentially one for the anthropological world at large. A far more 
practical, and at the same time more logical, procedure would be for the anthropological 
societies to combine to produce an annual bibliography. In each country a society or 
combination of societies would make itself responsible for the publications, periodical 
and otherwise, of that country. The local sub-editors would prepare slips for each book 
or article ; these would contain all the usual bibliographical details,. and, in addition, a 
resume or list of the contents, which would \te as short as possible consistently with 
clearness. These slips would be sent to the editor of the bibliography from time to 
time, whose husiuess it would be to secure uniformity, and to arrange the slips ou a 
system to be described later. It would, of course, 1x3 possible for a society to make the 
editor-in-chief responsible for the slips, either iu whole or in part. No doubt the 
authors themselves would iu course of time undertake the preparation of slips for their 
works, and in this way relieve the contributors to the bibliography. Then, too, the 
short notices which ap(>ear in the American Anthropologist and other journals might 
readily be adapted for the bibliography, especially if the compilers bear in mind the use 
to which they will be put. 

There will probably be little difference of opinion as to the ground which the 
proposed bibliography should cover. The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 
provides for Somatology, Physiology, Psychology, Geology, &c, and, though it may be 
necessary to include a few headings in these subjects which have no place in the 
International Catalogue, it will (dearly be unnecessary to cover the ground again ; the 
mere fact that one volume would probably not suffice for the whole bibliography, if these 
branches of anthropology were included, is a sufficient reason against entering iuto 
competition at present with the International Catalogue. It is unnecessary to speculate 
as to what steps may be advisable at a later period when the question of the revision of 
the schedule of the International Catalogue becomes a burning one*. 

The subjects to be dealt with would therefore be as follows : — 

1. General: Methodology, Bibliography, Biography, &c. 

2. Somatology (supplementary to the International Catalogue, if necessary). 

3. Ethnology, including Sociology, Technology, Linguistics, Primitive 

Religion, aud Folklore 

4. Ethnography, iucluding Origin aud Relationship of Races and People, 

Migrations, Anthropo-Geography, &c. 

5. Prehistoric Archaeology. 

This scheme, propounded by Dr. Brintou, will probably be found in practice to have 
the balance of convenience ou its side. Questions will, of course, arise as to sub- 
divisions ; the section of Religion and Folklore presents great difficulties as soon as one 
endeavours to evolve a satisfactory system of classification. Many items, too, iu the 
division of Prehistoric Archaeology might also be classified under Technology aud other 
headings. Questions of this sort, however, may be left for detailed discussiou at an 

[ I*) ] 

IdOl] MAN. tNo. lft. 

international conference ; even should a compromise between contending parties prove 
unattainable, the differences that will arise are unlikely to wreck the bibliography. For, 
provided that the system of classification adopted be sufficiently simple, and that changes 
in the system are not made at too frequent intervals, it will be found that the practical 
difference between widely different schemes is not large. It will be noticed that no 
provision is made in the above scheme for descriptions of individual races and peoples. 
Such a description will, of course, include items failing under many sections of the 
schedule, of which the main heads have been given above ; it is, therefore, of a general 
character, and cannot properly be included iu the schedule. It will be simpler to meet 
the case by adopting a primary geographical classification, with a supplementary 
alphabetical list of general articles. In theory, perhaps, an ethnical classification is 
better, but a geographical arrangement may without much difficulty be made on the 
somewhat indefinite lines of the International Catalogue, and uniformity in this direction 
should certainly be kept in view. 

Each title should be distinguished by a reference number by which it would be 
designated in the classificatory second part. It would probably be well, as already 
suggested, to add a brief table of contents, at any rate of those works where anthropo- 
logical data are only sparsely scattered. To provide against errors of classification it 
would be well if the preparation of these tables of contents were made a part of the work 
of the editor-in-chief ; if they were compiled by the sub-editors there would be almost 
inevitably a certain lack of uniformity. To provide a basis for this table of couteuts it 
would l>e the duty of the subeditors to prepare for the use of the editor-in-chief 
extremely brief notes ; these might be written either ou the title slip, or better, on 
separate slips which would be tied to the title slip and might afterwards become the 
basis of a slip-catalogue. The editor-in-chief would classify all the slips under the 
proper subheadings of the schedule, and these subheadings would alone appear iu the 

The form of the first part of the bibliography would therefore be somewhat as 
follows : — 


1205. Wiese, 0., Beitrage zur Geschichte der Zulus im Norden der Zambesi, 
uamentlich der Angoni. 

Ztachr. f. Fithn., XXXI I., 181-202. Witchcraft, Initiation Ceremony (girls). Marriage, Gods, Cult 
of Ancestors, Future Life (in animal form), Divination, &c. 

Reference to reviews and the more important notices would follow. 

In the second part, the main divisions of which, cited above, would be divided and 
subdivided again, these entries would reappear in the following form : — 

Gult of Ancestors. 

Africa (Zulus), 1205. 

This would mean that the title of a work which included information ou the cult of 
ancestors among the Zulus would be found on turning to No. 1205 in the first part. 

The arrangement of the first part being geographical, it will l>e uecessary to have 
an index of authors and an index of tribes ; the latter should be amply cross- referenced 
to obviate the difficulties which might arise from the unsettled nomenclature and make 
it sometimes not too easy to identify the tribe to which a foreign author refers. To 
facilitate reference to the classificatory portion, au index of headings and subheadings 
will be necessary ; this index also should be freely supplied with cross-references. 

It is hardly necessary to point out the value of a bibliography* such as the one here 
outlined. At preseut, as I have pointed out, many items never come within the 
bibliographer's uet ; by international co-operation a far greater degree of completeness 

[ 131 ] 

IdOl] MAN. [No. 108. 

would certainly be obtained. At present, even in the bibliography of the Archiv, classi- 
fication is as good as non-existent : if there is any indication of the contents (beyond the 
name of the tribe), the absence of an index renders it impossible to find the required 
references except by reading through the whole bibliography. The proposed scheme 
would obviate any difficulty of this sort. Au international scheme would probably have 
another advantageous result ; at present the terminology of anthropology is in a very 
unsettled state, at any rate as regards the main divisions of the subject. In Dr. 
Brinton's classification ethnology has no necessary connection with questions of race, and 
is concerned entirely with technology and " Volkerpsychologie." Professor Keane's 
Ethnology, on the other hand, is occupied with racial questions, and concerns itself 
with what Dr. Brinton terms ethnology, only in so far as it throws light on origins. An 
authoritative pronouncement by an international conference would probably go far to 
settle the meaning to l>e given in future to these and other terms. 

At preseut the specialist is dependent partly on the efforts of his predecessors, partly 
ou his own efforts for a bibliography of his subject. It may easily happen that two authors 
laboriously work over the same enormous mass of literature, for want of a bibliography, 
in order to collect their facts ; the anthropologist is content to leave these matters to 
chance ; no attempt is made by united effort to make readily available for our own and 
for future generations the enormous mass of material that is being collected year by year. 
We flatter ourselves that Anthropology has put off its swaddling clothes, but we act as 
if colleciion of tacts alone were all that is needed for the advancement of the Science 
of Mau. In our days, when the savage is disappearing before the schoolmaster, the 
gin bottle, and the missionary, collection is more important than analysis, provided that 
nothing be passed over ; the maiu value of hypotheses lies in directiug atteution to facts 
which might be overlooked until it is too late. But with the collection of facts must 
go, hand-in-hand, a classification and pigeon-holing of them which will permit them to be 
found when wanted. This last is the function of a bibliography. If the anthropological 
world has the real interests of anthropology at heart it will not permit the cost of such 
an undertaking to deter it. 

The question of ways and means is undoubtedly a serious one if the whole financial 
responsibility falls upon the societies ; this is more especially the case in those countries 
which, like England, are not yet sufficiently eulighteued to understand that authropology 
is worthy of support from a practical, no less than a scientific point of view, and can throw 
unexpected light on the problems that present themselves to the civil servant who is 
brought in contact with native races. 

It may be possible to come to an arrangement with a publisher ; the details of such 
an arrangement cannot be profitably discussed here. • If this is impracticable it will be 
necessary for the societies to subscribe or guarantee a certain amount, receiving in return 
free copies, or copies at a reduced rate. Iu either case a portion of. the edition might be 
put on the market in the ordinary way and the receipts would be available for reducing 
the liability of the societies. 

All societies expend a considerable part of their income on their publications ; if it 
is impossible to meet the expense in any other way it is a matter for serious consideration 
whether a certain portion of this expenditure might not more profitably be devoted to 
the preparation of au annual bibliography. At present the work of collection is most 
important ; classification takes the second place ; the building up of theories may be 
left, if necessary, for future generations. 

There is another question which the anthropological world would do well to 
consider. The proposed bibliography will lighten the burden of the individual student 
in the future. For the past we have practically no general bibliographies which go 
back more than thirty years ; those which have appeared are incomplete, and iu the 
absence of subject classification and indication of contents, they are little more than 

[ 132 ] 



[Nob. 108-109. 

of works which tl musl consult. A ooniplei anthro- 

pology would be iin euormom undertaking, b inning should 

Ti>i> i- bardly Ike plae* ronld 

probably It -imp ,.i, conntrj to and literature and deal with it 

<m (i annual bibliography. i be the 

appointment of editors for dMfhreul geographical areas who would receive from the 
itriei ilf pe foi those books only which contained information with regard 
to fch rea. In England the Folklore Society i- contemplating the pnbiicat 

of a general bibliography of English Folklore it' iln Imited to the 


should nni be made to expand and technoloj it. The 

Folklore Society has in it- mueenm object! which bars m> connection with religion or 

folklore, ai Folklore Is defined uid; if bowe and and beadwork find ji 

e in tln-ir miiMum, ir i* lUogieal t«» exclude from tin- bibliography the heading el 

: wIkii i- Folklore in ■• tnuaean ore in a b St\ 1 lloMAs. 


Africa : Tunis. Myres. 

A I*i*cv t*( Early Masonry *tt Ckaouack in Tunis* By John 1-. M 

The native Tillage of Chaooaoh Ilea on u bold spw of the moon which overhang 
the north side of the broad valley of "I" Itejerds river (ana Baft* font 

7". km. from [ta mouth, and about 60 ft the town of Tunis, the neaieai railway 

sial kledjez-el-Beb, is 

ui S km. away from (he 
iL'**. [mmediatelj 
the modern village lie the 
ruin- a mul] Rom 

town "i Sua, ih** name el 
which prob 

the same native word as 
Chaooaoh \ <>n tic edge of 
m immediately to Hi»* 
nori He the remi 

oi innumerable chambered 
r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i which been 

■rilKsti alrendj bj M, 

(TAntkr.di C^on, \ II i IC 
|i. 7 Exploration \*t- 

tkropoi&aitjrm <l< Kkoum 
\}x Bulletin d \phU historifut eidem etp Bg& 16 and 17m and m 

cliffs which bound the ralley, ■ ntun nail fori, 

tombs which {JBulL <l< Gcogr** I- IS), 

and which resent! *th ibeiemfte be primiti 

tombs of tin Bengemma hill i 71). 

Both the Roman cite, and the twa mitj 

deecrilu-d el- DOrfcHMI tfa bVOtlei eppe*n tu b*VS noir.l 

the remarkable piece *»i masonry which li in the photograph, au«l whidi, 

when observed in IWW by Mi. A. J. Bvans and myself, proved to be unrecorded among 
the then known DOnnBMOtl of Tunis. The wall ifandfl <>n the north edge of the villi 
nearly e4 the summit of the spur ebov< and facing Dorthwanj 

t »» ] 



CNos. 109-110. 

neck which joins it with the moorland. Tin- section which js exposed to view stands 

B two in.'tn- ahOTO jJT'mnd, and is surmounted by 31 modern hoiisewall of BOM 
and niff which small clinging plants appear, in the 

photograph, marki the upper margin of the old masonry* 

The style of the masonry i* peculiar, and mpletc oontraal both with the 

unhewn stones of the prehistoric tumuli, and with the regular inodomous masonry of 
the Roman site below the bill* If one had met with such a wull in Sicily, in South 

Italy, or id Greece, one would have Bald without hesitation that it wai Greek wori 

the sixth B,( - But how doc- BWrJl work come here, in the heart of Carthaginian 

Africa? A further difficulty arises from the Bad c lint the ver y few fragments nf 

une Punic m rvivc at Carthage itself, namely the sixth century 

tombs excavated by Pcre Delattre on the smith v ide of the Byrsa {Lrs Tomh* 

rvtuifitvn dv Cartkagt % Lj pole Pratique de la Collins de Sf, Louh* 

Ex trait Lyon, 1896), do nol byanymeane conform to the 

style of tlie wall at Cfa&OUl B hhk-Ii iv regularly isotlninons, and then 

few groal blocks of the kind which are 10 marked ■ feature here. The conclusion, 

however, Bet m> inevitable thai Ibia piece <>f wall must )>e assigned to the earlier ball of 
Carthaginian domination; and if bo, the style of tin only one piece of 

evidence the more in support of the impression which is so strongly oomreyed by the 
contents of the Carthaginian tombs already meatioaed : namely, that iu the sixth 
century B.C. the material civilisation of CeJ raa already in great measure 

dominated by the higher art and industry of her Hellenic rivals. J, L, MYRKS. 

Pacific: Tonga. Thomson. 

A Sfttnf Celt from Tonya. By Basil Thomson, lately H.M. Special lift 
I <nnmissioner to Ton^a. I IU 

At the dose of my recent mission to Tonga, which resulted in a British Protec- 
torate over the «rrotip, I received two pi< the first was a piece of red, hand-made 
■-Men atoth, Bent by the King of Tonga as a gift toller Majesty, the late Queen, 
which had been given to his aucestor by Captain Cook in 1777, and which is now in 
the roval collection at Windsor Castle; the other w:i^ the B10HC celt, which I send for 

the inspection of members of the Institute. This was presented to me by Fat&fehi, 
the king** father and the Tongan plenipotentiary, who said that, as he knew that I prized 
things of the ancient time, he wished to signalize the signing of the treaty by giving 
me something that bad been preserved fof generationa in his family — that of tht 


f W ] 



[Nos. 110-11L 


line of kin^s (Tim Tonga). The celt. measures 9^ inches long by 3J inches wide in its 
brootlest part; It it made of ltt otive-f tic full of grey longitudinal veins, and 

beautifully polished. Urn- tA gtnielf %\ ofiee bj ita departure from I he usual shape of 

Toagaa eelti (which are tredge-ehaped, angular, and roughly made)* as well us by die 

itself, which il * »f a kind not found in Tonga. It was obvious that it has been 

brought from auothei island, hut nil flint Fatafehi GOllld tell me about it was that it had 

bean handed dQWU fof many lo-nernf i<>ns as an heirloom in his family. On my return to 

rlaud J Rhowed if ii* Sir William M hired that without a shadow of 

• loiihi it had oootf from Wood lark Island at the Qorih-eaal end of New Guinea, when 

he had himself discovered the quarry from whieh alone this peculiar rained stone is 

procured, It baa, moreover, the shape and finish of the New Guinea oelti WTe hi 

therefore, the problem nf a New Gui&ei implement in the pi I ol the Ton;; 

If F raa mistaken in the time during whieh the stone bad heeu in Tonga the 

Rotation would be simple, for the whaler* and sandal wood ers made Tongi b port of call. 

But there were neither whalers nor trader- before 1790, and if the stone had been 

bronglil to Tonga by Teaman or Cool of d'Sutrecaateaux, I think ilm jin would 

he remembered. Fatafehi, at all events, \\»> positive that it had been Id his family for 
more than a OSOiory, As evidence of the migration of ill*' Polynesians from the 
westward it must be taken for what it is worth. 

Totemism : South Africa. Frazer, 

nth Afncwt Totemism. By J. <*♦ Frazer, M.A.. LittJX, DA L. + + + 

In lie -e\»tilh volume of his series of Record* <>/ South- Eastern Aftica % 
published this fwtr% the indefatigable historian Mr. G. McCall Tbeal has included i 
valuable summary of information oti the Bantu tribes of South Africa. As the passage 
in whieh lie deeeffibel the lotemie system of the tribes not only throw- DOW \lgh< 
that system, hut appears to have an important bearing on recent disopjsioQi a- to 
the origin of totemism, renders of Man may he glad to have El reprinted bare. If runs 
as follows :« — 

"The Bantu believed that sfaesptril rieode ami descendants 

in the form of auiimiU. Each tribe HB particular animal as the <»rn« Selected 

hv (be ghosts <d' ii- kindred, and therefore looked upon it M MCTCd. 1 he lion w;ix |[,,|. 

held iu veneration i-\ one tribe, the erooodtte by another, the python by a third, Ibe 

hliiehuek by a fourth, and soon. When a division of a tribe took place, eaeh section 
i.t;iiiicd the same ancestral animal, and thus a simple method II afforded of ascertaining 

the with que eommiuiitici of former time-. For instance^ at lira present 

day a special <>f make is held by people a> far sontb as the month of the Flab River 
and by Othen. OCar the Zamboaj to be the form IQ whieh their dead appear, 

u This belief caused com tractive animals aa the lion and the rriMoll 

be protected from harm in certahi parts of the country. It was not believed that every 
lion or every croeodile was a disguised spirit, hut then any one might be, and so none 
were molested unless under peoaBat eireQBU ien it f|| elearly apparent that 

[ i» ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 111-112. 

the animal was an aggressor and therefore not related to the tribe. Even then if it 
could be driven away it was not killed. A Xosa of the present time will leave his hut 
if an ancestral snake enters it, permitting the reptile to keep possession, and will shudder 
at the thought of any one hurting it* The animal thus respected by one tribe was, 
however, disregarded and killed without scruple by all others. 

" The great majority of the people of the interior have now lost the ancient belief, 
but they still hold in veneration the animal that their ancestors regarded as a possible 
embodied spirit. Most of them take their tribal titles from it, thus the Bakwena are the 
crocodiles, the Bataung the lions, the Baphuti the little blue antelopes. Each terms the 
animal whose name it bears its siboko, and not only will not kill it or eat its flesh, but will 
not touch its skin or come iu contact with it in any way if that can be avoided. When 
one stranger meets another and desires to kuow something about him, he ask*, * To what 
do you dance ? ' and the uameof the animal is giveu in reply. Dos Santos, a Portuguese 
writer who had excellent opportunities of observation, states that on certain occasions, 
which must have been frequent, men imitated the actions of their siboko ; but that 
custom has now almost died out, at least amoug the southern tribes.' 

" The people aloug the south-eastern coast, though separated into distinct 
communities absolutely independent of each other from a time as far back as their 
tradition reaches, are of common tribal origiu. They all regard the same species of 
snake as the form in which their aucostral shades appear." 

Thus, if Dr. TheaFs account is correct (and I kuow no reason to doubt it), the 
totemism of the Bantu tribes of South Africa resolves itself into a particular species 
of the worship of the dead ; the totem animals are revered as incarnations of the souls of 
dead ancestors. This eutirely agrees with the general theory of totemism suggested by 
the late G. A. Wilken and recently advocated by Prof. E. B. Tylor (Journ. Anthr. Inst. y 
XXVIII., p. 146 et seq.). How far that theory can be reconciled with the different 
explanations of totemism suggested by the Central Australian evidence (Journ. Anthr. 
Inst., XXVIII., pp. 275-286 ; Fortnightly Review, N.S. LXV., pp. 647-665, 835-852), 
♦and confirmed, for the Papuan nice, by the evidence collected by Prof. Haddon in Torres 
Straits (Folk-lore, XII., p. 230 et seq.) remains to be seen. Fresh light may perhaps be 
thrown on the question by the researches which Prof. Baldwin Spencer and Mr. F. J. 
Gillen are at present prosecuting in Central Australia. .But it is quite possible, as 
Prof. Haddon has well said, " that what is described as totemism in one place may be 
different in its origin from that which is called totemism elsewhere." J. G. FRAZER. 

Africa : East. Pelkin. 

A Collection of objects from the district to the South west of Lake Nyassa. ii#> 
With notes by R. W. Felkin, M.D., and others. I \L 

The objects represented in the photograph were collected by the Rev. R. Stewart 
Wright, of the Manse, Haydon Bridge, Northumberland. They are now iu the posses- 
sion of Dr. Felkin, and were exhibited at a meeting of the Anthropological Institute in 
the latter part of 1900 (Journ. Anthr. Inst., XXX., Miscellanea, No. 120 pp.). 

The information which has been collected about them is very scanty, and they are 
figured now in the hope that some of the readers of Man may be able to throw some 
further light upon their peculiarities. 

Of No. 1 Mr. Stewart says : — " The scraper-and-dagger combined is used by the 
" Shire Highlanders. It is made by the Ngoni, living to the west of Lake Nyassa, 
" who do not think of putting a handkerchief to its legitimate use, wheir it will answer 
" the purpose of a suit of clothes. The carrier, when toiling along under a heavy 
" burden, with the sweat streaming down his face, scrapes it away with his iron scraper, 
" while the reverse end may be useful as a defence should he be attacked at close 
" quarters." 

[ 136 ] 



[Nos. 112-113. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are a combined dagger and beer ladle ; the former lurks in the 
handle of the latter, which is hollowed to form its sheath. Mr. Stewart Wright says : — 
"The combined knife and beer ladle is unique, as 1 have never seen a duplicate of it. 
" I should imagine that the maker had the idea that he would have a knife always at 
*' hand, in case of a drunken brawl. I got it in the Shire Highlands ; it was made by 
" a Mutiguiijm." 

Xo. 4 appears to be a small fighting axe. The blade is of iron, and of a curious 
recurved form. The mode of haftiug is peculiarly simple ; the blade being simply thrust 
through a hole in the haft, and secured by a wrapping of bark-cloth. The handle is 
carved into a conventional representation of the head of a gazelle, or other horned 
animal. There are no details as to the place or mode of manufacture. 

No. 5 is a short iron spear with a flowing tuft of hair at the butt-end. Mr. Stewart 
Wright says of it : — " The spear is made, fused, by the Ngoui. It is a stabbing spear, 
" aud used in finishing off the wounded after a battle." 


Ethnographic Survey. 

Ethnoyrtiphic Survey of India in connection with the Census of 1901. 11Q 
Extract (Nos. 3219-3232) from the Proceeding** of the Government of India 110 

in the Home Department i' Public), under date Simla, the 23rd May, 1901 : together with 
a letter from Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., F.R.S., President of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Scieuce. 

In August 1882, when the statistics of the census of 1881 were still in process of 
compilation, the Census Commissioner suggested that steps should be taken to collect full 
information regarding castes and occupations throughout British India. The proposal 
was commended to local governments and administrations and the Bengal Government 
undertook an ethnographic survey of the customs of all important tribes and castes in 
Bengal, and an anthro|M>metric inquiry, according to the methods prescribed by the 
French anthropologists Broca and Topinard, into the distinctive physical characteristics of 
selected tribes aud castes in Bengal, the North- Western Provinces, Oudh, and the Punjab. 
The results of these inquiries were recorded in the four volumes of the Tribes and Castes 
of Bengal. 

[ 137 ] 

190L] MAN. [No. 118. 

In December 1899, when the preliminary arrangement* for the census of 1901 were 
under consideration, the British Association for the Advancement of Science recommended 
to the Secretary of State, in the letter appended,* that certain ethnographic investigations 
should l>e undertaken in connection with the census operations. Their proposals may be 
summarized as comprising : — 

(j.) Ethnography, or the systematic description of the history, structure, traditions 
and religious and social usages of the various races, tribes and castes in 
India ; 
(ii.) Anthropometry, or measurements directed to determining the physical types 

characteristic of particular groups ; and 
(iii.) PnoTOORAPns of typical individuals and, if possible, of archaic industries. 

The scientific importance of the investigations recommended by the British 
Association is admitted in Sir Arthur Godley's letter, dated the 16th January 1900, to 
the address of the Association, and the Government of India are in entire agreement 
with this view. It has come to be recognised of late years that India is a vast store- 
house of social and physical data which only need to be recorded in order to contribute 
to the solution of the problems which are being approached in Europe with the aid of 
material much of which is inferior in quality to the facts readily accessible in India, and 
rests upon less trustworthy evidence. Mention may be made of Sir Alfred LyalTs 
Asiatic Studies, of Professor Haddon's Study of Man, of M. Emile Senart's Les Castes 
dans VInde, and of Dr. W. Z. Ripley's recent work on The Races of Europe, as showing 
the extensive use that has beeu made by ethnologists of data collected in India. It 18 
true that various social movements, aided by the extension of railways, are beginning, 
as Sir Alfred Lyall and others have pointed out, to modify primitive beliefs and usages 
in India, but that is all the more reason for attempting to record them before they are 
entirely destroyed or transformed. 

It is unnecessary to dwell at length upon the obvious advantages to many branches 
of the administration in this country of an accurate and well-arranged record of the 
customs and the domestic and social relations of the various castes and tribes. The 
entire framework of native life in India is made up of groups of this kind, and the status 
and conduct of individuals are largely determined by the rules of the group to which 
they belong. For the purposes of legislation, of judicial procedure, of famine relief, of 
sanitation and dealings with epidemic disease, and of almost every form of executive 
action, an ethnographic survey of India, and a record of the customs of the people is as 
necessary an incident of good administration as a cadastral survey of the land and a 
record of the rights of its tenants. The census provides the necessary statistics ; it 
remains to bring out and interpret the facts which lie behind the statistics. 

Experience has shown that in ethnology, as in archeology, nothing can be done on 
a large scale in India without the active assistance of Government. That assistance, 
however, can only be given under certain conditions, the chief of which seem to the 
Government of India to be the following : — 
(i.) The scheme must not cost much : 
(ii.) It must produce definite results within a reasonable time ; and 

(iii.) It must noL impose much extra work on the district officers — Collectors or 
Deputy Commissioners. 

* Britixh Axxflc'xtt'ioH for the Advancement of Science, Jtiirtinijton Hohmc, Isondim If".. 

December 1809. 

My Loud — At the meeting of the Hritish Association for the Advancement of Science at Dover, 

attention was called to the special op|>crtunity offered by the census about to >>e taken in India for 

collecting valuable ethnographical data concerning the races of the country : and the Council of the 

Association having taken the matter into consideration, and being impressed by its scientific 

I. 138 ] 

1S0L] MAN. [Ho. 113. 

The scheme which has been prepared under the orders of the Governor-General in 
Council, and which has now received the sanction of the Secretary of State, is the 
following : — 

I. Local governments will select from among their officers some one who will 
undertake to carry on the inquiries proposed, in addition to his ordinary 
duties. He will be called Superintendent of Ethnography and will get an 
allowance of Rs. 200 a month. He will also have the services of a clerk. 
II. The Superintendent will correspond with district officers, but their obligations 
will, as a rule, be limited to ascertaining what persous in their districts are 
acquainted with the customs, traditions, &c, of particular tribes and castes, 
and to putting those persons into communication with the Superintendent, 
who will thereafter correspond direct with them and will trouble the Collector 
or Deputy Commissioner no further. 
I IT. Having thus secured his local correspondents, the Superintendent will furnish 
them with a set of questions which will be prcscril>ed for general use, stating 
the points on which he requires information. A specimen set, which has 
been extensively used in Bengal and elsewhere, is appended to this 

importance, have requested mc, on tbeir behalf, to bring to the notice of Her Majesty's Government 
the valuable scientific result* which might be obtained by means of the census. 

The results of the census itself constitute, of course, by their very nature, an ethnographical 
document of great value ; and my Council feel that, without overburdening the officers of the census or 
incurring any very large expense, that value might be increased to a very remarkable degree, if to the 
enumeration were added the collection of some easily ascertained ethnographical data. They are 
encouraged to make this suggestion by the reflection that the Census Commissioner is an accomplished 
ethnographiKt, well known by his publication on the Tribe* and CaMe* of Bengal, the valuable 
. results of which would be supplemented by the inquiries now proposed. They feel confident that with 
his aid, aid under his direction, most important data may be obtained at a minimum of effort and cost. 
I may add that, should the suggestion which my Council desire to make be carried out, a great step will 
have been taken towards establishing a uniform method of ethnographical observation in India— a 
matter of great scientific importance. 

Stated briefly, what my Council desire to see carried out is as follows : — 

1. While collecting the ordinary information for the census, to investigate the physical and 
sociological characters of the various races and tribes of India. Such data would furnish the Iwsis for 
a true estimation of the number and distribution of the tribes in question, and thus |>owerfully 
contribute to a sound classification of the races of India. Special attention to 1* directed — 

(a) to the jungle races — Bhils, Gonds, and other tribes of the central mountain districts — 

concerning which our information is at present very limited ; 

(b) to the Nagi, Kuki, and other cognate races of the Assam and Burmese frontiers, ami of the 

vagrant and criminal tribes — Haburas, Beriyas, Sansias, kc. in North ami Central India ; 

(c) to collect physical measurements, jiarticularly of the Dravidian tribes, and of the Rajputs and 

Jatsof llajputana and the Eastern Panjah. Such data will be of the greatest strviee in 
throwing light on the important and difficult problem of the origin of these tril>es and their 
relation with the Yu-echi and other Scythian races ; 
(ff) to pay special attention to the question of a possible Negrito element in certain ethnic groups 
in India, 

2. To obtain so far as can be done, without too great labour and expense, a series of photographs 
of typical individuals of the various races, and if it should be practicable, of views of archaic industries, 
&c. This, which might l« accomplished by placing photographers at the service of the Census Officers, 
would be the commencement of an Ethnological Survey of India, similar to, ami certainly no less 
important than the Archaeological Survey, of which the Government of India may so justly l>c proud. 

My Council in considering the above proposal have l>een assisted by a committee of gentlemen 
possessing special knowledge of the subject in question, and I am to add that this committee will >>e 
pleased to place themselves at the disposal of Her Majesty's Government to assist in the proposed 
investigation. If it should seem desirable to Her Majesty's Government, the Committee are prepared 
to put themselves into direct communication with the officers of the census, who. however, the Council 
have reason to believe, are fully capable of carrying out the details of the investigations proposed. — 
J have, &c., M. FOSTER, The Secretary of State for India, 

[ m 1 

1901.] MAN. [No. 113. 

IV. The Government of India has further decided to place a sum of Rs. 2,000 a 
year at the disposal of the local goverumeut to be spent on honoraria to 
persons who draw up for the Superinteudeut approved monographs on 
particular castes, tribes or sects of which they happen to have special 
V. The information thus obtained will be collated by the Superintendent, and will 
l>e supplemented by his own inquiries from such representative men as he 
can find and by researches into the considerable mass of information which 
lies buried iu official reports, in the journals of learned societies, and in 
various books. Settlement reports, as Sir Henry Maine pointed out long 
ago, are a mine of great value which no one but an Indian official can 
explore. The Superintendent will work up all this material into a 
systematic account of the tribes and castes of the province somewhat in 
the form adopted in The Tribes and Castes of Bengal and followed by 
. Mr. Crooke for the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. 
VI. By working on these lines the Government of India believe it will be 
possible to get a fairly complete account of the ethuography of the larger 
provinces drawn up within four or five years. The cost for each Province 
will be : — 

Superintendent's allowance at Rs. 200 - - 2,400 

Clerk's pay at Rs. 50 (maximum) ... 600 

Honoraria, &c. ----- 2,000 

Total - 5,000 a year 

and for eight provinces* the cost would be Rs. 40,000 a year. If the work takes five 
years, it will cost Rs. 2,00,000 ; but there are grounds for believing that it will not 
take so long. In Burma, for example, the population is comparatively homogeneous, 
and the number of different races and castes calling for separate iuquiry is much smaller 
than in an Indian province. Iu the North-Western Provinces a considerable body 
of material is already on record in Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, and although that 
work is understood to stand in need of condensation in some parts and of revision and 
expansion in others, this will hardly take as long as four years. In Bengal, agaiu, the 
inquiries necessary for the production of a second edition of Mr. Risley's work could 
probably be completed iu a year. On the whole, therefore, Rs. 1,50,000 may be taken 
as a fair estimate, excluding the cost of printing the results, which cannot be calculated 
at present. This sum is, in the opinion of the Government of India, not too much to 
pay for an ethnographic survey of British territory in India. His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for India has accorded his sanction to expenditure not exceediug this amount. 

It has often been observed that anthropometry yields peculiarly good results in 
India by reason of the caste system which prevails among Hindus, and of the 
divisions, often closely resembling castes, which are recognised by Muhammadaus. 
Marriage takes place only within a limited circle ; the disturbing element of crossing 
is to a great extent excluded ; and the differences of physical type, which measurement 
is intended to establish, are more marked and more persistent than anywhere else in 
the world. Stress was laid upon these points by Professor Topiuard in reviewing at 
length the results of the measurements takeu in Beugal, the North-Western Provinces, 
and the Punjab, and by the late Sir William Flower iu bin presidential address to the 
British Association in 1894. The Government of India propose to collect the physical 

* Madras, Poml>ay, Bengal, North-West Provinces and Oudh. Punjab, Burma, Central Provinces, 
and Assam. 

[ 140 j 

190t] MAN. [Nos. U8-U4. 

measurements of selected castes mud tribes. In Madras the work can be done by 
Mr. E. Thurston, the Superintendent of the Central Museum, .whoso ethnographic 
researches in the south of India are well known, and who, it is understood, is likely 
to be selected by the Provincial Government as Superintendent of Ethnography for 
the Madras Presidency. For the rest of India it will probably be convenient to employ 
a Civil Hospital Assistant who worked under Mr. Risley iu Beugal and is stated to 
have a competent knowledge of the subject. This part of the scheme will cost iu all 
about Rs. 6.000, which will be placed at the disposal of Mr. Risley. 

The proposal of the Association to place photographers at the disposal of the Census 
Officers is one which could not l>e carried out iu practice. It would be very expensive : 
it would interfere seriously with the proper duties of the Superintendents, and it would 
delay the submission of their reports. Moreover a large collection of photographs 
already exists at the Iudia Office Library. The Government of India are further 
advised that, in comparison with measurements, photographs possess but little scientific 
\alue aud they are not disposed to spend a large sum ou making the volumes on 
ethnography more popular and attractive. This, however, will not preclude . local 
governments from introducing illustrations into the volumes produced under their 
orders provided that they can make arrangements to meet the cost otherwise than from 
Imperial Reveuues. 

The general direction of the scheme will be entrusted to Mr. Risley, who is 
willing to uudertake it in addition to his own duties, whatever they may be. It will 
be his business to prescril*? a standard set of questions for use in all provinces : to 
determine what castes and tribes should be measured aud in what way ; to settle, 
in consultation with local governments, the form in which the results should be 
recorded ; aud generally to advise ou all questious that may arise. His official title 
will be for this purpose Director of Ethuography for India. The Governor-Geueral in 
Council trusts that on this as on former occasious ethnologists and scientific societies in 
Europe ami America will assist the Director with their advice, will refer to him points 
which they may wish to be made the subject of inquiry iu India, and will, if possible, 
supply him with copies of publications bearing ou the researches now al>out to be 

G. de Mortillet. Giraux. 

The Proposed Monument to Gabriel de Mortillet. ** m 

The President of the Anthropological Institute has received this communi- I It 
cation, in regard to the memorial which it is proposed to erect to the memory of one of 
the most distinguished of French prehistoric archaeologists. 

44 Sur Tiiiitiative de la Soeiete ^'Excursions Scientifiques, tin Comite vieul de se 
former pour elever un monument a Gabriel de Mortillet, Til lustre palethuologue, createur 
de la classification industrielle des temps prehistoriques 

" Compose par un artiste de talent et desiuteresse, disciple et admirateur du maitre, 
ce monument, dont le modele a ete offert a la Soeiete d'Excursions Scientifiques, qui l'a 
accepte avec uue profoude recounaisance, sera en tout poiut digue de celui qu'il doit 

44 C'est done pour rend re un public hommage a la memoire du savant dont lo nom 
ej»t universellement conuu et estim6, tout eu dotant Paris d'utie veritable oeuvro d'art, 
que le Comit6, pris dans le sein de la Soeiete d'Excursions Scientifiques, fait appel a 
votre obligeant concurs. 

44 II espcre que vous voudrez bien pnrticiper ii Fceuvre de justice et do reconnais- 
sance qu'il entrepreud. Les souscriptious sont revues, des a present, par M. Louis 
Giraux, Tresorier du Comite, 22, rue Saint-Blaise, a. Paris (xx e )." 

t "i ] 

1901.] MAN. [Hob. 114-115. 

In a further communication M. Giraux adds : " Nous venons solliciter tout 
u particulicrement le concours a cette oeavre de 1' Anthropological Institute of Great 
" Britain and Ireland, dont Gabriel de Mortillet etuit membre d'honneur dcpuis 18-<2, 
** persuades qu'il tiendra a partieiper a Fhommage que uous voulons reudre au savant 
4 * que vous avez couipte parmi les membres les plus eminents de votre Soeiete." 

We have no doubt that when the list of subscriptions is closet!, it will be found 
that the British admirers of the work of Gabriel de Mortillet have not been behindhand 
in their tribute to his memorv. 


Brunswick: Folklore. Andree. 

Braunschweig >er Volkskundc. By R. Andree. Brunswick : Vieweg uud Sohn 
1901. Second edition. 8vo, pp. xviii, 531. With 12 plates aud 174 blocks 
in the text. Price 7*. 

Germany is probably the country where good folklorists go when they die. Dr. 
Andree has had the satisfaction of seeiug the first editiou of his Volkskundc v we have 
no Eugiish word for it) sell out in the comparatively short period of five years. As a 
result of his request for assistance, and, still more, thanks to his own indefatigable 
industry, he has been able to enlarge the volume by oue-third. 

Among the additions is a short note of only two pages to the u Vergodendel " 
question. It is the custom in various parts of Germauy to leave the last bunch of eara 
on the harvest field, aud to bring them to the village at a later period with more or less 
ceremony. This has been interpreted by Schwartz and others as a survival of the 
cult of Wodan, the words being regarded as equivalent to " Teil fiir den Herrn Wodau." 
A good deal of doubt has been thrown on this view by Knoop and others, who regard 
the names as equivalent to L. G. "fiir guten Teil/' Dr. Andree seems to aceept the 
theory of Schwartz. In Brunswick the name is often applied to the harvest supper, but 
in oue instance Dr. Audree found that the last swath was not completely cut ; a small 
portion was left, and this was u vergoudendel. If this was really an offering to Wodan — 
and there is certainly a good deal to be said for this view — we cau hardly avoid inter- 
preting the German reapers' cry of " Wauw " or " Waul " as an appeal to Wodan. The 
reapers of Cheshire uttered the same cry at the end of the harvest, and they must have 
appealed to Wodan also with their cry of " Wow." We cau hardly refuse to put the same 
interpretation on the Greek reapers' cry of &&•* (Atheuaiud, 14, 3, p. 618 ap. Casaubon). 
It has sometimes been supposed that the cult of Wodan was uukuown or unimportant 
in South Germany. But if the above reasoning is correct, it is clear that we shall have 
to assume that he was known to the ancient Greeks. Dr. Brinton has shown that the 
cry of " Ya " is com mo u to the religious ceremonies of very widely separated nations. 
Perhaps it would not be rash to explain the facts alx)ve-mentioned on similar Hues 
without supposing them to refer to any particular deity : the similarity of sound 
would readily lead to this beiug referred to Wodau, and might eveu cause Wodan's 
association with agricultural ceremonies. 

Within the limits of a short review it is impossible to do justice to the varied 
contents of this most interesting book aud to deal with the mauy poiuts of interest. Not 
the least interesting feature of the book are the many parallels to Euglish customs and 
beliefs (many of them noted by Dr. Andree himself) which will suggest themselves to 
the reader. The chapters deal with the geography and history of the Duchy, the 
physical type of the inhabitants, the language (two Low-German dialects), the names 
of localities, &c, density of population, the villages and houses, the peasants, their 
dress, implements, customs and superstitions, popular games and rimes, and, 
finally, with the traces of the wends. The whole of the subjects are treated with a 

[ 1^2 ] 

190L] MAN. pl<^ll7. 

remarkable conciseness, mud many will regret that Dr. Andre* ha* not allowed aia***vlf 
more licence in the way of an occasional rxcmrsus. In spite of the siae of the hook it 
may safely be said that there is still much to be collected in the Duchy, and the same 
applies still more to other districts. May they soon liod an historian as devoted and 
reliable as Dr. Andree. 

In the paragraph on - Blind Man's Ban 1 /* which is of the shortest, an interesting 
fact seems to have been omitted : from the Brammscbtreigisckes Magazin^ V. 102. it 
appears that " Blinneklans is a dialectical variant for " Blinde Knh,^ an interesting 
parallel to the French name of the game. X. \V. T. 

Congo: Ethnography. Schmeltz. 

Albmm of the Ethnography of the Congo Basin. By Dr. £. Schmeltz. -f 4£ 
Kleinmano, Haarlem, 1901. Publication of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, I ID 

Every student of African ethnography and all museum keepers will be grateful 
to Dr. Schmeltz for this excellent work, of which the first half has already appeared. 
The drawings are good and clear aud the polyglot descriptions are in the main well 
doue, although it would have been better if the Euglish portiou> had been submitted 
to some English friend. In some respects the plan ha-* not beeu carried out iu a 
practical manner. At the head of every plate is an inscription record iug a fact that 
might well have come at the beginniug of the book, viz. : That it is a publication 
of the Royal Musejm : and in many iustances this liue of print comes so uear the edge 
of the plate that it will be impossible to cut the upper edge of the book if bouud. A 
similar mistake, perhaps more troublesome, is that if the description of the objects are 
too voluminous to find a place ou the outer edge of the page they are continued ou the 
inuer edge, leaving only a margin of barely a quarter of au inch (7 mm.), obviously too 
little to allow the binding except by mounting every plate upon a guard — an expensive 
process. I think it only fair to mention these obvious defects because the book is evideutly 
a copy of the Edge-Partington and Heape's Albmm of ike Pacific Islands* and in that 
useful work all these mistakes have been avoided. C. U. READ. 

New Guinea. Meyer & Parkinson. 

Papua- Album II. By A. B. Meyer and R. Parkinson. Dresden, Stengel & \\^ 
Co., 1900. Pp. 15. with 53 plates. Price 50*. Ill 

This allium i* a *e<jtiel to a similar one published in 1897, which i> unfortunately 
now out of print, and owing to the lo*> of the negative- can not be reproduced. There 
are 53 plates, all of which arc of extremely high merit, both from au artistic a> well 
a* front au ethnological j>oiut of view, and to a >tudent they are quite iudispHiisahle. The 
authors' names alone are, indeed, a guarantee of the accuracy aud excellence of the work. 
Native life is shown from nearly every side ; village life, religions, dwellings, weariug 
apparei and native ornaments, canoes, weapons, and *uch Industrie* as the manufacture 
of pottery and shell armlets. The plates are full of life and vigour, No. 52 being as 
perfect as it could well be. In addition to that part of the world covered by Part I. 
(New Guinea and the New Britain Archipelago J, a few platen are devoted to Matty 
Island : the inhabitants ot wmen are not Papuan, hut Microncsiaus, as Dr. Meyer 
explains in his introduction. The titles to the plate* aud the descriptive letterpress is iu 
German and English. The translation has beeu revise 1 by Mr. E. F. L. Gauss of 
Chicago, an almost unnecessary precaution considering Dr. Meyer's scholarly knowledge 
of the Euglish language. It is, however, a good precedent that could be followed with 
success by other authors who attempt an Euglish translation of their works. 


[ 143 ] 

1901.] MAI*. [Hos. 118-120/ 

North America : Folklore. Fletcher. 

Indian Story and Song from North America. By Alice C. Fletcher. Boston. 4«f n 
Small, Maynard & Co., 1900. Fcp. 8vo, pp. xiv, 126. | |0 

The attention of student** of savage music should be directed to this little book, in 
which Miss Fletcher has collected the specimens of music of the North American tribes 
previously published by her, aud added others not hitherto printed. Several of them 
have been taken down by means of the graphophone, some of them transcribed by the 
late Professor Fillmore, and most of them (though sung in unison by the Indians) 
harmonized by him. They are given in their proper setting of story or description, aud 
Miss Fletcher has added remarks on the place of music in Indian life, derived from her 
long acquaintance with the native tribes, especially the Omahas, aud on the relation of 
story to song, which may be commended to the careful consideration of anthropologists. 


Pacific : Nomenclature. von Luschan. 

Vorschlage zur Geographischen Nomcnklatnr dcr Siidsvc. By Professor .F. 44/% 
von Luschan. 1899. (Extract from the Proceedings of the Seventh International | \\j 
Geographical Congress in Berlin.) 

The subject of this address has already been noticed by the Anthropological Insti- 
tute, and the resolution passed by the Council, on February 11th, 1899, shows the interest 
aroused by Professor von Luschan's scheme for checking abuses of geographical nomen- 
clature. The author quotes in full the remarks made by Mr. C. H. Read, then President, 
in anticipation of the Berlin meeting, and the resolution by which they were followed 
(see Journ. Anthr. lnst. y XXIX., p. 330 AT.). It is satisfactory to have to record that 
Professor von Luschan\s proposals were finally passed by the Congress in the form of a 
resolution with four clauses, of which the gist is as follows : — 

1. Native names shall be retaiued wherever possible, and the greatest care shall be 

taken to establish their accuracy. 

2. Wherever native names do not exist or caunot bo established with certainty, the 

names given by first discoverers shall be adopted. 

3. Arbitrary alteration of long-established or historic names is a source of confusion 

both to science and commerce, and should be resisted by all available means* 


Proceedings. Soc. d'Anthr. de Paris. 

Sommaire des Procks-verbaux de la Siance du Ittjuillet 1901. <t\0\ 

M. Ad. de Mortiilet : Sur uue pointe de fleehe de Saone et-Loire. Dis- \c\} 
cussion : M. Atgier. 

M. Tbieulleu presente des travaux sur les fouilles prehistoriques de TUkrainc par 
le Comte Alexis Bobrinskoi. 

M. Volkov : Antiquites de la region du Dniepre, par M. Khanenko. Discussion i: 
MM. A. de Mortiilet, Tat£, Zaborowski, Deniker. 

M. Manouvrier : Les ossements du dolmen de Presles. Discussiou : MM. Deniker, 

M. Papillault : L'homme moyen a Paris, variations suivaut le sexe et suivant la 

M. Lucien Mayet : Nouvelles recherehes sur la repartition du goitre et du 

M. Ad. de Mortiilet : Rapport sur TEx position de M. le baron de Baye. 

MM. les Docteurs Roux et Thomas sont el us membres titulaires. 

Printed by Bybe and Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, E.C. 

Man, 1901 Plate K. 

■zzyk^zfrtez'S*:;. - W ~ J ' - 

is ShI m 


I / 

"i a Photograph. 




1901.] MAN. [Nob. 121-122. 

New Guinea. With Plate K. Haddon. 

A Papuan Bow-and- Arrow Fleam. By A. C. Haddon, ScD., F.R.S., 4JM 
President of the Anthropological Institute. IsLl 

Like most primitive peoples, the Papuans resort to blood-letting and counter- 
irritation to alleviate most of their aches and pains. During the recent Cambridge 
Expedition to British New Guinea we came across several examples of this practice. One 
of the most interesting of these was the one which is here illustrated. A small bow is 
made, usually of three midribs of coconut palm leaflets ; these are tied together at their 
ends, and there is a third lashing near the centre of the bow : the bow string is a delicate 
vegetable fibre some 30-48 cm. in length. The arrow is also a midrib of a palm 
leaflet (about 27-34 cm. in length) ; this is passed bet wee u the elements of the composite 
bow, and the butt eud is fastened to the string, while the free end is armed with a thorn or 
a splinter of glass. The surgical operation consists in repeatedly shooting the arrow at 
the affected part. The arrow is held between the thumb and index finger of the right 
hand and the remaining fingers draw back the string of the bow. This is the " secondary 
release " of Morse, which I have previously shown (Journ. Anth. Inst., xix, 1890, p. 330) 
is the Papuan method. The arrow passes between the index and middle finger of the 
left hand as in ordinary Papuan archery. 

This method of drawing blood was mentioned by the late Rev. James Chalmers, in 
his Pioneering in Neio Guinea (1887, p. 178), in the following words: — " Motu- 
" motu. — Bleed with flint got at Port Moresby on a small arrow with bow made from 
" rib of coconut leaf." We obtaiued a specimen in the Mekeo district with a thorn 
point and several with glass points at Bulaa in the Hood Peninsula, Rigo district. The 
operation was photographed for me by the late Anthony Wilkin at the latter village. 
In his Annual Report on British New Guinea (July 1896-June 1897 ; C. A. 6-1898, 
p. 6) Sir William Macgregor gives an illustration from a photograph of the use of this 
fleam, but as this publication is not very accessible I do not hesitate to publish another 
figure. There is a specimen of a bow-and -arrow fleam from South New Guinea in the 
Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford. It was collected by Sir W. Macgregor and presented by 
Dr. Johu Thomson iu 1897. A. C. HADDON. 

Asia Minor: Religion. Crowfoot. 

A Yezidi Rite. By J. W. Crowfoot, M.A. *qj% 

Travelling last June (1900) on a " Messagerics Mari times " boat between \Llm 
Marseilles and Constantinople I met an Armenian who told me various things about the 
Tezidi. Many of these seem trivial enough, as, for instance, that they are fond of eating 
white mice, or that they collect the blood of slain animals and let it congeal and then fry 
it as a special delicacy. Others were accurate descriptions of the costume worn by their 
priests, and the tabus on various colours, &c, which are meutioned by all travellers. 
But one rite he described to me is entirely new and if true, as 1 believe, deserves 
publication. As a lw>y my informant lived in Armenia near Sert, where the Yezidi are 
very numerous, and once, when about ten years old, he happened to l>e preseut at one oi 
their festivals in a village named Takhari, betweeu Sert and Red van. He was playing 
about at the time in the courtyard of a Yezidi's house, aud, as he was a mere child, was 
either unnoticed or considered unworthy of attention, so he was able to see all that weui 
on, and its strangeness impressed itself on his memory. This is what occurred : I use 
practically his own words. The head of the village ::ume in with saddlebags hanging 
over his shoulders. From the bag in front, which was over his chest, he took the bronze 
figure of the Melek Talis which was wrapped carefully in linen. It was put on a mat 

l H6 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 122. 

and the wrappings removed. The figure was shaped like a bird with a hole in the 
middle of the back covered by a lid, and a base like the stand of a candlestick. The 
bird was then filled with holy water through the hole, and while this was going on all 
sang songs in Kurdish. (My iuformant knew Kurdish as well as Arabic and Armenian, 
and was positive on this point.) Next, the priest approached it, kissed the basis first 
and then the other parts until he came to the beak. This was pierced, and the priest 
put his lips to it and sipped a drop of the water, and all those who were present, except, 
of course, the Armenian, u received the sacrament " in the same way, for so we must 
describe it. 

Can we accept this account as true ? 

First, as to the character of this Armenian. He is well known to several English 
and American travellers and others, and those to whom I have applied say that they 
regard him as trustworthy on the whole. The story seems to be inherently probable 
and consistent, and he had no motive whatever for inventing it. If he had studied 
comparative mythology and had read accounts of a ceremonial " eating of the God " he 
might have made it up, but he was not a student of this subject or of any other, but 
simply a shrewd dragoman and commercial traveller. The recital of the circumstances 
which enabled him to see it inspires me with much more confidence than the claims of 
Layard and other travellers to have endeared themselves so deeply to the Yezidi that the 
latter made them free of all their mysteries. 

Secondly, it is very easy to reconcile this with what we know of the Yezidi from 
other sources. Dr. Mark Lidzbarski has published an important documeut upon them 
in the shape of a petition dated 1872-73, giviug various reasons why the Yezidi should 
not serve in the Turkish Army (Ein Expose der Yesiden, Zeitschrift der Morgenlan- 
dischen Gesellschaft, 1897, p. 592 foil.). The first runs thus " Every member of our 
" sect, great and small, woman and maid, must three times in the year .... visit the 
" figure of the Melek Taus." For this purpose several of these bronze figures, said to 
number five now, are sent round to the various districts where Yezidi abound, and Sert 
is mentioned as one of the regular districts on these circuits (Siouffi, Revue Asiatique, 
ser. vii., torn. 20, p. 268, 1882). Now, according to M. Menaut (Les Yezidiz, Leroux, 
Paris, 1892, p. 95 foil.), the Melek Taus thus circulated is simply a badge with do 
ritual or religious significance attached to it, but serving as sole credentials to the 
messengers employed by the heads of the sect to levy contributions from the faithful. 
But there is uo evideuce to support this view except the word Sanjak (standard) 
sometimes applied to the figure ; it absolutely fails to account for the reverence 
paid to this object, or for the choice of this object in particular. A badge of 
this type should be something which is secret, especially when it has the power of 
opening the purses of its beholders ; the mere sentiment of the " Flag " may appeal to a 
patriotic Frenchman, but hardly in the same degree to an Oriental heretic. The 
position which the Melek Taus occupies in Dr. Lidzbarski's petition shows, I think, 
that some real boon, equivalent to the blessiug derived from a sacrament, is obtained from 
it, and no doubt duly paid for. And the Armenian's story is further confirmed by a 
detail reported in Badger's account {The Nestorians and their Ritual, London, 1852) 
to which I have not referred before because its authority has beeu called in question : 
" Close by the staud [of the Taus]," writes Mrs. Badger, " was a copper jug, filled with 
" water, which we understood was dealt out to be drunk as a charm by the sick and 
44 afflicted" (p. 124). The Yezidi refused to let the Badgers see their worship, and this 
explanation of the water was only given to throw them off the scent ; the ritual described 
above suggests another use. 

The conclusion, then, will be that the Taus is not merely a banner, but is, as the 
older writern said, itself an object of worship. The word, furthermore, no doubt, conceals 
the name of some old god, and we may follow Dr. Lidzbarski in making an equation 

t "6 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 122-123. 

which occurred independently to the present writer. In the Harranian Calendar, pub- 
lished by Chwolsobn, occurs the name Tauz, which Chwolsohn himself identified with 
Tarn muz, and Professor Sayce has more recently connected with Theias or Thoas, who 
is in various places the Lemuiau husband of Myrina, the king of Tauric Khersonese, the 
kiug of Assyria, the father of Adonis and Myrrha or Smyrna (Hibbert Lectures, 1887, 
p. 235). It is true that the Arabic letters which form the three names Taus, Tauz, 
Tammuz, differ more than the ordinary English transliterations suggest (<j*jU», )fi f jj*>), 
but this is not really a formidable objection to their identity. Tammuz becomes Tauz 
by an omission of w, which is not uncommon in Kurdish names (see Lidzbarski) 
and which was well established, if Professor Sayce is right, in the classical period. 
Then Tauz is identified with Taus (peacock) by a piece of vulgar etymology. The 
survival of the name of so importaut a god as Tammuz is intrinsically likely enough, 
and it is probable that more than the name has survived ; the red anemones which, 
according to the Badgers, played a great part in the April celebrations, deserve more 
notice than they have had. And, again, the peacock element may have some more 
material foundation than the mere verbal assonance ; as Sir George Bird wood writes 
(Athenaum, 30th September 1899), "the Melek funs may indeed be an actual relic of 
Babylonian or Assyrian art." 

More interesting to anthropologists than these speculations about origins will be, 
perhaps, the recurrence of the same figure among the Tachtadji in Lykia, a phenomenon 
to which writers on the Yezidi do not refer. Among the Tachtadji, however, the 
Melek Taus, so far, at least, as the reports of Von Luschan and Bent carry us, has no 
bronze embodiment ; the natural peacock with them is regarded as the incarnation of 
evil. The Tachtadji speak Turkish only, the Yezidi Kurdish aud a little Arabic. 
They live very far apart. To what, then, are we to attribute this common element ? 
Two possibilities seem to be open to us. It might conceivably be an independent 
survival in each case of the Tammuz-Thoas worship which once extended over the 
whole area. Or there may in more recent times have been some connection between 
the two peoples, which has now l>een lost or else has completely eluded the observation 
of travellers. 

Two religious developments seem to be universal over the whole Islamic area, 
the worship of Saints (Welis, Dedes, Marabouts), and the existence of Orders or 
Fraternities ; both are common to the heretics as well as the true believers, but the 
former try, ineffectually indeed, to shelter themselves under the prestige of an orthodox 
Saint, in the case of the Yezidi, for example, Sheikh Adi (see Siouffi, Journal Asiatiquc, 
1885, p. 78). I have shown how closely parallel this is with the pre-Christian worship 
of heroes (J. A. /., 1900), and need uot say more about it here. The religious Orders 
belong to another phase. The worship of heroes is something essentially local, and 
belongs to the family ; the Fraternity is something which is in itself open to all, and 
knows no limits of race or place One of the great Muslim Orders will include Negroes 
Arabs, Berbers, Turks, and Persians ; difference of language is no bar. In the Pagan 
world they correspond to the thiasoi or brotherhoods of Orphic or Pythagorean initiates. 
It is, perhaps, 'on the lines of one of these Fraternities that subsequent research will 
prove that the common elements of Yezidi and Tachtadji may be explained. 


Egypt. Petrie. 

Egyptian Cutting-out Toots. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, Edwards' Professor <f #)n 

of Egyptology at University College. I£0 

The use of special tools for cutting out textile fabrics has not yet been recognised 

in Egypt, nor perhaps elsewhere. When we notice the very elal>orately made clothing 

of the Eighteenth Dynasty and later, and w hen we handle the exquisitely fine linen, 

[ "7 ] 



[No. 128. 

it 18 obvious that there mast have been some efficient means of cutting oat such 
materials. So far as we know shears or scissors are of Italic origin, and were quite 
unknown in the East until Roman times ; therefore some form of knife must have been 
used as we now use scissors. 

A peculiar class of kuife, marked here Q to 13, has long been known in museums ; 
it is common, and appears to have been a personal tool and not a trade tool, as it is 

[. . lit Dfnastf ..][..< 

12th Dfncutf ] [. . lSth-14th . .] [ 18th-i9th Dftuutie* ] 


found singly in graves aloug with the tweezers, the mirror, and other personal objects. 
The cutting edges are at A -A (called here the main edge) aud B-B (called here the 
butt edge) ; the remainder of the outline is smooth and rounded, suitable for holding in 
the hand. 

As to the use of it we may set aside leather cutting, as the tool for that is often 
shown on the monuments, and was a short axe-like blade set in a rounded block of 
wood ; the thiuness of some of these knives, moreover, is quite unsuited for so tough a 
material as leather. The form is, however, admirably adapted for cutting textiles ; the 
slaut of the main edge enables the hand to grasp the stem clear of the cutting board. 
The narrow ends of the main edge, especially iu 11 and 13, enable the user to see 
clearly the position of the cut. 

The butt edge is a further evidence of its use ; for in thus slicing textiles, tough 
threads, or some not well cut, would drag, especially iu narrow gores ; in such case a 
rocking cut with the butt edge would be required to chop through them. 

If we once recognise the use of these tools we may see other examples of the 
cutting-out tool in earlier times. 

No. 1 is a copper tool with a main edge on each side at the top ; while all the 
rest of the length and the butt was smoothed for holding. This belonged to a domestic 
of King Zer, of the First Dynasty, about 4700 B.C. 

No. 2 is a similar kuife of copper ; bought iu Egypt, locality unknown. Both 
1 aud 2 are clearly not for ordinary cutting, as of meat, but are suited for outliue cutting 
on a board. 

No. 3 is the usual type of copper knife of the Twelfth Dynasty, here given to 
show how the cutting-out knives 4 aud 5 have l>eeu specialised by only forming the 

[ 148 ] 

190L] MAN. [Nos. 123-124. 

edge where it can cut on a board while held in the hand. None of these have butt 
edges, but were set in wooden handles. 

Nos. 6 and 7. The butt edge, for chopping through threads, comes into use at this 
point, and the main cutting edge is more curved and thrown back. 

Nos. 8 and 9. The width of the blade seems to have been felt to be a disadvantage 
in seeing the end of the cut ; so the main edge was brought forward and ended below 
in a point or hook in advance of the handle. This type begins probably in the 
Thirteenth or Fourteenth Dynasty. 

Nos. 10, 11, and 12. The type is very common in the Eighteenth Dynasty, The 
butt edge was widened more and more. 

No. 13. Lastly, in the Nineteenth Dynasty the butt edge projects in two points 
at the sides. After this date the form seems to have passed out of use. What cutting- 
out tool was used between 1100 and 300 B.C. we do not yet know. 

This whole class of outline cutters for use on a board should be worked out in 
other countries for comparison. Perhaps some anthropologist will follow this new type 
elsewhere. W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. 

Totemism. Haddon. 

Totemism : Notes on Two Letters published in the 4fc Times" of September 'iOM 
Srd and 1th, 1901. By A. C. Haddon, ScD., F.R.S. ILTT 

Under the titles of A New Record of Totemism, describing what he believes to be 
an importaut discovery of worked fliuts, and The Early Man and His Stones, the Hon. 
Auberon Herbert has written letters to the Times of September 3rd and 7th respectively, 
which are as sensational as they are long. It is well recognised that those who may be 
termed outsiders often make fruitful suggestions or even important discoveries which 
have been overlooked by the professional teachers or investigators of a particular branch 
of science. Scientific men heartily recognise the labours of amateurs when they are 
carried out in the true scientific spirit, and all our museums have been enriched by 
collections amassed by enthusiasts from the mere u collector" to the erudite expert. 
Mr. Herbert will doubtless have more than one opportunity of presenting his evidence 
before anthropological or antiquarian experts, and he may rest assured that it will receive 
due consideration. The lesson of the first discovery of stone implements has not been 

Mr. Herbert claims that certain gravel beds in the valley of the Avon in South 
Hampshire extending over a tract of country for some 20 miles in length and of consider- 
able breadth and from three to seven feet in depth practically consist of " stones handled 
u and worked by the earlier races ; and, one may add, representing the strongest and 
" deepest feelings of their life . . . The gravel beds may be called, without 
44 exaggeration, a mass of worked stones . . . What are these stones ? Certain 
" well-marked types are constantly repeated, and I do not think that one can resist the 
" belief that the greater number of the stones are representations of the totems of the 
44 tribes. They seem to be a new volume of Totemism suddenly placed in our hands. 
44 Many of the stones may be holy stones, amulets, or stones consecrated. Some may 
44 have beeu cut for purposes of decoration. There is also an interesting class of stones 
44 which, if I am right, were cup stones used as sacrifices. But I think all these other 
44 classes are subsidiary to the totem class — that is, to the stones which represent some 
44 animal or object which existed as the totem and had a sacred character. To make 
44 matters more clear 1 will presently return to the subject of the totem, for unless one 
44 understands something of the totem, one cannot understand the stones." 

A description is then given of a number of forms which appear to the writer of the 
letter to resemble suns, moons, pyramids, snakes, fish, seals, teeth, tusks, mountains, 
peeks, mountaiu ranges, flames, animals, parts of the body, and so forth. " There $rQ 

[ 149 } 


190L] MAN. [No. 124. 

44 also a large number of stones which are, so to 8|>eak, only ear-marked. That in to 
44 say, the medicine man has placed his mark on them, has initialled them, made them 
44 magical or holy. It is only by rather close observation that you will detect these 
44 marks, but I think there can be little doubt al>out them . . . They seldom, if 
ij " ever, treat their stones in vulgar fashion. They are careful and almost tender in 

44 dealing with whatever seems to them strange and mysterious. There is no childish 
44 hacking to see what the new thing is." We must do Mr. Herbert justice to state 
that he says he puts forward his "interpretations with great reserve" ; but, on the other 
hand, it is evident he is a strong believer in his assumptions, which certainly appear 
incredible to scientific students. 

It is most remarkable that Mr. Herbert does not once refer to his finding any 
Implements, all his specimens belong to a very different category. If his stones were 
worked by man there would surely have been an immense number of tools and weapons 
in the same deposits. It is well known that many uncritical collectors have been only 
too ready to recognise natural forms in concretions and in adventitiously flaked flints, but 
until those in question have been examined by competent authorities it would not be 
fair to prejudice Mr. Herbert's projw>sition. There are, however, very strong grounds 
for assuming that they are not artefacts. Mr. Herbert hopes other persons will examine 
other gravel beds. There is no doubt that innumerable forms similar to those describe*! 
by him will be found in almost any gravel pit; doubtless also many very similar 
specimens could be found in situ in the majority of quarries of the upper chalk. 

By a strange coincidence, in the current number of the Bulletins ct Memoires.dc la 
Societe d* Anthropologic de Paris (V e serie, Tome II., 1901, p. 16(>) there is a paper by 
A. Thieullen, entitled 44 Denxiime Stude sur les pier res figures a retouches intentionnellcs 
a Vepoque du crcusemenl des vallees qwttcrnaircs" M. Thieullen exhibited before the 
Society a number of stones with rounded bosses which approximately represent a fish, 
a human right foot, the head of a horse, camel, roe deer, duck, and other animals, 
these are claimed to have been slightly improved, usually by the addition of eyes, by 
the palaeolithic artists. He complains that when he exhibited his specimens and 
delivered his arguments before the International Congress of Anthropology on Archaeology 
at Paris in 1900 he was received with jests. The prehistoric archaeologists of Paris, 
with few exceptions, deny human workmanship in the figures, whereas, accordiug to 
him, their confreres of the provinces labour to elucidate the problem. " Where, thcu," 
says he, *' shall we appeal ? Must one await a future generation of prehistorians free at 
length from prejudice ? " It does not follow that every collector of stones that have a 
i remarkable appearance is a Boucher de Perthes. The French enthusiast compares his 

specimens with the fetishes of various savage peoples. Certainly it is true that primitive 
folk do employ natural or slightly worked stones as fetishes or as charms for magical 
purposes, but that proves nothing in the present instance. ' 

Three questions are started by Mr. Herbert's letter : (1) the age of gravel beds ; this 
can only be settled by geological evidence. (2) The natural or artificial production of 
the forms of the stones ; which can only be proved by an examination of the stones and 
a comparison with others that are known to bo natural stones or known to be artefacts. 
(3) Assuming for the moment the artificial character of any of them, what were they 
fashioned for ? Mr. Herbert with marvellous temerity rushes to the conclusion that they 
were " totems." 

Totemism has too long been a " blessed word," and the time has arrived when 
strong protest must be made against the misuse of the term. There are many animal 
and plant cults in the world, totemism is one of them ; indeed, it is probable that what 
is described as totemism among one people may be different from what is called totemism 
elsewhere. Should this prove to be the case, the term should be restricted to practices 
and beliefs which are undoubtedly similar to those of the Ojibwav cult. It is entirely 

[ 150 ] 


190L] MAN. [Nob. 124-126. 

uuwarrantablc to speak of every animal cult a-* totemism : the elucidation of primitive 
beliefs is rendered more difficult— one might say it is made almost impossible — by such 
looseness of terminology. It is not going too far to assert, whatever the stones may be, 
they can never be proved to be totems or representations of totems. A. C. HAD DON. 

Capacity - 1,570 c.c. 

Orbital width 

- 37 mm. 

Basi-nasial length 101 mm. 

„ height 

- 29 mm. 

Breadth index - 74*5 

„ index 

- 78-4 

Height index - 70 # 7 

England : Skull. Layard. 

Notes on a Human Skull found in Peat in the Bed of the River Orwell, <f |)r 
Ipswich. By Miss Nina Layard (cf Man, 1901. 131). IZO 

This skull was obtained by the writer in January last from the captain of a 
dredger employed on the River Orwell at Ipswich. It was found when deepening the 
channel in May of last year. After working out the overlying mud, a bed of peat was 
reached, which was in such a dry condition that it choked the machinery. As nearly 
as could be estimated the skull was found embedded in the peat at a depth of about 
four feet. After being dredged up it was rescued by the captain, and for niue mouths 
remained hoisted on a pole in the dredger, exposed to wind and weather. The skull 
was very black when first found, but in course of time became bleached. Some oil 
dropping upon it from the machinery above gave it its present brown appearance. One 
side of the skull is much worn away by exposure to the air and moisture, while the other 
side is almost perfect. 

In February last the writer presented the skull to the Royal College of Surgeons, 
and Dr. Stewart has kindly sent the following measurements : — 

Circumference - 530 mm. 

Length - -188 mm. 

Breadth - - 140 mm. 

Height - - 133 mm. 

Phys. Anthropology : Brain. Symington. 

On the Temporary Fissures of the Human Cerebral Hemispheres, with Obser- <f f>A 
vations on the Development of the Hippocampal Fissure and Hippocampal l&D 
Formation. By Prof. J. Symington, M.D., Queen's College, Belfast (c/.Max, 1901. 131). 
This paper discussed the views recently published by Hochstetter, who maintains 
that the so-called temporary or transitory fissures of the human cerebral hemispheres, 
which have been described by so many anatomists as existing towards the end of the 
third and during the fourth mouths of foetal life, are not preseut iu the fresh brain, but 
are the products of commencing maceration and purification. The author of the paper 
admitted that the frequency of the occurrence and the depth of these fissures had been 
exaggerated, but he showed a number of photographs of specimens, both macroscopic 
and microscopic, in support of the views that they did occur in well-preserved material. 
He admitted, however, that the arcuate fissure, even if not an artificial product, had no 
morphological significance, and that its posterior part had nothing to do with the 
hippocampal fissure. He also exhibited a series of sections of the brain of a human 
foetus iu which the hippocampal fissure and the hippocampal formation could be traced 
from near the temporal pole of the hemisphere upwards and forwards towards the frontal 
end of the brain, dorsal to the developing transverse commissures. Attention was 
directed to the interest of these facts iu connection with the position of the hippocampal 
fissure and formation iu the marsupialia and monotremata where they occupy a similar 
position throughout life. These observations also support the opinion hitherto based 
mainly on comparative anatomy, that the rudimentary grey and white matter existing on 
the dorsal aspect of the adult humau corpus callosum is the remains of a hippocampal 

[ 151 ] 



[No. 127. 


Egypt. Myers. 

The Bone* e/ fi t/j*tt<ut King of ike THrd Dpi By 

Charfa S. M 

mi Archaeological data, third 

l)\na-iy. about uxk) i.., Hff tombs tea and | vru 

tr. J oh a I 
publish these remarks before they arc included in ii 
h will appear Utter through 1 1 • • - aid of tbn an Research I 

The boim of Hdn Nckht i tbc earliest 

known king whose remain* hav< oond^bnt baoaoae tbej arc the fire! which 



with any ruiaiiity be dated a* belonging To the Thin! Dynasty. They proclaim lum t.i 
liuve been a innu of unusual height. Bis s tat are probably exceeded 1870 millimeti 
while the average stature of later and prehistoric Egyptians u millimetres. The 

proportion! of bia bag bqpefl to one another were Bach as characterise negroid skeletons, 
a condition frequently observe*! in I lie prehistoric period, and commonly in the laier 
period of the early empire. The skull was very massive and capacious, and extraordi- 
narily broad for an Egyptian, the crania! index coming almost within the bounds of 

[ 152 ] 

190L] MAN. [Fob. 137-128. 

brachycephaly. Its features agreed more closely with those of dynastic than with 
those of prehistoric skulls. 

We turn now to history for the mention of an early Egyptian king of phenomenal 
stature. To such a king both Manetho and Eratosthenes allude. According to the 
former historian he was Sesochris, penultimate king of the Second (Thiuite) Dynasty ; 
according to the latter he was Momcheiri, first king of the Third (Memphite) Dynasty. 
It is in the highest degree probable that these are two names of one and the same king. 
The view I here offer seems to solve many difficulties. 

Mr. Randall-Mad ver's measurements make it probable that from the late prehistoric 
times onward, a people distinguished by broader heads, longer noses, aud other characters 
gradually made their way and became absorbed into the long-headed population of This 
and its neighbourhood. These broader-headed people formed the ruling class of the 
earliest dynasties. According to history and tradition they founded Memphis, and 
doubtless multiplied there. By the Third Dynasty, according to Manetho, they began to 
build houses of hewn stone, and probably they constructed the earliest Egyptian 
pyramids. They developed at Memphis a remarkable school of sculpture, soon producing 
the most life-like wooden statue of a man that has ever been made ; he, too, was broad- 
headed. Up to the time of Hen Nekht, the broader-headed line of kings styled them- 
selves Thinite, and continued to be buried near This, in conformity with the ancient 
tradition of the people with whom they had come into contact. In the end, however, 
Memphis outvied This, and kings who succeeded Hen Nekht began to forsake the 
simple Thinite burials for the pyramids of Saqqarah, Gizeh, and Abousir. Thus Hen 
Nekht may be considered in name and culture to be of the Third, or Memphite Dynasty ; 
but, by his burial near This, came to be regarded as belonging to the previous Thinite 

The broader-headed race above mentioned is commonly thought to have arrived 
first in the Nile Valley at Koptos (Quft) from Punt, a land sacred to the later Egyptians, 
the situation of which it is conjectured was near Somaliland and the opposite coast, 
There is, however, some geological evidence to show that the Red Sea extended in 
historic times through the lakes near to Ismail ia. Accordingly the people of Punt, 
wandering northward from their home along the shores of the Red Sea, could conceivably 
have made their way with ease to the Nile Valley nearer Memphis. It is, however, not 
less probable that Asia rather than Punt was the home of this broader-headed race. 
The earliest dynastic Egyptians used the Babylonian seals and the Babylonian cubit. 
To Asia and Central Europe we are wont to look for the broader-headed people. 
Moreover, according to the Greek legend, 9 Memphis was founded by the marriage of 
Memphis, daughter of the Nile, with Epaphus, who born of the Grecian Io (Isis) was 
carried off when a babe to Syria, and brought back by his mother to Egypt. 

Scotland : Pigmentation. Gray : Tocher. 

The Frequency and Pigmentation Value of Surnames of School Children in *f f)Q 
East Aberdeenshire. By J. F. Tocher, F.I.C., aud J. Gray, B.Sc. IZu 

In the course of a pigmentation survey carried out by us in East Aberdeenshire in 
1896 and 1897 we obtaiued the statistics of the surnames aud pigmentation of 14,561 
(practically the whole) school children there. An analysis of the physical characteristics, 
apart from the surnames, has already been published. f The present paper deals with 
the distribution of the frequency of surnames and their correlation with pigmentation. 
We have found that among the 14,561 children there are 751 different surnames. The 
frequency of these surnames varies between 1 aud 267, Milne being the most frequent, 
the next in order being Smith, Taylor, Stephen, and Bruce. If the surnames are 

• Cf. Ridgcwaj, Early Age of Greece, I. 217. t Journ. Anthr. I/utt., Vol. XXX., pp. 104-125, 

[ 1» ] 

1901.] MAN. [ITos. 138-139. 

arranged in order of frequency a curve representing the frequency takes the form roughly 
of a rectangular hypertala. The distribution of surnames is very unequal : for example, 
one-half of the population has to he content with 12£ per cent, of the surnames, while 
one-half of the surnames is monopolised by 950 persons. Hereditary surnames were not 
in common use in Scotland until the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. There is a pre- 
sumption, therefore, that the present possessors of surnames inherit some of the physical 
characteristics of aucestors of that date. It becomes necessary to investigate the origin 
of surnames. We have divided them broadly into two classes : (1) Lowland, including 
names of Anglo-Saxon, Norman, and Scandinavian origin ; (2) Highland, including 
names derived from the names of Highland clans. Of the 751 surnames, 63 were High- 
land, representing 13-14 per cent, of the population. It is intorestiug to note that in a 
previous investigation* we came to the conclusion, from an analysis of the measure- 
ments of the adult population, that the Highland element was present to the extent of 
14 per cent, in East Aberdeenshire. We have calculated the pigmentation value of the 
hair and eyes for the 59 most frequent surnames, and arranged them in series according 
to pigmentation. We find that there is a wide variability in the pigmentation of different 
surnames, pointing to the conclusion that septs or clans, as represented by surnames, 
tend to retain distinct physical characteristics. Amongst the darkest in the series we 
find surnames common in fishing communities. This supports the tradition that the 
fishing population on the east coast of Scotland is of Belgian origin, since the Belgians 
are the darkest people of Northern Europe. We find that the pigmentation of Highland 
surnames corresponds -closely with the pigmentation in their districts of origin. An 
example of this is seen in the blonde Frasers, having their origin in the blonde Inverness 
district, and dark Robertsons and Gordons in dark Perthshire and West Aberdeenshire. 
The surnames of Wallace, Pirie, Grant, Park, and Birnie, we find, have strong blonde 
tendencies, while the surnames of Cordiner, Cruickshank, Stephen, Strachan, Buchan, 
Paterson, and W r hyte are darkest in our list. The surnames having the largest per- 
centage of red hair are Reunie, Scott, Grant, and Thomson, and those having the least 
percentage are Johnston, Walker, Burnett, Forbes, and Watson. 

The validity of these conclusions depends on whether they are confirmed by a 
complete survey of the whole of Scotland, which, we hope, may be carried out at an 
early date. 

Linguistics. Frazer. 

Men' 8 Language and Women's Language. By J. G. Frazer, M.A., Litt.D. 10O 
In The Fortnightly Review for January 1 900 I collected evidence as to \£S3 
certain differences of speech between men and women which have been observed in 
some South American tribes, and I suggested that such differences may perhaps furnish 
the clue to the origin of gender in language. Whatever may be thought of that 
suggestion, it seems desirable to bring together all reported cases of divergence 
of speech between the sexes, as these can hardly fail to be philologically interesting. 
Hence I venture to submit to readers of Man the following passages which I have 
lately met with in D'Orbigny's well-known work on the South American Indians 
(IS Homme Americain, Paris, 18.39). The writer spent about eight years with a French 
scientific expedition exploring a great part of South America. The Chiquitos Indians 
to whom he here specially refers are a considerable tribe, or rather nation, inhabiting 
the dense forests of Eastern Bolivia. Their language, according to D'Orbigny, is one 
of the most copious and complete in America. Speaking of the South American 
languages in general he says : " Un autre genre d'exception a donne lieu a beaucoup de 
u reflexions ; dans telle langue, les mots employes par l'homme sont, en majeure par tie, 
" different de ceux qu'emploie la femme, ou chaque mot, en passant par la bouche de 

* Sec Proc. Brit. A**oc. % Bradford, 1900. 
L 154 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 129-130. 

" cette derniere, preud mie term iimi son distincte. La lungue des Chiquitosoffre, au plus 
u haut degre, ee earactere ; mais dans les autres il se re\luit, lorsqu'il s'y trouve, aux 
44 titres de pare at 6. Depuis bien longtemps* on a expliqu£ cette anomalie, par 
44 l'habitude de certains peuples conquerans (des Guaranis surtout), de tuer les bommes 
" et de garder les fcmmes, supposition qui nous parait assez probable" (L 1 Homme 
AmSricaifiy ]., p. 153). Again, in treating specially of the Cbiquito nation, be says : 
" Une anomalie singuliere se presente dans la langue chiquita, ou, pour beaucoup de 
u cboses, l'bomrne emploie des mots differens de ceux dont se sert la femme, t ami is que 
" pour les autres, la femme emploie des mots dont l'homme se sert, en se contentant d'en 
" changer la terminaison " (op. cit. IL, p. 135). Again, speaking of the same language, 
he remarks : " Une particularite de cette language, c'est la difference d'expression des 
44 memes objets pour les deux sexes. Non-seulement les noms des objets indiqu£s par 
44 la femme ont une terminaison autre que pour les bommes, mais encore il y a souvent 
44 des mots tout a fait dissemblables ; ainsi l'homme exprime pcre par Iyal et la femme 
44 par Yxupu (prononcez Ychoupou) " {pp. cit. IL, p. 163). J. G. FRAZER. 

Greece: Prehistoric. Hall. 

The Oldest Civilisation of Greece: Studies of the Mycentean Age. By iQO 
H. R. Hall, M.A., Assistant iu the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian I0U 
Antiquities, British Museum. London : David Nutt, 1901. 8vo, pp. xxxvi, 346. 
Price 15*. 

Two books dealing with the never-ending Mycenaean question have lately been 
given to the world. With the first of the two to appear we have not to deal (it is, 
in fact, incomplete) ; nor, indeed, does it proceed on the same lines as Mr. Hall's work. 

The latter is au attempt to do for the controversial questions, inspired by the now 
enormous mass of " Mycena?an " material, what has already been done for the material 
itself by Schuchhardt, Perrot, and Tsountas. The writings of these three scholars do 
not pretend to deal with other than ascertained facts, though they do not indeed always 
escape the imputation of regarding as fact what should really only be treated as well- 
supported hypothesis. Mr. Hall's object, ou the other hand, is not so much to give a 
resume of discoveries up to date, but rather with the mind of an unprejudiced critic, to 
weigh the import of these discoveries and of the theories based on them. Without 
laying down any definite theory of his own, he holds a middle course between the views 
of those who argue for extreme limits of date ; and, while avoiding mere negations, he 
has, in our opinion, gone far in the direction of 44 properly basing " the question. 

The l>ook is divided into eight chapters, comprising nearly 300 pages, and amply 
illustrated by 75 cuts, several of which aro from unpublished objects in his own 
Department of the British Museum. 

It is the special merit of this book that in it we have, for the first time, a careful 
and judicial estimation of the evidence to be obtained from Egypt by a specialist in the 
archieology of that couutry. We have only to turn to the table given on page 76, 
where we may see, at a glance, the chief items of evidence for Mycenaean dating and 
the respective value of each item. Mr. Hall never forgets to warn his readers of the 
danger of accepting Egyptian evidence without hesitation, more especially in the case 
of scarabs. But, after all, even if scarabs were banned as evidence, ample material 
would still remain. For instance, there are the Tell-el-Amarna deposits of 1400 B.C., 
with their wealth of Mycenaean vase- fragments, as well authenticated a criterion as 
could be wished, and no archaeologist can overlook them. Mr. Hall, with praiseworthy 
discernment, carefully sifts the good from the bad— or doubtful — evidence, a most 
important matter. 

* Fire Raymond Breton, Dicticnnaire caraibe, p. 229, public en 1665. 
[ 166 ) 

1901.] MAN. [Ho*. 180-18L 

Equal caution must be employed in treating evidence from Cyprus, and here again 
we think Mr. Hall has done well. We do not understand how archaeologists cao shut 
their eyes to the fact that Mycenaean remains in Cyprus last down to the eighth 
century B.C. (possibly even later). On the other hand, it would be equally absurd 
to draw the opposite conclusion that what is late in Cyprus must also be late at 
Mycerne or Ialysos. The circumstances easily admit of explanation. Always ultra- 
conservative, Cyprus, which probably only felt the influence of Mycenaean civilisation 
towards its decline in Greece, naturally retained it for several succeeding centuries, 
during which it cau hardly Ik; said to have been affected by the Dorian invasion. Surely 
we may see in the legend of the colonisation of Sal am is by Teucer, supported, perhaps, 
by the wonderful finds at Enkomi, traces of an Achaean settlement subsequent to the 
Trojan War, which was only an offshoot of the general stream of migration from 
West to East. 

So far we are arguing with Mr. Hall that the " working hypothesis M of the 
Mycenajan question is to be accepted, and that its " Blutezeit " is to be regarded as 
lasting from alxmt 1600 B.C. to 1200 r.c, first in Crete, afterwards under the Achaean 
hegemony at Myceiuu; that the Doriau migration took place about 1000 B.C., and that 
the Achaeans, or Mycenaeans were then driven out of the mainland of Greece. 

Further, wo are entirely at one with him in his incidental treatment of the Homeric 
question. Every scholar is familiar with the archaeological difficulties which this presents, 
but many are too much occupied with dovetailing them iuto their own theories to treat 
them with impartiality. 

Mr. Hall aims a few gentle shafts at Professor ltidgeway and his Pelasgian theory, 
and we think he is right in urging that there is no need to identify the Mycenaean 
civilisation exclusively with the Pelasgiaus ; nor, on the other hand, to confine it 
exclusively to the Achaeans or any other race. 

One of the most valuable features of the book is the diagram of an approximate 
chronological scheme which, by-the-bye, does not follow page 292, as indicated in the 
contents, but page 324. Where all is admittedly tentative and hypothetical we refrain 
from criticism of detail, but it might have been an improvement if the arrangement had 
been different, the dates in the vertical columns, and the localities in the horizontal. 

Space forbids us to dwell on the many subjects suitable for comment which 
Mr. Hall's luminous and suggestive chapters present, but a few small points, perhaps, 
call for criticism. The title of the illustration on page 24 is unfortunate ; we fear the 
L.C.C. would hardly pass such an edifice as a "model" dwelling. We confess to a 
personal prejudice against the copulated u re" which is used (but not quite consistently); 
but printers are notoriously difficult to convert to the more correct typography, 
Mr. Hall writes well and clearly throughout, but he should try to avoid the vulgarism 
of the " split infinitive." H. 

Proceedings. British Association. 

Anthropology at the Glasgow Meeting of the British Association for the 104 
Advancement of Science (September Ilth-I8th, 1901). I0 I 

The Anthropological Section of the British Association met at Glasgow in the new 
Anatomy Department of the University, the formal opening of which took place on 
the first afternoon of the meeting. The president of the section, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, M.D., F.R.S., of Trinity College, Dublin, took as the subject of his 
inaugural address," The Human Brain, and the part which it has played iu the Evolution 
of Man," and discussed the relations which are found to exist during foetal life between 
tlje brain itself and the brain case, laying particular stress upon the specifically human. 

[ 156 ] 

190L] MAN. [No. 131. 

development of the parietal lobe at the expense of the occipital, and on the importance 
of the " insular district " as the seat of the brain centres for the arm, face, and mouth, 
and consequently for the higher activities of speech, gesture, and technical skill. "It is 
certain," he concluded, "that these structural addition to the human brain are no recent 
u acquisition by the stem-form of man, but are the result of a slow evolutionary growth 
" — a growth which has been stimulated by the laborious efforts of countless generations 
" to arrive at the perfect co-ordination of all the muscular factors which are called into 
" play in the production of articulate speech ; " and further, if this be so, " it would be 
" wrong to lose sight of the fact that the first step in this upward movemeut must have 
" been taken by the brain itself. Some cerebral variation — probably trifling and 
u insignificant at the start, and yet pregnaut with the most far-reaching possibilities — 
" has in the stem- form of man contributed that condition which has rendered speech 
" possible. This variation, strengthened and fostered by natural selection, has in the 
" end led to the great double result of a large brain with wide and extensive association 
u areas and articulate speech, the two results being brought about by the mutual reaction 
" of the one process upon the other." The address will be found printed in full in the 
Proceedings of the British Association (Glasgow) 1901, and in a current number of 
Nature. A full abstract of it appeared in the Glasgow Herald of September 13th and 
in the Times of September 1 4th. 

The Glasgow meeting was noteworthy for the unusual number of papers on points 
of human anatomy. Some of these, it is true, were hardly of a direct anthropological 
bearing, but the presidential address showed clearly enough the uecessity of confronting 
from time to time the current speculations about the or gins of speech and culture with 
the data of brain-morphology. Scottish ethnology was but poorly represented ; there 
were fewer ethnographic papers than usual ; and folklore and kindred topics were almost 
absent. Archaeology, on the other hand, both local and general, was prominent, and 
considerable interest was aroused by the group of good papers and reports on the 
antiquities of Crete and the Syrian coast. A full list of the reports and papers 
follows: those to which the words " Man, 1901, below " are appended will be published 
wholly or in abstract in subsequent numbers of Man. 

Anthropogra pn y. 

Prof. Cleland, F.R.S. — The Cartilage of the External Ear in the Monotremata, 
in Relation to the Human Ear. In echidna the tube of the ear shows 16 bars united 
by a continuous line of cartilage, aud the tube expands into a pinna of enormous size, 
which had hitherto escaped notice In ornithorhynchus the tube is not broken into bars 
separated by fissures, and the pinna, hitherto undetected, is small, but of a kind not 
unlike that found iu echidna. Discussion : Sir Win. Turner, F.R. S., Prof. Macalister, 
F.R.S., Prof. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

J. F. Gemmill, M.D. — On the Origin of the Cartilage of the Stapes and on its 
continuity with the Hyoid Arch. The series of sections exhibited shows that in the 
human subject the whole of the cartilage of the stupes is developed independently of the 
periotic capsule, and that it belongs to the hyoid bar. The sections also illustrated 
the fate, at different stages, of that part of the hyoid bar which lias between the stapes 
and the styloid process. The incus represents the primitive suspensorial element, i.e., 
the hyo-mandibular. Discussion : Sir Win. Turner. 

Miss Nina La yard. — Note on a Human Skull found in Peat in the Bed of the 
River Orwell, Ipswich. (Man, 1901, 125.) The skull was exhibited* Discussion : 
Prof. Macalister said the skull was of the same type as those found in the fen district, 
which he had always associated with the pre- Roman Britons. 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. — Some Notes on the Morphology of 
Transverse Vertebral Processes. The application of this term in the descriptions of 

[ 157 ] 

190L] HAN. [No. 13L 

the several regions of the human spine is unsatisfactory, and the author has endeavoured 
to determine, by embryological evidence, the morphological relations of the several parte 
of the neural arch. The factors which cause the differentiation are the juxtaposition of 
the rib and the variable relations of the arch to the surrounding muscles. 

Prof. A. Macalistkr, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. — A Note on the Third Occipital 
Condyle. There are two structures comprised under this name, one a mesial ossification 
in the sheath of the notochord, aud the second a lateral, usually paired, form of process, 
caused by the deficiency of the mesial part of the hypochordal element of the hindmost 
occipital vertebra with thickening of the lateral portion of the arch. 

Principal Mackay, M.D., LL.D. — On Supra sternal Bones in the Human Subject. 
Discussion : Prof. Clclaud, Prof. Paterson. 

Prof. J. Symington, M.D. — On the Temporary Fissures of the Human Brain, 
with Observations on the Development of the Hippocampal Fissure and Hippocampal 
Formation. (Man, 1901. 126.) 

J. F. Tocher, F.I.C., and J. Gray, B.Sc. — The Frequency and Pigmentation 
Value of Surnames of School Children in East Aberdeenshire. (Man, 1901. 128.) 
Discussion : Prof. Cunningham observed that, unfortunately, the paper was dealing 
with names that extended all over Scotland, while it studied them as applied to a 
limited district only, and discussion upon it could only be of value when they got 
a survey on similar lines of the whole of Scotland. Mr. Tocher and Mr. Gray 
proposed to make a survey of the school names of the whole of Scotland correlated with 
the pigmentation of hair and eyes, and their more extensive report would be extremely 
valuable for discussion. lie wished to know why the Macdonalds were credited with 
having inherited their fair hair from Scandinavian ancestry, whereas all the Dalriadic 
Scots came from Ireland iu the third century, and their ancestors in the third century, 
as far as they could discover, had light brown, hair and blue eyes. A committee of the 
Association was appointed to assist Messrs. Tocher and Gray in their researches. 

W. M. Douglas. — Personal Identification : a Description of Dr. Alphonse 
Bertillon's System of Identifying Fugitive Offenders. The practicability of the system 
for police purposes had been tested by the writer, and it had been demonstrated that 
men of ordinary intelligence can master its apparent intricacies and apply it success- 
fully. Discussion : Dr. Garson congratulated Glasgow on the energetic expert who 
had charge of this important division. The colour of the hair and the eye was practi- 
cally useless for identification, while the form of the nose and ear was most important. 
Photographs for the purpose of identification were of uo value ; but everyoue carried in 
his finger prints an almost absolute means of identification. The chances of two 
persous having the same finger prints was something like one in 64,000,000,000. 


Report of the Ethuographie Survey of Canada. (Man, 1901. 133.) 

J. O. Brant Sero. — Dekanawideh, the Law-Giver of the Caniengahahas. (In 
full, Man, 1901. 134.) 

Hesketu Pkichard. — The Tehuelche Indians of Patagonia^ to be published 
shortly in full. 

Seymour Hawtrey. — The Lengua Indians of the Gran Chaco y to be published 
in full in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. Discussion: Mr. Milliugton, 
Mr. Balfour, Mr. Myres. 

Dr. F. P. Moreno. — Notes on Argentine Anthropo-geography. Communicated to 
the geographical section : to be published shortly in full. 

W. H. R. Rivers, M.D. — On the Functions of the Maternal Uncle in Torres 
Strait. (Man, 1901. 136.) To be published iu full in the Report of the Cambridge 
Expedition to Torres Strait. 

[ 158 ] 

190L] MAN. [Ho. 13t 

V7. H. R. Rivers, M.D. — On the Functions of the Son-in-Law and Brother-in- Imw 
in Torres Strait. (Man, 1901. 137.) To be published as above. 

C. S. Myers, M. A. — Some Emotions in the Murray Islanders. (Max, 1901, below.) 
W. Crook E. — Notes on the proposed Ethnographic Survey of India. 

Report of the Sheat Expedition to the Malay Peninsula : section ou Malay 
Industries. (Man, 1901, below.) The rest of the report of the expedition will be 
found in Proc. Brit. Assoc., 1900 (Bradford) aud 1901 (Glasgow). 

W. W. Skeat, M.A. — The Sahais and Semanys : Wild Tribes of the Malay 
Peninsula. To be published in full in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 

N. Ann and alb and H. C. Robinson. — Anthropological Notes on the Sai Kan, 
a Siamo- Malayan Village in the State of Nawnchih (Tojan). (Man, 1901, below.) 

R. Shelpord, M.A. — A Provisional Classification of the Swords of the Tribes oj 
Sarawak, to be published. 

Folklore, &c. 

R. A. S. Macalister, M.A. — Notes on some Customs of the Fellahin in Western 
Palestine. (Man, 1901, below.) Discussion : Mr. Crooke commented on the wide 
range in the East of the marks on walls and lintels, described by Mr. Macalister. 

D. MacRitchie. — Hints of Evolution in Tradition. 

J. S. Stuart Glennie. — Magic, Religion, and Science. 


Report of the Committee on the Registration of Anthropological Photographs. 

Report of the Committee ou the State of Anthropological Teaching in the Uuiteii 
Kingdom aud elsewhere. 


Report. — On the Age of Stone Circles: Excavations at Arbor low (Man, 
1901, below) ; details in full in Proc. Brit. Assoc, 1901 (Glasgow). Discussion : Mr. 
Lewis observed that it would be a mistake to suppose that these circles are all of the 
same age. Special local types are found in Aberdeenshire, Inverness-shire, and on the 
west coast of Scotland ; and in England the types are different again. 

W. Allen Sturge, M.D. — On the Chronology of the Stone Age of Man, with 
especial reference to his co-existence with an Ice Age. (Man, 1901, below.) Discus- 
sion : Sir John Evaus, Professor Keudal, Mr Louge, Dr. Munro, Professor Macalister. 

G. Coffey. — Naturally Chipped Flints for comparison with certain Forms of 
alleged Artificial Chipping. A series of flints from the Larue gravels and North of 
Ireland beaches was exhibited showing different pieces chipped by the action of the 
sea ; also a number of flints, collected ou Ballycastle beach, which had been chipped by 
last winter's storm. These Nature-dressed chips so closely resemble the alleged artificial 
chippiug of the neolithic implements as to prevent any certain conclusion being reached 
as to what really is artificial chipping. 

Ebenezer Duncan, M.D., and T. II. Hryck, M.A., M.D. — Remains of Prehistoric 
Man in the Island of Arran. (Man, 1901, below.) To be published more fully in 
the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. Discussion : Sir William Turner, 
Profensor Macalister, Mr. Somerville, Dr. Garson. 

Miss Nina La yard. — An Early Palmolithic Flint Hatchet with alleged Thong- 
marks. The implement in question was found in Levington Road, Ipswich, at a depth 
of al)out five feet. In depressions about the butt-end the natural skin of the Hint nodule 
remained, and it was contended that these patches showed traces of wear ; and that this 
wear was produced by a thong. Discussion : Sir John Evaus did not cousider that the 
alleged thong was a thong, or that the patches were worn by friction. 

Miss Nina Layard. — Horn and Bone Implements fouiul at Ipswich. The 
specimens exhibited came from various parts of the town, aud from various depths. 

t 159 ] 

190L] MAN. [Wo. 13L 

Some have clearly served as picks ; others, though suggestive of a pick, are too awkward 
for this use, though in one case the tip of the tine lias been sharpened. Ten of these horns 
were found lying together at a depth of five to six feet together with one rudely fashioned 
as a knife handle. Four others were found in gravel at the depth of 23 feet, of which, 
however, 12 feet were made-earth. Other specimens exhibited included a bone needle, 
a horn awl, and a pair of bone skates from a depth of 10 feet in College Street, Ipswich. 

F. D. Longe.— A Piece of Yew from the Forest Bed on the East Coast of 
England, alleged to have been cut by Man. The piece of yew was found by the author 
in the Kessingland " freshwater bed " belonging to the Cromer Forest-bed series, in a 
section exposed after a high tide at the foot of the sea cliff. It bears two oblique cuts 
made by some instrument u much sharper and thinner than the large manufactured imple- 
" ments with which we are so familiar." The author believes that the circumstances 
of the discovery preclude the idea that the cuts are recent, but admits that they were not 
noticed by him till some days afterwards, when the piece of yew was being cleaned. 

G. Coffey. — Exhibit of Manufactured Objects from Irish Caves* 

R. Munko. M.D. — Notes on the Excavation of an Ancient Kitchen- Midden near 
Elie, in Fife. (Man, 1901, below.) To be published more fully in Proc. Soc. Anthr^ 
Scotland, 1901. 

Report. — Excavations in the Roman City at Silchester. The excavations of 
1900 were confined to the large area situated between Insula XII. (excavated in 1894) 
and Insula XXII. (excavated in 1899), and extending up to the north gate and town 
wall. The area in question contains four insula, which have been numbered XXIII. to 
XXVI. Taken as a whole, the results of the season's work were fully up to the 
average, both in the character of the buildings uueovered and the variety and number of 
objects found in and about them. The quantity of pottery and a hoard of smith's tools 
are also quite exceptional. The objects in bronze, bone, &c, also include many interest- 
ing things. The coins found were as numerous as usual, but not very important. A 
detailed account of all the discoveries was laid before the Society of Antiquaries on 
May 23, 1901, and will be published in Archrenlogia. It is proposed, during the 
current year, to excavate a strip of ground east of Insulte XXI. and XXII., and, if 
possible, to begin the systematic exploration of the grass field in the centre of the town. 

J. II. Cunningham.— The Roman Camp at Ardoch. (Man, 1901, below.) 

TnoMAS Ross. — The Roman Camp at Delvine, Inchtuthill. (Man, 1901, below.) 

R. A. S. Macalister, M.A. — External Evidence bearing on the Age of Ogham 
Writing in Ireland. (Man, 1901, below.) Discussion : Mr. Coffey. 

Report of the Cretan Exploration Committee. (Man, 1901, below.) The report 
is printed in full in Proc. Brit. Assoc, 1901 (Glasgow). Discussion : Sir John Evans, 
Professor Macalister. 

R. C. Bosanqijet. — Excavations at Pr&sos in Eastern Crete. (Man, 1901, below.) 

A. J. Evans, M.A., F.R.S. — The Neolithic Site at Knossos in Crete. (Man, 
1 901, below.) To be published separately in full. Discussion : Professor Sayce, Mr. Myres. 

D. G. IIocarth, M.A. — Explorations at Z'tkro in Eastern Crete. (Man, 
1901, below.) 

R. A. S. Macalister, M.A. — Some Results of recent Excavations in Palestine. 
(Man, 1901, below.) Discussion : Sir John Evans, Professor G. A. Smith, Mr. Myres. 

C. S. Myers.— The Bones of Urn Nchht. (Man, 1901, 127.) Discussion : 
Professor Macalister. 

Mr. James Paton, H.A., Curator of the Corporation Museums and Galleries and 
Hon. Sec. of the Fine Art Section of the Glassrow Exhibition, met members of the 
section in the West Court of the Art Galleries in the Glasgow Exhibition, and 
conducted them through the collection of Prehistoric Antiquities. 

Printed by hYRK and Spottiswoodb, His Majesty's Primers, East Harding Street, E.G. 

1901.] MAN. [No. 132. 

Race Improvement. With Plate L. Qalton. 

The Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the existing Conditions 4 Af> 
of Law and Sentiment. By Francis Gal ton, D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S. Abstract 10 /L 
of the Huxley Memorial Lecture, delivered before the Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland on Tuesday, October 29th, 1901. 

The aim of the lecture is to give a scientific basis to the problem of race improve- 
ment under the existing conditions of civilisation and sentiment. It leads to many 
subsidiary problems, each interesting to anthropologists ou its own account. 

Men differ as much as dogs in inborn dispositions and faculties. Some dogs are 
savage, others gentle ; some endure fatigue, others are soon exhausted ; some are % loyal, 
others are self -regarding. They differ no less widely in specialities, as in herding sheep, 
retrieving, pointing at game, and following trails by scent. So it is with men in respect 
to the qualities that go towards forming civic worth, which it is not necessary at this 
moment to define particularly, especially as it may be a blend of many alternative qualities. 
High civic worth includes a high level of character, iutellect, energy, and physique, and 
this would disqualify the vast majority of persons from that distinction. We may 
conceive that a committee might be entrusted to select the worthiest of the remaining 
candidates, much as they select for fellowships, honours, or official posts. 

Distribution in a Population. — It is a fair assumption that the different grades of 
civic worth are distributed in accord with the familiar normal law of frequency. This 
means nothing more than thai th . causes why civic worth varies in amount in different 
persons are numerous and act i dcpendently, some pulling this way, some that, the 
results being due to the ordinary laws of combination. As it is found that such very 
different variables conform fairly to this law, as Stature, Bullet holes around the bull's- 
eye, Error of judgment of astronomers, and Marks gnined by candidates at examinations, 
whether in simple or in grouped subjects, there is much reason to believe that civic 
worth will do so also. The figures will then come out as follows :• Let the average 
civic worth of all the male adults of the nation be determined and its value be called M, 
one-half of them having less aud the other more than M. Let those who have more than 
M be similarly subdivided, the lower half will then have M plus something that does not 
exceed a sharply -defined amount, which will be called 1°, and is taken as the unit of 
distribution. It signifies the height of each step or grade between the limits of the 
successive classes about to be described. We therefore obtain by familiar methods the 
result that 25 per cent, lie between M and M + 1° (call it for brevity + 1°) ; 16 per 
cent, between + l°and + 2° ; 7 between + 2° and + 3°, and 2 for all beyond + 3°. 
There is no outer limit ; the classification might proceed indefinitely, but this will do at 
present. Similarly for the negative grades below M. It is convenient to distinguish 
the classes included l>etween these divisions by letters, so they will lie called R, S, T, U, 
&c, in succession upwards, and r, «, /, w, &c, in succession downwards, r being the 
counterpart of R ; * of S, and so on. 

These normal classes were compared with those of Mr. Charles Booth in his great 
work, Labour and Life of the People of London. His lower classes, including the 
criminals and semi-criminals, corres|>ond in numbers with " / and below " ; those higher 
than small shopkeepers and subordinate professional men correspond with " T and above," 
and the large body of artisans who earn from 22*. to 30*. a week exactly occupy the 
place of mediocrity ; they include the upper four fifths of r and the lower four fifths of 
R. So far as these may represent civic worth they confirm as far as they go its fairly 
normal distribution. 

The differences between the classes are exemplified by the figures relating to the 
stature of many thousand adult males, measured at the Health Exhibition. Their 

[ Ml ] 

1901] MAST. (TTo. 183. 

average height was nearly 5 ft. 8 in., the unit of distribution was nearly 1} in., so the 
class CJ exceeded 6 ft. 1 in. ; consequently even U overlooks a mob, while V, who exceed 
6 ft. 2| in., and much more the higher grades, tower above it in an increasingly eminent 

Worth of a Child, — Dr. Farr calculated the value at its birth of a liaby born of the 
wife of an Essex labourer, supposing it to be an average specimen of its class in length 
of life, in cost of maintenance while a child and in old age, and in earnings during youth 
and manhood. He capitalised with actuarial skill the prospective values at the time of 
birth, of the outgoings and the incomings, and on balancing the items found the newly- 
l>orn infant to be worth 5/. A similar process would conceivably bring out tlie money 
value at birth of children destined when they grew up to fall into each of the several 
classes, and by a different method of appraisement to discover their moral and social 
worth. As regards the money value of men of the highest class, many found great 
industries, establish vast undertakings, iucrease the wealth of multitudes and amass 
large fortunes for themselves. Others, whether rich or poor, are the guides and light of 
the nation, raising its tone, enlightening its difficulties and imposing its ideals. The 
more gifted of these men, members of our yet undefined X class, would be each worth 
thousands of pounds to the nation at the momeut of their birth. 

Descent in a Population. — The most economical way of producing such men may 
be inferred from the Table of Descent accompanying the memoir, calculated for an ideal 
population, on the supposition that all marriages are equally fertile, that the statistical 
distribution of qualities continues unchanged and . that the normal law of frequency 
prevails throughout. In this particular table it was also supposed that both parents 
were always alike in quality. The diagram that illustrates it shows also very clearly the 
contributions of each class of parent to each class of the next generation. The V class 
of parentages number 35 per 10,000, which represents in the 40,000,000 of the 
population an annual output of 1,300 male youths of thai class who attain their 
majority in the same year. Of the 34 or 35 V sons 6 come from the 35 V-class parents, 
10 from the 180 U, 10 from the 672 T, 5 from the 1,614 S, and 3 from the 2,500 ft. 
Therefore V is 3 times richer than U in producing V offspring, 11 \ times than T, 
55 times than S, and 145 times richer than R. Economy of cost aud labour in 
improving the race will therefore depend on confiuing attention to the best parentages. 
The falling off when only one of the parents is of the V class and the other unknown 
was shown to be a little more than 4£. 

In dealing with large numbers the statistical constancy of the result resembles 
those of a fi5oed law. The above figures might theu be accepted as certainties like 
those" in tables of mortality, if they are founded on a correct hypothesis. It is not 
claimed that the hypothesis is more than approximately correct, but in any case the 
results will be constant and probably not very different from those given in the table. 
They showed that 35 marriages of two persons each of class V will produce &ve 
adult, soih and five adult daughters of that same V class. They will also produce ten 
of each sex of the U class and 12 of the T. A discouut will have to be taken off 
these figures in deducting their significance, because the performance in mature life 
often falls short of its promise in youth. The lecturer strongly condemned the neglect 
by educational authorities to investigate the correlation between youthful promise and 
subsequent performance, by the closeness of which the value of the present huge system 
of examinations can alone be judged. 

Augmentation of Favoured Stock. — Enthusiasm to improve our race might express 
itself by granting diplomas to a select class X of young men and women, by encouraging 
their intermarriages and by promoting the early marriage of girli of that high class. 
The means that are available consist in dowries, where a moderate sum is important, 
help in emergencies, henlthv homes, pressure of public opiuion, honours, and the intro- 

[ 162 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 132. 

duction of religious motives, which are very effective as in causing Hindoo girls and most 
Jewesses to marry young. The span of a generation would be thereby shortened, which 
is equivalent to increasing the fertility of one that was unshortened. It would also save 
the early years of the child-bearing period from barrenness. Healthy homes would 
diminish mortality among children, and in that way increase the output of adult offspring. 
There is a tendency among girls to shrink from marriage on prudential grounds. This 
feeliug might be directed in the opposite way, l>y making it an imprudence in an X girl 
not to gain the advantages that would reward the indulgence of a natural instinct. It 
was concluded that the effect of a widely-felt enthusiasm for improving the race might 
be expected to add an average iucrement of one adult son and one adult daughter to the 
prospective offspring of each X girl. These would be distributed among the X, W, and 
V classes much as the offspring of V parentages are distributed among the V, U, and T 
classes, but not in quite such high proportions, which were five of each sex to the first, 
ten to the second, and so on. 

Economical Problem. — The problem to be solved now appears in a clear shape. 
An X child is worth so and so at birth aud one of each of the inferior grades respec- 
tively is worth so and so ; 100 X-favoured parentages will each produce a gain of so 
many ; the total value of their produce can therefore be estimated by an actuary, con- 
sequently it is a legitimate expenditure to spend up to such and such an amount on each 
X parentage. The distinct statement of a problem is often more than half way towards 
its solution. There seems no reason why this one should not be solved between limiting 
values that are not too wide apart to be useful. 

Existing Agencies. — Leaving aside profitable expenditure from a money point of 
view the existence of large and voluntary activities should be borne in mind that 
have nobler aims. It appears that the annual voluntary contributions to public 
charities in the British Isles amount on the lowest computation to 14,000,000/., and 
that, as Sir H. Burdett asserts on good grouuds, is by no means the maximum 
attainable (Hospitals and Charities, 1898, page 85). 

A custom has existed in all ages of wealthy persons befriending poor and promising 
youths which might be extended to young and promising couples. It is a conspicuous 
feature in the biographies of those who have risen from the ranks, that they were 
indebted for their first start in life to this cause. Again, it is usual among large land- 
owners to proceed not on the rackrent principle, but to select the worthiest all round for 
tenants and others in their employ, and to give them good cottages at low rents and 
other facilities. The advantage of being employed on one of those liborally-couducted 
properties being thoroughly appreciated, there are usually many applicants to each 
vacancy, so selection can be exercised. The result is that the tenants and servants of all 
kinds to be found about them are a finer stamp of men to those in similar positions 
elsewhere. It might easily become an avowed object of noble families to gather fine 
specimens of humanity around them, as it is to produce fine breeds of cattle and so 
forth, which are costly in money but repay in satisfaction. 

Finally, there are building societies that have higher ends than mere investments 
and which have been endowed with princely generosity. A settlement of selected 
persons might conceivably be maintained that should hear some analogy to colleges 
with their fellowships, aud include a grant of rooms for a term of years at low cost. 
A select class would create through their own merits an attractive settltmcnt, distin- 
guished by energy, intelligence, and civic worth, just as a first-rate club attracts 
desirable candidates by its own social advantages. 

Prospects. — It is easy to indulge in Utopias, including a vast system of statistical 
registration, but the pressing need is to establish a firm basis of fact for the roads that 
lead towards race improvement. The magnitude of the inquiry is great, but its object 
is one of the highest that man can hope to accomplish, and there seems no reason to 

[ i«;3 ] 

1901] MAN. [Nob. 133-188. 

doubt its practicability to a greater or less degree. The question of bow much may 
be reasonably anticipated must be delayed until the problems that have been indicated 
are more or less satisfactorily solved. FRANCIS G-ALTON. 

America : Ethnography. Hill-Tout, &c. 

(I.) The Ethnographic Survey of Canada. Abstract of the report of the 4QQ 
Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, presented lUU 
at Glasgow, September 17th, 1901 ; to be printed in full in Proc. Brit. Assoc. 
(Glasgow), 1901. 

(2.) Ethnological Studies of the Mainland Halkomtliim, a Division of the Salish 
of British Columbia. Abstract of a paper by Chas. Hill-Tout, appended to the above 

(1.) The Committee records with regret the very sudden decease of its secretary, 
Dr. G. M. Dawson, which occurred at Ottawa on March 2, 1901. Dr. Dawson had 
been identified with the work of this Committee from the time of its organisation, at 
first as its chairman and later as its secretary. His well-known ethnological studies in 
connection with the Indians of the Pacific coast, and the kceu practical interest which 
he constantly manifested in the prosecution of such work gave special weight to his 
connection with this Committee, the object of which commanded his warmest sympathy 
and his deepest interest. The Committee is keenly seusihle of the great loss it has 
sustained in the removal of one whose broad interest in the progress of scientific research, 
and whose intelligent appreciation of the mauy difficult problems connected with the 
prosecution of ethnological work in a country where the conditions are changing so 
rapidly, gave him exceptional qualifications for the guidance of the work, and imparted 
to those especially engaged in collecting data a never-failing stimulus and enthusiasm. 

The Committee desires to be reappointed, and recommeuds Mr. C. Hill-Tout, of 
Abbotsford, Briiish Columbia, to be appointed secretary, and the Rev. John Campbell, 
of Montreal, to be a member of the Committee. 

Renewed negotiations with certain of the provincial governments have been opened 
during the year with a view to having the work of this Committee placed upon a more 
permanent basis, aud it is hoped that favourable results may appear l>efore our next 
minimi report is made. Dr. Gauoug has undertaken the organisation of systematic work 
in New Brunswick, with special reference to the remnants of Indian tribes. The 
anthropometric work of the Committee continues. Mr. Leon Gerin has continued his 
studies with reference to the Iroquois of Caughnawaga (Caniengahaka, cf. Man, 1901. 
134). Mr. A. F. Hunter has published in the Archaeological Report of Ontario for 
1900 his third contribution to the bibliography of Ontario archaiology ; and in Vol. III. 
of the Ontario Historical Society, an article on The Ethnographical Elements of 
Ontario* which has been reprinted separately and may be obtained through the 

(2.) Mr. Hill-Tout has continued his studies of the Salish tribes of British 
Columbia. His report for this year, which deals chiefly with the HalbomdlEm tribes 
of the Lower Fraser, is given in abstract below, and will be published more fully next 

This report deals chiefly with the Tcil'tjcuk aud KwtiutlEn tribes in the lower 
Fraser district. The former are not true members of the HalkomelEin division, though 
thev now speak its tongue. They are more communistic in their mode of life than 
other tribes. The office of principal chief generally descended from father to son. 
Their pot latch and other feasts have been reluctantly given up. The tribe eat together 
as one family. Their permanent habitation was the communal long house ; each family 
was entitled to a space 8 talz square, a talz being the length of the space between the 

I m 1 

1901] MAN. CNo. 13d. 

outstretched arms of a man measured across the chest from finger to finger. Their 
lwskets and other utensils were necessarily large. The author describes the functions 
of the shaman, and discusses the origin of the sillia, which he believes to be a connecting 
link between fetichism and totemism. The mortuary customs differ in detail from those 
of other tribes. He did not gather much information as to the puberty customs. The 
tribe formerly possessed a large stone statue to which they attached a supernatural 
origin. He records the myth of the " blanket beating " and other tales. He criticises 
Dr. Boas 1 observations ou the language of these tribes, but suggests the general use of 
the phonetic system adopted in his reports. He has given particular study to the 
pronouns and demonstratives. He obtained linguistic information from three of the 
Indians, which he discusses at length. He adds a glossary of the Tcil'Qeuk language. 

The Pilatlq are a small tribe ou the lower Chilli wack river, numbering now only 
25. They were formerly divided into five villages or camps and had three classes of 
shamans. The author records several of their myths. They have given up their 
ancient mortuary customs under missionary influence, and now adhere to those of their 
white neighbours. 

The KwautlEn were formerly one of the most powerful and extensive of the River 
HalkomelEm tribes, their chief claiming to be the supreme chief of the whole. They 
had a subject tribe called the KwikwitlEm. Of their origin they give various mythical 
accounts. They lived in the communal long house, but do not appear to have taken 
their meals in common. The choice of a wife or husband was always made by the 
parents. The author was unable to discover anything like a developed totem ic system 
among them. Their social organisation had not reached to the secret society stage. 
The Sla'ra was the tribal high priest. He addressed the " sky chief " as Cwai'EbsEu 
or " father." One of their prayers is thus translated, " O supreme Father, have pity on 
*' me. Wherefore hast thou brought me here on this earth ? I desire to live here ou 
" this earth which thou hast made for me." They have eight different kinds of 
dauces. The shamans practised fire-handling and other kinds of magic. All dancing 
was accompanied by singing. They believed it was Qiils the Transformer who taught 
them to pray. Their naming ceremonies were occasions of general festivity and presents 
of blankets. Their phonology does not differ from that of the Tcil'geuk. The author 
adds much linguistic information. 

He appends free translations of the following stories : — 1. The Magic Water and 
Salmon. 2. SmElo and SkElut'EmEs. 

To the notes on the archseology of the district already published by him in the 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada and in the Mining Record of Victoria, 
British Columbia, he adds some further particulars of researches among the ancient 
middens. Every variety of arrowhead was found, and stone of several patterns, 
but objects of bone predominated. The skulls found are dolichocephalic and appear to 
belong to predecessors of the present races, possibly the ancestors of the subject tribe 
referred to. There are other more recently formed middens. Many interesting specimens 
from these have beeu secured by the New York Museum of Natural History. There are 
many burial mounds or tumuli. Few or no relics are recovered from them. The greater 
number are within a rectangular boundary of stones. Different kinds of sand are found 
in them spread in distinct layers or strata of varying thickness. In only one instance 
was he able to discover a few bones and a portion of a skull, which had not only been 
deformed in lifetime but had suffered from pressure in the ground. He sums up as the 
result of his investigations of the archaeological remains that the Lower Fraser was in 
possession of a primitive people, probably not less than 2,000 years ago, which differed 
from existing tribes both physically and in respect of its mortuary customs. The race 
to which these ancient middeu and mound builders belonged cannot yet be determined. 

[ 166 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 134. 

America: Iroquois, Brant-Sero. 

Dckanawideh ; the Law-giver of the Canicngahakas. By (Ra-ouha) John iQ A 
.Ojijatekha Braut-Sero (Canadian Mohawk). (Cf. Man, 1901* 131.) luT 1 

Of the North American aborigine*, the Canicngahakas are the most ancient and 
honourable known. Fragmentary knowledge of these people in their tribal relations 
have been gathered from time to time by the early travellers and others holding positions 
of political and religious importance in the New World. For many generations past 
these "People of the Flint," as their name implies, have been known to the general 
reader of fiction by a nick-name, the Mohawks, which it appears originated in Fleet 
Street, London, England. Thoughtful European minds must have considered the name 
more pronounceable than appropriate. 

The " Mohawks " are the first nation in that aboriginal confederacy which was 
once so powerful and extended .its influence over a vast trackless part of the North 
American continent. The confederacy has been perpetuated by various names, such as 
the " Five Nations," the " Six Nations," " the People of the United Long House," 
Rodiuonsh'onnih," and the " Iroquois." Like many other races of raaukind, the 
Mohawks considered themselves to be the "real" and most important people iu the 
land. They taught their children to regard themselves a9 the " real people." They did 
not, however, proclaim themselves as the "only" people. Endowed physically and 
mentally, their idea of freedom was so absolute, that we can safely accuse them of 
possessing that generous hospitable spirit of rivalry and fidelity to a degree hitherto 
unheard of. 

Some speculation, I understand, having existed for a long time regarding the word 
" Iroquois," might I be allowed to digress from the main point and give my version ? 
Rongwej in the Mohawk tongue means "mau " ; Lih means "self," that is, "I am " ; 
and I-ih rongwe, " I am the real man," obviously is the origin of the word. The 
propensity of the old Iroquois to extol their superiority on the chase, coupled with an 
absolute indifference to the horrors of torture at the stake, lend in some degree the 
possibility of allowing my contention to be accepted as based upon reasonable 

As a representative of a race who have not yet produced a rhrouicler, my claim to 
speak rests upon the fact that we are not as a people " numbered among the war-like 
dead," neither are we inclined to be rated among the dying " backward races of the, 
world." My story in effect is the unwritten constitutional law and government of the 
Caniengahakas. as given to them by Do ka-na-wi-deh. 

It is an important story : the basic principles of this ancient system of government 
beiug still in use by the Six Nations of Canada, with slight modifications in detail. It 
would not be wise nor yet safe to say how many centuries the system has been in practical 
use. The confederacy of the Five Natious, the people of the United Long House, has 
always impressed me with the fact that it existed a very long time before the Europeaus 
reached the shores of America. Haiwatha (Ayouhwadha, commonly, but wrongly, 
called Hiawatha*) founded the confederacy ; but the government of the confederacy is 
an exact counterpart of the system formulated by Dekanawideh probably ages before 
the era of Haiwatha. 

How long the Mohawks existed in a deplorable coudition before the Law-giver, 
whose uame and memory even the Indians themselves have never heard — save a few, 
and those from the lips of the aged — it is beyond my province to conjecture. Lacking 
a suitable form of organisation, chaos, misery, and war threatened the annihilation of a 
great people. A long transitory period of " thinking" ensued, pouderiug how the lives 
of the people might he preserved. Malice in its most deadly form became rampaut. 

• Cf. Horatio Hale. Iroquoit Book of Rites (s.v. 4i Condoling Council ") : " flat, Hat "■■" Woe I Woe I " 

[ 166 ] 

1901.] MAN. CNo.134. 

WarriorB ceased from their war-like expeditions to stay around and defend their women 
and childreu. That did not prove effective, for the families murdered one another with 
impunity. In the coufusion the people became more infuriated thau the beasts of the 
woods. Their minds darkened eveu in the glare of the hot suu ; night served to awaken 
the horrors of bestial slaughter ; children alone were spared. The earth and the 
beautiful world, with its abundance of fruit, foliage, streams of glistening waters, 
followed their allotted pace without murmer, summer and winter. The " People of the 
Flint/ 1 the mightiest in the land, alone amongst humanity wire troubled and anxious. 

Dekanawideh, the determined man, " setting his teeth together," as his name would 
indicate, vowing to master himself and save his people from destruction, wandered from 
the crowd, and reached the side of a smooth clear-running stream, transparent and full 
of fishes. He sat down, reclining on the sloping bank, gazing intently into the waters 
(ohondori), watching the fishes playing about in complete harmony : they had their sports 
and pastime which he did not understand. The sun's ray reflected its warmth upon him. 
He rose, dipping his hollowed hand into the water, drank freely, and sauntered quietly 
towards the spreading branches of a tree which stood near — a tall pine tree. He was 
deep in thought and did not notice, perched on the top-most point of the pinery, the 
Great White Eagle — a national totemic emblem. The tree was very high ; no brave had 
yet beeu able to make and handle a bow and arrow which would send the arrow over 
the lofty position of the king of birds. Under the bird's keen eyed scouting protection 
Dekanawideh's " great idea " evolved itself into specific form. Drafting a plan as he 
sat upon the grass, trusting merely to his memory did not prove satisfactory. 

Taking an eagle feather, placing it upon the ground, " That," he said, " shall 
u represent the great idea." He placed many articles side by side to represent the 
" lesser ideas," the details of a great plan. These articles, he thought, would help to 
command attention to his " ideas " and receive consideration from his people. 

Over and over again did he rearrange the various light articles which acted in lien 
of letters. At last it was finished. His joy was great. He felt inclined to yell with 
delight. However, the Great White Eagle, perched on high, as if anticipating the result, 
gave a loud, triumphant scream. The first real American statesman was startled, and 
while he looked cautiously about him, a gust of wind playfully performed a whirlwind 
dance and circulated his great policy in all directions. The primitive recorj, though 
not the system, was lost. 

A lively little woodpecker alighted on an old tattered hollow piuc stump, mockingly 
singing his limited song, pecking for food between the notes. In a revengeful momeut 
Dekanawideh grabbed his bow and arrow, and seuta swift arrow, pinning the bird to the 
stump. Leisurely he brought the bird and arrow down. Dekanawideh stauding erect, 
bird in hand, carefully examined his plumage. Looking up to the lofty position occupied 
by the Great White Eagle, it drew from him a sigh of lofty admiration. u The Great 
Idea," said he, " will one day occupy a position in the affairs of men as lofty as the 
" Great Eagle holds among the feathered kind." The incentive awakened aud urged 
him on as if the " Ruler of All " had prompted Dekanawideh to finish the *' task." 

Once more he sat upon the grass, still examining the little bird's feathers. Suddenly 
there was a pause, a uew discovery, another idea. Small white discs marked the 
feathers. The little white round marks would help to diffuse knowledge. One by one, 
feathers were plucked and stuck into the ground. In this manner the whole scheme 
was rehearsed, and securely tied the precious feathers together. A new era opened. 
Dekanawideh rose and slowly wandered back to his people, mingled with them awhile, 
then secretly laid his plan before the principal men and mothers of the nation. The scheme 
was approved by them, and on its presentation to the people it was adopted unanimously, 

Sneh is the story handed down for ages, not from father to sou, but from mother to 
children. I am remiuded by my people that it has never beeu told to Europeans, 

f 1«7 ) 

1901.] MAN. [No. 134. 

The " great idea " involved the principle of placing the " mothers of the nation " in 
supreme authority, based on a triangular position ; with points represented by three 
totemic shields, known variously as " clans or gentes" 

This remarkable system has never been rightly understood, and I do not wonder at 
it. But you will perceive, as 1 go on, that the Mohawk women are intelligible after all. 
The national interest was iu vested iu them for the good of the whole. They taught 
their own . children, and men supported both mother and child. All the women were 
divided, by the gens system, into three totems. Each totem had a separate council. 
There was, however, a mutual agreement, all matters receiving the attentionof the nation, 
in time of peace, in mutual unity : nothing was finally settled without unanimity. 

In the women's totemic council, however, it was practically an informal affair, 
nominally presided over by an aged sensible womau of the gens. 

The main subject and, probably, the only one which these female totemic councils 
reasonably discussed was the selection of the hereditary council, composed of seven here- 
ditarily-named lords or masters. These u lordship " names, probably more correctly 
" titles, 11 descended by right of inheritance through the women, who have claims upon 
the particular titles. But the women, although possessing such an extraordinary 
advantage, had neither voice nor presence iu the council itself during session. 

The Lords in Council spoke for the women, made laws for them ; the women 
obeyed them. 

No womau could have an interest in more than one title. It was impossible. The 
woman was not supposed to bear children from a father of the same totem as herself. 
Some women had a prior right in choosing a successor to office. The original " lordship 
titles," being seven in number, are as follow : — 

(1.) The Turtle gens : S'hadekariwadeh. Although this is the most important 
gens, the vested power in the individual suggests rather the kiugly power 
than anything else. After the confederation of the Five Nations two 
names were added, in which Haiwatha's name, as an adopted Mohawk, now 
appears third in the list of titled ones or Lords of the Confederacy. It is 
possible that Dekarihoken may have been the original title and not 
(2.) The Wolf gens : Shorenhowaneh, Deyonhehgwen. Ohrenhrekowah. 
(3.) The Bear gens : Dehanakarineh, Asdawenserontha, Shoskoharowaneh. 

The Wolf and Bear Nihodidaroden (gentes) it will be seen possess an equal number 
of titles, — three each. This meant a sub-division of each gens into three distinct 
factions without any other or further addition of totemic divisions. There is no such 
a thing as a nub- gens. It is nn understood custom that the sub-division of gentes gave 
to some women, heads of families, the right of ownership to one of the many titles. By 
this arrangement it followed that a female totemic council relegated the sole control of 
a named title exclusively to the said "owners of the said title." The owners of 
Shorenhowaneh, as an example, would have no voice iu the title of Deyonhehgwen. 

The owners within the gens y however, could "borrow" candidates from one 
another, so that virtually the warriors of the Wolf and Bear gentes were in a position 
to succeed to any one of the three titles. Regency and borrowing are entirely distinct. 

There does not appear to be any limit to the number of owners. It is guided by 
the number of females iu the family. Age takes first rank. It has always beeu against 
custom to consider candidates from among the young men. An owner, be she mother, 
grandmother, or great-grandmother by her right of inheritance would naturally choose 
her own blood relation for office iu preference to others. It is, however, very clear 
that the candidate must possess qualifications iu a superior degree to merit the attention 
of the women. 

t 168 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 184. 

A great deal more might be said on this poiut of an internal tribal organisation, but 
but let me briefly direct your attention to the council itself. From the opening of a 
council meeting begins the ceremonial part of the outward demeanour. The lords sit in 
council by gentes on a plan having three corners. The principal position in the council 
was occupied by the Turtle— the fouutain of thought, goodness, and restricted authority. 
The Wolf occupied a position equivalent to that of the " opposition party." The Hear 
watched the iuterest of all the people, keeping a careful traditional record of what 
transpired iu these councils. It was his duty to open and close the council meeting in u 
Incoming manner. He took no part iu the debate. It was his duty to confirm or refer 
matters back to the council for reconsideration wheu he thought the iuterest of the people 
would be better served by doing so. 

The lighting of a fire, possibly the mere removal of ashes from the embers of an 
uudying " council-fire," set the work of a council into motion. About this council-fire, 
let us draw three lines iu a triangular manuer ; the first Hue, pole to pole ; the other two 
lines pointing to, and meeting at, the west side of the council-fire. The Wolf sat to the 
north-east point of the triangle, also facing the fire. The Bear sat at the western point 
facing the east. The Turtle Lord sat at the south-east poiut of the triangle facing the 
fire. The presence of all the gentes formed the quorum. Then the speaker of the Bear 
Lords rose in his place and delivered a set address, begiuning by referring with thank- 
fulness to the Maker for opportunities enjoyed by them and their people. The speaker 
would urge the Lords in Council to exercise wisdom and patience in all their 

When he had finished the Turtle Lord would announce the business requiring the 
council's careful consideration. He himself would make known his own conclusions, 
whereon the " opposition party/ 1 i.e., the Wolf Lords, would immediately proceed to 
discuss the matter iu hand in an undertone among themselves. When the " opposition 
party " reached au unanimous conclusion, the fact would be announced by their speaker. 
It might be that the view taken by the Wolf Lords would be totally at variauce with 
the expressed conclusion of the Turtle Lord, or it might be a mere concurrence of views. 
Where there was a difference of opinion between the Turtle aud the Wolf, the Bear 
would effect a compromise. 

After the speaker of the Wolf had addressed his reply to the council, the Turtle 
Lord would ask the Bear Lords to give it their careful attention. The Bears on 
reaching a conclusion would announce the fact through their speaker to the council, 
whereupon the Turtle Lord would make the final announcement, the unanimous decision 
of the council, to the people of the natiou. In this manuer the whole transactions of the 
council were carried on in the most dignified, orderly, aud confiding way. No Lord was 
allowed to address the council openly without first having obtained the sauctiou of his 
side of the council fire and of the council iu geueral. As the Lords were the most 
easily approached class of the community, it is easy to understand the lack of autagonism 
between them aud the people. They were called Rodiyaiier, the good masters Vand 

As the sun sets iu the west, the deliberations of the couucil are brought to a close, 
figuratively speaking, by drawing the ashes over the undying embers of the council-fire 
on the part of the Bear Lords. 

There was a minor officer to the lords outside of the couucil in the person of a 
messenger, whose duties were directed by the lord himself. Messengers were some- 
times promoted to the titular office, but owing to the practice of selecting older meu to 
office, such a form was never made au absolute rule. 

The men who had been guilty of murder, treason, and cruelty to women or 
children could never become titular lords. For the same offences, with the addition of 
disobedience, a lord could be removed from office by the council itself. 

[ 169 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 134-185. 

It should be mentioned that the candidates for office were chosen by the " owners " 
of certain titles, who, after agreeing upon a choice, presented the candidate to the general 
council for acceptance. 

The council had a right to refuse or accept a caudidate. Following on this power, 
maintained by the council itself, they also had the authority to make one of their own 
people serve in the council without a title. 

We find, in the historical annals of times past, Mohawks holdiug and wielding 
great influence, who did not possess one of the titular names here mentioned. That is 
possible in a two-fold degree : firstly, because the council possessed authority to make 
a u life chief" of one who had shown great service to his people ; secondly, siuce the 
leader, distinguished in times of war, maintained his influence over the people at the 
return of peace. 

One peculiar feature of this system of government is the suspension of council 
authority during war. This is probably the cause why the hereditary system has not 
produced a single noted man from among their numl)ers. Dekanawideh himself would 
not allow his name to figure among the titles. There is not a class of people in America, 
or indeed in the world, who are more indifferent to the perpetuation of their individual 
memories, and still uphold an hereditary system, as tenaciously as do the Mohawks of the 
Grand River. Indian farmers of to-day, descendants of famous men and women, are 
absolutely careless whether their family tree is more important than that of the rest of 
the Indians about them. This does not arise from ignorauce of the facts, but the belief 
and practice of exteudiug equality to all seems to be at the root of the whole idea. No 
man or woman among them expects more glory than that which arises from a 
consciousness of having done a duty to the best of their individual ability. 

Numerous ceremonies, observed at the present day, I have not touched ; they are 
distinct from the subject iu hand. I cannot, however, close without sayiug a word in 
regard to that admirable work by the late scholar, Horatio Hale, on The Iroquois Book 
of Kites. That work is only a part of the material preserved among this people ; 
about whom the world has heard a great deal, though it knows so little of them. 

The system of government which I have attempted in a feeble way to explain was 
also the system iu vogue at the period when the Crown of England entered most 
solemnly into an alliance with it on defeusive lines, when the British Empire was not so 
large as it is at the present moment. It is probably just as well to emphasize that the 
Mohawks have never violated a pledge, and their fidelity to the Crown is no less real 
to-day thau iu the days long since past by the snows of time. u The proud imperial 
Mohawks" are not a dying but a living race, eagerly waiting the opportunities to 
employ talent, which has lain dormant for some generations. May the hour be no 
longer stayed! I have said so: Ne Ne I-ih Wakiron. J. O. BRANT-SERO. 

Spiritualism. Lang, 

Anthropology and Superstition. By Andrew Lang. (Cf Man, 1901. 3.) 1QE 

In the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Volume XXXI., or rather ItJiJ 

in the Appendix, Man, No. 3, occurs a remark of Mr. Hartland's to this effect: 
" The question raised . . . as to the validity and import of certain phenomena, 
" vulgarly called 'spiritualistic,' is hardly one for the Anthropological Institute." The 
reference is to certain attempts of my own to compare savage beliefs or superstitions 
with their aualogues, perhaps survivals, in contemporary Europoau and American 
society. Now the Anthropological Institute may, of course, draw the line where it 
pleases : but is it the case that such a comparison as I tried to institute, "is hardly one 
for" the science of anthropology ? I merely follow the lead of Bastian in his Ucber 
psychischc Beobachtungen bet Naturvolkem (Leipzig, 1890). Bastian, I believe, is a 
recognised authority iu anthropologv, and he deigned to glance, iu the tract cited, at 

[ 170 j 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 135-186. 

hypnotic methods and hypnotic phenomena among the backward races. My own 
sketch also dealt, among other things, with many phenomena of automatism among the 
savage and the civilised, whose methods and results are curiously analogous. In both 
the civilised and savage instances, these practices are usually involved in superstition, 
44 spiritualism " and other fallacies, or apparent fallacies. But even the Anthropological 
Institute, in the latest number of the Journal, devotes attention to superstitious. 
In certain cases, hypnotic and automatic, the superstitions are unscientific hypotheses 
about facts in human nature. I cannot see, I confess, why real or alleged phenomena 
of human nature and " their validity and import " are (alone among the phenomena of 
human nature) outside the sphere of a science which neglects nihil hurnanum* aud has 
given much attention to superstition, the unscientific interpretation of these phenomena. 
But, though I cannot imagine any reasou why anthropology should neglect anything 
anthropological. I can see many reasons, I admit, for the idea that the topic " is hardly 
44 one for the Anthropological Institute." One reasou is that the phenomena "are 
44 vulgarly called spiritualistic. 19 Yet even this does not prevent the publications of 
the Institute from treating of savage beliefs of a 44 spiritualistic " character. So perhaps 
the reason is not so excellent as I supposed. A. LANG. 

Torres Strait. Rivers. 

On the Functions of the Maternal Uncle in Torres Strait. By W. H. R. 4AA 
Rivers, M.D. To be published in full in the Report of the Cambridge An thro- |y|| 
pological Expedition to Torres Strait. 

In the western tribes of Torres Strait descent is at the present time strictly 
paternal, and yet customs exist among these people which show that in some respects 
the relationship between maternal uncle and nephew is regarded as nearer than that 
l)ctween father and sou. The system of kinship is of the kind known as * 4 classificatory," 
and the customs to be described apply not only to the brothers of the mother, in the 
strict sense, but to all those males of the clan of the same generation as the mother 
whom the latter would call brother. 

A man will cease fighting at once when told to do so by his maternal uncle. The 
power of the uncle is so great that a tight between the natives of two hostile islands 
(Mabuiag and Moa) might be stopped if a man ou one side saw his sister's sou among 
his enemies. • This power of stopping a fight is not possessed to the same extent by the 
father or mother, and a man may continue to fight even after the father or mother has 
given certain indications of the nearness of the bond between them aud the son. The 
maternal uncle, on the other hand, stops a fight by a mere word. The brother-iu-law 
(jnti) has also the power of stopping a fight, but in this case it is the duty of the man 
who has been stopped to make a present to the brother-in-law. No such preseut is 
made to the uncle. 

Another indication of the closeness of the relationship between maternal uucle and 
nephew is that the latter may take, lose, spoil, or destroy anything belougiug to his 
uncle (even a new canoe, probably the most valuable possession a mau cau have) 
without a word of reproach from the latter. I was told that, even if the nephew was 
quite a small boy, he could do what he liked in his uncle's house — could break or spoil 
any of his uncle's property, and the uncle would say nothing. 

As a boy grew up he went about more with his uncle than with his father, and. I 
was told that he cared more for his uncle. At the ceremonies couuected with the 
initiation of the l>oy into manhood it was the maternal uncles who had especial care aud 
complete control of the boy, aud imparted to him the traditious and institutions of the 
tribe. When the Iwy married the father provided the necessary presents ; but the 
actual payment was made by the maternal uncle, to whom the presents were given by 
the bov's father. 

[ m. 1 

1901.] If AN. [ffos. 1*6-137. 

One point of interest in these customs is that they are found in a tribe in which 
descent is now paternal, and must probably be regarded as vestiges of a previous condi- 
tion in which descent was maternal, and the brothers of the mother were regarded as 
nearer kin than the father. 

Another point of more special interest is to be found in the similarity between one 
of these customs and the " vasu" institution of Fiji. This institution which has been 
spoken of as the "keynote of Fijiau despotism," may be regarded as an extreme 
development of the custom which iu Torres Strait permits a nephew to take anything 
Mougiug to his maternal uncle. In Fiji this custom has grown to such an extent that 
the nephew of a king may be " vasu " to all his uncle's subjects, and may with impunity, 
despoil his uncle's subjects of all their most valued possessions. W. H. R. RIVERS. 

Torres Strait. Rivers. 

On the Functions of the Son-in-Law and Brother in- Law in Torres Strait. 4Q7 
By W. H. R. Rivers, M.D. To be published in full with the preceding paper. 10 1 

In both the eastern and western tribes of Torres Strait, as in so many parts of the 
world, a man is not allowed to utter the names of his wife's relations. He does not 
speak to his father-in-law, aud carries out any necessary communication through his 
wife. If, for any reason, it should become necessary to speak to his father-in-law, he 
talks in a low voice aud mild manner. 

In the western tribe this disability is associated with certain duties and privileges. 
The brother- in-law has the power of stopping a fight, but apparently not to so marked 
an extent as iu the case of the maternal uncle. 

When a man dies, the duty of looking after the body aud the mourners falls largely 
on the brother-in-law (imi). If the man has died away from home it is the duty of the 
" imi " to anuouuee the death to the widow and brothers of the deceased, and the '* imi " 
gives the signal for the crying— r " keening " — to commence. He prepares the body and 
carries it to the grave. He stops the cryiug, gives food to the mourners, and fills the 
pipe of the brother of the dead man. If no brother-in-law is present these duties 
devolve on the father in-law (era), or, if no " ira " is present, on the sister-in-law 
(iiyaubat). Owing, however, to the large number of brothers-in law provided by the 
classificatory system of kinship, this rarely happens. 

The brother-in-law has also definite duties in connection with fishing, aud has a 
defiuite place in the fore part of the canoe. It is his duty to hoist the sail, to heave the 
anchor, to bale out water, to light the fire and prepare food, and to spear the dugong or 
turtle. He has, in fact, to do all the hard work, while the owner pr captain of the boat 
has little to do beyond giving orders. In special kinds of fishing, as in that iu which 
the sucking fish is used — of which Dr. Haddon has given an account-— certain of the 
operations are carried out by the brother-in-law. • 

At a dance a man does not wear his owu mask (kra) but that of his brother- 

It seems probable that these customs may be regarded as vestiges of a condition 
which does not now exist in Torres Strait, but is found iu many parts of the world, 
viz., a condition in which a man lives with and serves the family of his wife. 

These customs, and those connected with the maternal uncle, agree in pointing 
to the existence, at some time, iu Torres Strait of a stage iu the development of 
the family iu which the husband was a relatively unimportant appendage, and the 
head of the family was the brother of the wife ; a stage of development which is 
still to be found iu some parts of the world, as among the Seri Indiabs, recently 
investigated by McGee. W. H. R. RIVERS. 

I 172 ] 

1901 J MAN. [No. 188. 

Greece: Prehistoric. Evans. 

44 The Oldest Civilisation of Greece : Mr. Hall and « H? " By Arthur 4QQ 
J. Evans, LL.D., F.R.S. (Cf. Man, 1901. 130.) lutf 

In an article on Mycenman Cyprus as illustrated by the British Museum Finds, 
published in last year's Journal of the Institute, I ventured to hope that I had stripped 
the last rags off the theory that brought down Mycenaean civilisation in Cyprus to the 
eighth or eveu the seventh century B.C. The system by which the Bronze Age pins 
of Cyprus are compared with those on the Francois vase, by which typical Cypro- 
Mycenaean cylinders of, say, the fourteenth century B.C. are described as " Phoenician " 
imports of eight centuries later date, and Vapheio vases and Ialysos cups made to 
survive to the " Age of the Tyrants," might hardly seem to require refutation. In 
order to satisfy the views put forward in the British Museum publication referred to, 
" it would be necessary," as" I pointed out, "to suppose that the Bronze Age of Cyprus 
" so far from reaching its term somewhat earlier than that of Greece or Italy, came 
" down five centuries later to the borders of the period of fully-developed classical art, 
44 while the long centuries of the iron-using, geometrical period are either left out of 
" account or a Mycenaean Bronze Age is interposed between them and classical 
fc< times." 

Whatever might have been thought a few years since as to the possible isolated 
survivals of pure Mycenaeau culture, the mass of evidence now before us precludes such 
an hypothesis. The continuous course of civilisation in Cyprus and its characterise 
early Iron-Age products have now been illustrated in detail by Mr. Myres in his cata- 
logue of the Cyprus Museum. Nor was it ever a question of the survival of some 
changed form of civilisation in the island to which perhaps the name of " Sub-Myce- 
naean " might still with more or less appropriateness be applied. It will be seen, from 
a reference to the British Museum publication above cited, that its authors claimed (on 
the strength of Egyptian evidence of which Professor Petrie had already made mince- 
meat) to bring down the ceramic and other products of the best days of Mycenae to 
the borders of the period of fully -developed classical art. The old tag about the 
exceptionally conservative character of Cypriote culture is constantly appealed to. 
Conservative, indeed, to render possible the continued manufacture of artistic products 
for 800 years in a practically unchanged form ! 

But it seems that it was a vain conceit on my part to suppose that my detailed 
exposure of this impossible system had reached those for whom it was most intended. 
Mr. H. R. Hall in his receutly published work ou the Oldest Civilisation in Greece 
accepts the heresies regarding the Mycenaean chronology in Cyprus en bloc* and, though 
this might have been thought to be his special business, suppresses eveu a mention of 
Professor Petrie's successful demolition of the alleged Egyptian evidence. Nay, more, 
the detailed criticism of the Journal has not yet penetrated the pages of Man, and a 
notice of Mr. Hairs book in the last number signed " H " not only endorses his pronounce- 
ment, but goes beyond it to express astonishment that archaeologists should exist " who 
" shut their eyes to the fact that Mycenaean remains in Cyprus last down to the eighth 
44 century (or possibly eveu later)." 

We must, however, be thankful for small mercies, and it is satisfactory to find that 
the system by which the central chronological point of the Mycenaeau civilisation is 
referred to the fifteenth or fourteenth century B.C., wljich elsewhere has been accepted 
for years, should at last find an advocate iu one at least of the Departments of 
our National Antiquities. The fact might still have been mentioned, however, that 
the evidence for the early dating of Mycenaean culture, based on the correspondence 
between its products and the offerings of the Keft chieftains to Thothmes III., 
had been pointed out by Steindorff some ten years since. Mr. Hall, indeed, apart 
from his impossible conclusions regarding Cyprus, brings down the general date of 

[ iw ] 

190LJ MAN. [No. 138. 

Mycenaean culture far too low, and adduces on behalf of this view the fine Bugel- 
<kat»i>c said to have been found in the coffin of a grandson of Pioetchem I., who died 
some time in the tenth century. As these relics are in Mr. Hairs department of the 
British Museum we might at least have expected a more cautious verdict ; for they 
have been showu by Professor Petrie to form part of a bogus find of the class which 
those who have to do with Arab and other dealers are very familiar. The objects, said 
to have been found together, appear, in fact, to range in date from about 2600 to 
300 B.C. Such at least is the result of Professor Petrie's published analysis,* and it is 
difficult to understand by what pontifical authority Mr. Hall can claim (as he does in his 
book) to exercise the right of completely ignoring such criticism. 

It may also be poiuted out that Mr. Hall's references to the early civilisation of 
Crete and its connexions with Egypt are generally misleading. I had myself suggested 
a relationship between certain rude pictorial figures on a class of early cyliuders and a 
prism seal found in Egypt and certain types on an early class of Cretan seal-stones, also 
accompanied by the pri9m form. The types for the most part are not ordinary hiero- 
glyphics, and iuclude ibexes or goats with two heads and a single body, a hare-headed 
man, aud possibly one with horns, and the comparison? are tabulated for what they are 
worth. Mr. Hall .thinks the horus of the man are the rudely-drawn feathers of the 
Egyptian hieroglyph for archer, which may or may not be the case, but his conclusion 
" that the supposed connexion with Crete" therefore disappears is singularly illogical. 
Half the creations of barbaric art result from misuuderstood copying. The other sigus 
on the Karnak prism he describes as " merely ordinary Egyptian hieroglyphs." It does 
not require a very profound kuowledge of Egyptian hieroglyphics to know that this is a 
strange perversion of fact. 

So far as direct eonuexion between Crete and Twelfth Dynasty Egypt is concerned 
the evidence is as conclusive as it can possibly be. I have myself put together a table 
of Twelfth Dynasty scarab desigus and their contemporary copies ou Cretan seal -8 tones 
which has been generally accepted as carrying conviction. The argument so freely used, 
that scarabs themselves prove nothing as they may be later importations, is here beside 
the mark, for men do not imitate the past but the contemporary art of their neighbours. 
The spiral system, — unknown to the earlier, neolithic population of the island, — now 
appears in a fully developed form taken over, like tho stone vases with which it is asso- 
ciated, from Twelfth Dynasty originals. The beautiful pre-Mycena3an painted pottery of 
Crete finds its way at the same time to Egypt. The evidence of direct relations between 
Crete and the Nile Valley at this time is overwhelming. But in the teeth of it all, 
and notwithstanding the fact that neither the seals, nor the spirals, nor the vases are 
found in Cyprus, Mr. Hall still seeks to find the only intercourse between Crete and 
Egypt u by land or sea along the Asiatic coast via Cyprus." With regard to the local 
topography of Crete, Mr. Hall might improve his knowledge with advantage. In that 
case he would certainly cease to write of " Praistos " and the " Dicteean Cave ou 
Mount Ida." 

Nor was it really necessary that Mr. Hall — with less than a thousandth part of 
the evidence before his eyes — should cast doubts as to the statement made in my 
last report on the Knossos excavations, that the Cretan linear script reads from left 
to right. I can only repeat that the statement is absolutely exact. Elsewhere I had 
been at special pains to point out that the couveurionalised, pictographic, or fully 
developed " hieroglyphic" script of Crete is the product of the Myceiuean age, and 
lasts, indeed, to quite late Myceiuean times. Mr. Hall now makes this a sugges- 
tion of his own as if he were setting my conclusions right. Throughout the book, 
indeed, we are continually confronted by what appear to be judicial corrections of 

* The llelalionx of Egypt and Early Europe, Trans. R.S.L.. XIX.. p. 73-4 (- p. 10 of the paper). 

[ 174 ] 

1901.] KAN. [Nob. 138-189. 

authors 9 statement* by Mr. Hall, but which are in reality the conclusions of the 
writer that he is referring to. A reference is given, for instance, to a book of mine, 
where mention is made of the non-Hellenic inscription found at Pnesos, in such a way 
as to lead the reader to suppose that I have advocated the Semitic origin of the Eteo- 
cretans. "But," continues Mr. Hall, in his heaviest judicial style, "we may be justified 
" in thinking it more probable that the Eteo Cretans belonged to the same stock as the other 
44 Pelasgian tribes in their neighbourhood than that they were Semites." This was really 
my own conclusion on the pages referred to by Mr. Hall. So, again, after entering a 
judicial caveat against the view put forward in my monograph on Mycenieau tree and 
pillar cult, that Mycenaean worship was predominantly aniconic, — a view which elsewhere, 
both on the Continent and in this country, has received general adhesion, — Mr. Hall adds 
a further corrective paragraph of bis own to show that this cult need not l>e Semitic. 
" The similar cults of Canaan," he writes, " were probably taken over by the Semites 
44 from the pre Semitic inhabitants, who probably belonged to the same stock as the pre- 
Aryan Greeks." This is simply repeating (in a crude and incorrect form, it is true) what 
bad been specially insisted on in the work that Mr. Hall is apparently controverting. 

Mr. Hall's book contains much good material, laboriously put together, combined 
with many fresh and welcome suggestions, especially as regards the barbaric invaders of 
Egypt and the original Philistine stock. A good deal of it shpws a quality of real research 
which cannot be too highly commended. But it is marred by the continual effort to sit 
in judgment on matters that arc really beyond the author's competence. Dogmatic 
pronouncements, moreover, as in the case of the alleged reference to the Ionian* on 
the Tcll-el-Amarna tablets, of the cylinders from early Cypriote tombs, and of the clay 
figures from Nippur, often stand in the place of arguments. Professor Sayce is 
corrected like a school I >oy ou a point upon which he has still some very conclusive 
arguments to bring to bear. Professor Hilprecht's pergonal evidence as to the circum- 
stances of his discovery of the clay figures is brushed aside as " quite impossible." 
Of the treatment accorded to Professor Petrie samples have already been given. It 
must be added that some of the most irritating features of Mr. Hall's book are due to an 
inherent want of lucidity and an imperfect mastery of English composition, which makes 
it almost impossible to know whether at a given poiut he is expressing his own opinion 
or whether he is quoting that of another writer. ARTHUR J. EVANS. 

Greece : Prehistoric. Myres: 

Note on Myccncenn Chronology. By John L. Myres (Cf. Man, 1901. 130.) iQrt 
A phrase in the recent review of Mr. Hall's Earliest Civilisation of Greece IWU 
(Max, 1901. 130) seems to indicate that the writer is not fully aware of the slate of the 
case. " We do not understand," he says, " how archaeologists can shut their eyes to the 
" fact that Mycenreau remains in Cyprus last down to the eighth century b.o. (possibly 
" even later)." This is not a fair statement of the case. At present the only * 4 fact" 
known is that certain officials of the Greek and Roman Antiquity Department of the 
British Museum have stated this opinion in an official publication. No serious student, 
however, outside the Museum, has seen his way to accept their view either before or 
since ; and the Museum, though repeatedly challenged to publish its evideuce, still keeps 
silence on the essential points of " fact." 

On the first announcement of the Museum's inferences from its excavations at 
Episkopi (quoted in Academy, January 11, 1896) I pointed out (ib. February 1, 1896) 
that the announcement was both self -contradictory in form and inconclusive in substance, 
and that before the new view could be accepted it must be supported by a proper 
statement of the evidence. To this note uo reply has ever appeared. 

Not long after, Professor Flinders Petrie went into this whole question of date in 
detail {Trans. Boy. Soc. Lit., XIX. (1897), p. 73 AT.) and corrected the misapprehension 

r 175 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 139-141. 

into which the officials of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities appeared to 
have fallen as to the date of the Egyptian scarab on which half of their case rested. 
Again no reply. In the official publication, Excavations in Cyprus, which appeared 
shortly afterwards, Professor Petrie's article is ignored altogether, and the pronouncement 
of au anonymous expert is accepted as final. 

Still more recently Mr. Arthur Evans, in reviewing once more the Cypriote 
evidence on which the Museum bases its view (Journ. Anthr. Inst,, XXX. (1900), 
p. 199 ff.) has pointed out that the "Phoenician cylinder " on which the other half of the 
Museum's case rests in neither figured at all in the official publication, nor even described 
in the text in such a way as to be identifiable. Still no answer ; aud no publication, as 
yet, of the cylinder in question. 

Under these circumstances it cannot be said that archaeologists outside the British 
Museum have " shut their eyes " to auything. On the contrary, they have their eyes 
very wide open indeed in the direction of the British Museum, and whenever either 
the writer of the phrase I have quoted or the officials in charge of the Cypriote 
finds shall produce some " facts " for them to see, they will probably succeed in seeing 
them. J. L. MYRES. 

Folklore. S6billot. 

Le Folklore des Pecheurs. By Paul Sebillot. Paris: Maisouneuve, 1901. 4 4 A 
12mo. Pp. xii, 389. Price 5 francs. I^U 

The forty-third volume of Les Literatures Populaires which we owe to that 
indefatigable folklorist, M. Sebillot, is a singularly interesting volume. There are 
probably few modes of life more calculated to promote the survival of traditional customs 
than that of the fisher-folk. In Englaud, and still more in other parts of Europe, they 
live their own lives and are untouched by civilisation. They still form, as it were, an 
exclusive caste, to which we find an analogue among some of the whale-fishing peoples 
of Behring Sea. 

The chapters of M. Sebillot's book deal with the life of the fisherman from his 
birth to his death, with his house, his patron saints, and his religious customs. The 
second book is devoted to the boats, omens, and the various observances believed to be 
necessary for success ; chapters are devoted to the freshwater fishermen and to the 
fishermen of Newfoundland and Iceland. The third book gives a sketch of the legends 
of the fishermen of all nations. 

It is a little unfortunate for those who want to use the book as well as be amused 
by it that there is no index provided. Surely this concession to the serious student 
would have done no one any harm. N. W. T. 

Egypt. Niebuhr. 

The Tell-el-Amarna Period. By Carl* Niebuhr. No. II. of " The Ancient AMH 
East" Series. Price 1*. It I 

The second volume of the series, dealing as it does with purely historical questions, 
calls for no extended notice here. On the whole the epoch of the history of Egypt and 
Western Asia, known as the " Tell-el-Amarna " period (c. 1450-1400 B.C.; the date 
1370 given by Mr. Niebuhr for the death of Amenhetep IV. (Akhenaten) is too late) is 
capably sketched by the author, who, however, of course labours under the difficulty 
always present when small books of this kind are concerned — the difficulty of clearly 
indicating when the evidence on which he bases his conclusions is absolutely certain and 
unquestioned, and when it is not. A wrong impression is given by a mistake which 
occurs throughout the book : if the H is not used it should be replaced by Kh, never by 
simple //. The names " Hani," " Vanbamn," &«•., which occur in this book are wrongly 
spelt ; if H was not available they should have been spelt Khaui, Vaukhamu. H. H. 
Printed by Evas axd Spottjs woods. His Majesty's Printers, East Harding otmet, tf.C. 

Man, 1901, Plate M, 


FIG, 4. — SFlNNlVi. -WHEEL ( FOK CuTTQN). 




1901.] MAN. [No. 142. 

Malay Peninsula. With Plate M. Skeat. 

Notes on the Ethnography of the Malay Peninsula, Abstract of part of the <Mf% 
Report ou Mr. W. W. Skeat's Expedition presented to the British Association l^L. 
at Glasgow, September 17, 1901. 

The Report contained also a statement of the zoological botanical, and geological 
results of the expedition, and will be printed in full in Proc. Brit. Assoc, 1901. 

The Malay Peninsula, lying midway between the two most densely-populated 
countries in the world (Iudia and China), is, strangely enough, very sparsely populated. 
The climate is tropical (Singapore being only about one and a half degrees from the 
equator), the atmosphere heavily charged with moisture, the iuterior of the country 
(except where colonized) is mountainous and covered with dense jungle, the trees 
reaching a height of nearly 200 feet iu many places. The total volume of trade in 1900 
was about £51,000,000; with Great Britaiu alone about £3,000,000. The most im- 
portant industry is that of tin-mining, the Malay region producing two-thirds of the 
world's tin supply. The natives are Mahommedau Malays, now often swamped by 
Chinese and other aliens in the western towns, whilst in the jungle are to be found 
scattered tribes of at least two aboriginal races, which are entirely distinct from the 
Malay or any other of the immigrating elements. 

In addition to the British colonial settlements of Singapore, Malacca, and Penang, 
there is a British Protectorate over the federated states of Perak, Selaugor, Negri 
Sembilan, and Pahang. At the southern end of the peninsula lies the independent 
state of Johore. The remainder of the peninsula, which is under Siamese influence, 
includes the area traversed by our expedition ; it consists of the states of Patau i 
(now divided into seven districts), Kelantan, and Trengganu, with one or two small 
districts north of Pataui — e.g., Singora aud Pataluug. 

After a short stay at Bangkok, during which the chief places of interest were 
visited, including the magnificent royal palace, the expedition proceeded by sea to 
Singora aud there started work by exploring the shores of the Inland Sea. The next 
place visited was Pataui, which lies ou a river of that name, up which we proceeded in 
the curious river-boats there used for up-stream traffic to a place called Biserat, wheuce 
we worked our way through the southern states and finally proceeded by way of Singa- 
pore to Penang and Kedah. The chief town of Kedah, which is called Alor Star, lies 
a short way up the Kedah river. Starting from this town I proceeded for several days' 
journey inland till the far interior of the state was reached, crossing ou the way a vast 
plain planted with rice, many miles in extent, and passing between the two finest 
mountains of Kedah, viz., Kedah Peak (called Gunong Jerei by the Malays) and Bukit 
Perak, which means the Silver Hill. Some of the scenery in the iuterior of Kedah 
was very fine ; it was for the most part hilly, and travelling was effected by elephant, 
frequently over the roughest jungle-tracks. 

There are on the east coast two sharply-contrasted racial types, but as the con- 
clusions of Messrs. Duckworth and Laidlaw (the latter of whom took the measurements 
and the former is largely helping to work them out) are not yet fully published 
(cf. Proc. Brit. Assoc, 1900, Bradford, p. 909) it is impossible to go into this question 
now, aud all that I will say is that the difference between the two is to be seen, not only 
in their features but in their build and stature, which iu the taller race approaches that of 
the Maori ; the shorter race is undoubtedly Malay, the taller most probably Indonesian. 
The Patani Malays have in many cases some infusion of Siamese blood, of which 
there may also be some slight traces among the coast-dwellers of the sister state of 
Kelantan, but from this element Trengganu appears to be practically free. Our own 
men were for the most part Malavs from the west coast state of Selangor, but iucluded 

[ 177 ] 



[No. 142. 

also a couple of Fatani Malays, a Malay from Sumatra, a couple of Trengganu Malays, 
and a Malay from Kedah. 

The central building of a Malay village is naturally the mosque, in proximity to 
which the dead were usually buried. The gravestones for men and women are of 
different shapes, and are easily distinguishable. 

The ordinary house of a respectable Malay is raised upon posts (like tha pile- 
dwellings of Switzerland), is thatched with the leaf of a low-growing palm called 

" Nipah " (Nipa fructicans) and 
possesses beautifully decorative 
screeus in place of outside walls, 
which are made by weaving iuto 
the required pattern long coloured 
slips of bamboo. The patterns are 
usuaily geometrical, but the border 
of one of these screens at Kota 
Bharu in Kelantan represented a 
snake chasing a fish. The pat- 
terns of the mats made up-country 
were also frequently of most beau- 
tiful workmauship. Other objects 
which were frequently well deco- 
rated were the indispensable Malay 
coconut scraper, which was some- 
times carved so as to represent some such animal as a rhinoceros, bear, or tiger, and 
sometimes a man prostrating himself in prayer. 

The helves of axes or hatchets were frequently carved to represent a human face ; 
in some cases even the teeth being visible. This face was said to represent that of a 
demon (or " Bhota ") and recalls some Polynesian types of ornament. 

Moulds for small cakes (or perhaps, I should rather say, fancy biscuits) were' also 
frequently of most beautiful workmanship, the objects represented being elephants, 
buffaloes, bullocks, horses, rams, tish, tortoises, and weapons such as daggers, axes, 
and guns. 

The pottery of Kedah was very finely executed, the pots being thrown on a wheel 
and the patterns stamped or paiuted, or even (in the better class of work) drawn by hand 
with a pointed stick before firing. 

One of the most important industries on the east coast was that of fishing. Fish 
were caught not uufrequently by hand alone, as well as by lines (occasionally with 
most ingenious self-acting rods), traps, fish-fences, nets, &c. There is much that is 
interesting about the Malay casting- net, the ingenious method of making the chains 
for which was explained by Mr. Rosenhain at last year's British Association (Proc. 
Brit. Assoc, 1900, Bradford, p. 906 ; cf. Journ. Anthr. List., XXXI.). The twiue used 
for making these nets is stretched upou an iugeuious kind of rack which keeps it taut 
while it is being sized and brushed down with a brush made from the fruit of the Nipah 

Mr. Rosenhain at the same time explained several interesting points about other 
forms of Malay metal work, including the methods employed by the Malay ironsmith 
in manufacturing the damasked kris or dagger blades so much admired by the Malays, as 
well as the methods of the coppersmith, whose moulds are made by building up several 
layers of fine clay and sand, &c, both inside and outside a thin core of wax, the latter 
of which is an exact full size model of the required vessel. A small vent-hole being 
left in the bottom of the mould, it is then deposited on two sticks over a basin of water, 
and some hot embers being placed inside it the wax core of the mould soon melts ami 

[ "8 ] 



[No. 142. 

nttu "«it into the wafer, leaving ■ hollow into which the molten metal i* pottrod. The 

ar* to more nearly Usn met! 

vi.rlv up ilit? metals of lesser value. 

lli« main point of interest about the cloth -making methods observed on the east 
the form of method of usm^ the cotton-gin (Plate M. I) 

-mi the raw not ton), the setltehiog-bow tlie rollin#~board and pin, 

nor the spinning-wheel Itself i.M. 4), does any notable departure from Indian meftfa 
Wheu one»' this poinl Le reached, however, considerable dil 

thiMi i instance, in the shuttles and in the Malay method of warp-laying, 

tiding 10 whloh th r-OOloured thread are carried in a ho 

fraie d from th et from 

the ^rotmd. The thread of each separate spool is drawn down as reqi und 

in and out round :» -'ties uf leng WOOdetl p I into a wooden board (M. 8). In 

nn ol and ||j E. Hoole (London, 1* "fal 

of weaving apparatus, including one of the frame with pe^s, though, 
unfortun eUtfaoi !l \ plain the precise method of 01 

lli to which I would now call attention is the method of 

p-threads by stretching them on a frame (M, 5), and tying them round 
at intervals i item, the parte thus tied being, of course, protected from the 

into which tie warp-l bread- are then dipped. This method differ-, if I rem* tuber 

method nbasrred by Dr. Heddon in Borneo, in the hot that it is the 
warp threads thai are tied - in principle it if f ootirae the same. The loom 

and ii a!i ariablj placed under shelter just outside the 

, where the women, who are the only weavers, may frctptcnth at work. 

Anode r widi Dtnre of igar. 

Tin- sap is drawn ofl Log off th the leeh] axis of the blossom-shoot of 

p 'h>tiis into :> bamboo reesel (internode) arranged to intercept it. 

It i> tie n taken home and boiled OOnttDUOOsIj 

in a large copper uuiiJ it i» sufficiently 


■hallow, Circular moulds Bfl n a board, 

forme solid a -mall ronnd cake of a 

toffee-like substance, whicl j used by 

»r Rooking pn 
Another anil still mj I in 

doetrj wee, • •! course, rice growing, 

tki > mil with renpinL r -kni\ I 

ami threshed bj 

l eaefa sheaf of rice 

against the rungs of a small lad«l« 

be side <d » tab, after which it 
Bold on sledges drawn bj 

in Patau i some notable and 
striking Mala] cereinonies, among them 
being ^ royal wedding between the i 
of ih< ' ads ol Patani and the young 

• i Ki-lantan- 
An cumillv inter remooj vvas oue which Mr, D- T. Gwynne-Vaughau and 

1 witnessed ;>( the Ith of the Patani river, at which the candidates for circumcision 

eat pomp and ceremony. Their heads being shaven, the j were 
mounted <m the ^boulders <d men who ware fa the occasion tticknamed elepbante, and 

[ 179 ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 142. 

who carried them to the threshold of the house in which the ceremony was to take place, 
whence, however, they were thrice driven back before they were allowed to enter the 
house until the demons were l>elieved to have beeu thoroughly expelled from them by 
an old magician who stood at the top of the steps and to the accompaniment of many 
incantations loosed a slip-knot in front of each of the candidates' foreheads. During 
the procession a curious collection of rice-cakes, orange, white and purple, which was 
called " the soul rice," was carried in front of the candidates, a number of women 
accompanying the procession and carrying long spirally-decorated tapers which were 
said to be regarded as " make-believe " krisses (the manV emblem). 

Civilisation is making great strides in these states, but it has uot yet entirely swept 
away the lingering traces of the old barbaric law which imprisoned human beings in 
cages and under conditions that would have been unfit for beasts, and tortured and 
mutilated them until death mercifully brought them a release. Still it is an undoubted 
fact that matters are improving, and we may be permitted to hope that scenes of this 
sort will before long, as in Europe, retain an antiquarian iuterest only, and that the last 
gaol-cage in Malaya may be abolished, no less than the custom of mutilating thieves by 
lopping off their hands and feet. 

To couclude with a lighter theme, some of our most exciting and diverting experi- 
ences were gained iu attending the performances of the local medicine men or magicians, 
spiritualistic seances, such as that of the Fish-Trap dance, &c, &c. A performance 
at Biserat by a local Malay conjuror, named Golek or (more familiarly) Awang the 
Big, was one of the most amusing things I have seeu, the conjuror being a well-known 
local character and a born clown, who first made our acquaintance by bringing in zoological 
specimens to our quarters. Awang the Big commenced by performing a most impres- 
sive sort of juju, which enabled him (as he explained) to carry a wooden rice-mortar 
weighing from 30 to 50 pounds about iu bis teeth for a considerable time, and then 
cast it from him with a jerk of the head He then entered a charmed enclosure, which 
was marked off from the spectators by a black and white cord, and there lying down 
upon his back, supported the mortar upon his belly whilst four men vigorously 
pounded the rice inside it, the pouuding (which he probably hardly felt) producing 
the most extraordinary contortions in Awang's visage. There was no great intrinsic 
difficulty in this performance, but it was, nevertheless, as a burlesque of conjuring, 
irresistibly comic owing to Awang the Big's graud air, which was greatly enhanced by 
his solemn assertiou that even royalty in the shape of the local rajas could only entreat, 
but could not command, his services 

It is not necessary to argue, on account of their occasional lapses into savagery, 
that the Malays are an esseutially barbarous people. That is very far from being the 
case, and, indeed, the unanimous verdict is in the opposite sense to such a conclusion. 
The Malays are essentially a soft-mannered people, and that none the less for the fact 
that, like many other soft-mannered people, they are capable of doing desperate acts. 
The better class of them, i.e., the forest-dwellers as distinct from the towu-dwellers, are 
not only often first -rate woodsmen but naturally geutlemen, and most companionable, fond 
of their home and family, loyal to a fault towards their natural chiefs, honest as any of 
our own peasantry, keenly alive to a sense of their own honour. Desirable, as it 
undoubtedly is, that the coup de grace should be given to such ebullitions of savagedom, 
as some that I have already referred to and others to which I might refer, I do not 
believe it would necessarily improve the race to force it neck and crop into the straight 
jacket of our own civilisation. Much might, indeed, be gained, but more would infallibly 
be lost thereby through the withdrawal of the opportunity for character-training, which 
is the most precious possession of a free race. W. W. SKEAT, 

l 180 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 143-144. 

Australia. Spencer. 

The Australian Ethnological Expedition ; part oj a Letter received from 1^ Q 
Professor Baldwin Spencer, Communicated by J. Edge- Partington. ■ ■ V 

Writing from Harrow Creek, under date June 17, 1901, Professor Baldwin Spencer 
gives the followiug account of bis work : — 

"On the whole we are having a very good time though travelling is rather rough 
and horribly monotonous iu this part of the globe, which is about the last place created, 
and there were no picturesque features left. We have been riding for a week or two 
through a kind of broad road cut through the mulga scrud so as to make a clearing for 
the telegraph line. From the Alice to here is just about 200 miles and during the 
whole time we spent on the road we only saw two solitary blacks. The whole country 
has been stricken with a great drought, which has affected the natives as well as the 
plants and beasts. However, here we have a good number of Kaitish natives gathered 
together and are doing some work amongst them. At Alice Springs we got hold of 
some good fhings, and the British Museum shall certainly be remembered when we 
get back, but much will depend upon how many of our things get lost on the road. 
The loot which we have got during the past few days, and which is now lying in a 
heap close to where I am writing, would make your mouth water — Churiaga spears, 
big and little bean-tree pitchis, shields, sacred hair girdles, knives, &c. Further north 
we ought to get much better things. Two hundred miles ahead the natives are already 
waiting for us with pleuty of stone knives and hatchets. The difficult things to get are 
the sacred implements. The only way to secure these is to go and rummage about in 
their camps where they keep them concealed iu the bushes out of which they build their 

44 As far as the Alice we carried a cinematograph with us and spent some time 
there recording sacred ceremonies, but I am afraid that they are not a great success as 
it is not easy to fix the instrument so as to include the whole performance. However, 
they will be better than nothing. We also had a phonograph and got twenty-four 
good cylinders with records of corrobboree songs, initiation songs, and so on. These are 
decidedly good. We shall not get much that is new in the way of implements until 
we get north, but I have hopes of securing interesting things there. Near to Ten n ant's 
Creek is the great place for making stone knives and hatchets, and I hope to secure 
several good series of these in different stages of development 

" When we have finished here we go north for 200 miles and intend to spend two 
months among the Warramunga tribe. Then we make north again for another 200 
miles, and then probably work out north-east towards the Gulf of Carpentaria, on to the 
Macarthur River. We intended making out west on to the Daly River, but we shall not 
have time to do this before the summer rains come on and with them heavy floods, 
which if we happen to be caught in them will prevent our moving about for two or 
three months 

" This letter goes south by a stray wanderer who has just come in here. Goodness 
kuows when you will get it. Our uext post office lies 700 miles ahead of us. There 
are no such thiugs as pa]>ers here and we know nothing of the world " 

Anthropometry. Rlsley-. 

On an Improved Method of Measuring the Vertical Proportions of the Head. 1 ^ A 
By H. II. Risley, C.S.I., Director of Ethnography for India. ITT 

It is, I believe, the experience of most observers that the measurement of the 
vertical dimensions of the* head, commonly called ''projections," on the living subject 
presents some material difficulties. After several experiments I believe that I have 
discovered a simple method of overcoming these difficulties, which I venture to describe, 

l 181 ] 



[No. 144. 

in the hope that it 

The measurements are taken with the graduated T 
triqut ) and the I 

the BUDJC that 

on while the measurement 
methods for ; on. Tin 

Dr. \ hold with hi 

metal mechanical!; I. Topinard lis plan, aad ooa •'• too 

complicated. For nee In India and wherever aotii 

objection tb I on ai tli 

belong to the aame casi ite the plate oi (ronld have to be ooni 

i in deference to caste prejudices. It ah n to me that ii 

got a plat* oi metal between his teeth the height from the top of hia bead 
bottom of bii ebin oaimo( ed, and prill in practice raiy oonnid 

ably. The second method, which Topinard | ting the 

** to look steadily at the horizon, and in correcting the poeitiofi of hit bj 

through i ok straight before him in the naiu 

H manner* 11 4 * lu this nun tpiuard add**" the head wU I In accord* 

** ane i he plane of vision, and will necessarily position 

kk purpose of measurement* 11 

must, I i hink, take it on Topiuurd's authority that th -tly 

planed by following these mstrnctions. We are met, however, by the further d 
that poaftion has been ascertained the ftubjeci cannot keep his h> 

absolutely still, and that every movement, however slight, materially affects the tn 
BteotBi Having got the CO! i, in ordct I lint r 

uo nio\« while the measurements are going on t and i *\*\ ti 

if net he reproduced for the purpose of repeating and fcestiu Bote 

already taken. For this purpose I had a small clamp, with a horizontal bar attached 

toit. the Mathematical btstrament Department, Calcutta. XI 

the height-measure which is in the box, and is used in the following manner, 

Adjust the subject's bead 
correct ij bj the plane i 

explained Then 

jure with 
ite plumti it'd mi oil 

tide of the subject, and set 

_ r the plummet that the 
measure is upright. Run the 
clamp up until the horizontal 
attached to it touches the 
central cartilage oi* thesubji 
nose, and isihie 

for him to depress bis heed, 
I'll- q ight. 

The bar will 

junction of the upper lip with 
the central cartilagt — ai the 
point, in fact, which forma the 

■ starting point foi the 
measuremi.'iii of the height of the nose. So long M the subject rests his nose on this 
liar he will be in i eertained : and if the heigh I of the 

t m \ 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 144-145. 

bar on the gradations of the height measure is noted, the position can be reproduced at 
any moment. In fact, the sources of error are reduced to oue — the possibility of the 
subject raising his head — and this can be easily guarded against by seeing that his nose 
Is tightly pressed against the horizontal bar. 

It will be seen that the horizontal bar in uo way interferes with the process of 
measuring. It may even assist it, if the vertical arm of the T-square be steadied 
against the horizontal bar in taking the dimensions from vertex to tragus. 

The annexed photograph shows the horizontal bar and clamp being used by my 
anthropometric assistant, Babu Kamud Behari Samanta, who is now eugaged in 
measuring the typical castes and tribes of the Bombay Presidency and Sind. These 
measurements will complete a preliminary anthropometric survey of India, the results 
of which I propose to publish uext year in the report on the census of India taken on 
the 1st of March 1901. H. H. RISLEY. 

Crete : Prehistoric. Report. 

Abstract of the Report of the Committee of the British Association on HMr 
Explorations in Crete. Presented at Glasgow, September 13th, 1901. Com- 1^0 
municated by the Secretary of the Fund. Cf Man, 1901. 2. 

The Cretan Exploration Fund was formed in 1899 with the object of assisting 
British explorers and the British School at Athens to investigate the early remains of 
the island, which from indications already apparent seemed likely to supply the solution 
of many interesting questions regarding the beginnings of civilisation in Greece (cf 
Man, 1901. 2). To the furtherance of this work, begun in the spring of 1900, the 
grant of £145 was made last autumn by the British Association. 

Already in 1894 Mr. Arthur Evans had secured a part-ownership (completed last 
year) in the site of Kephala at Knossos, whiih evidently contained the remains of a 
prehistoric buildiug. Excavations, to which the fund has largely contributed, begun by 
him in 1900 on this site and continued during the present year, have brought to light an 
ancient palace of vast extent, which there is every reason to identify with the traditional 
House of Minos, and at the same time with the legendary a Labyrinth." 

The result of the excavations of 1900 was to uuearth a considerable part of the 
western side of this great building, including two large courts, the porticoes aud entrance 
corridors, a vast system of magazines, some of them replete with huge store jars, and a 
richly adorned room, where between lower benches rose a curiously carved gypsum 
throne, on which King Minos himself may have sat in council.* The second season's 
work bris uncovered a further series of magazines, the whole northern end of the palace 
including a bath-chamber and au extensive eastern quarter. It was only towards the 
close of this year's excavations that what appear to have been the priui:ipal state rooms 
first came into view. A triple flight of stone stairs, one flight beneath another, here 
leads down from an upper corridor to a suite of halls, showing remains of colonnades 
aud galleries, it was at this interesting point that, owing to the advanced season, 
Mr. Evans was obliged to bring this year's excavations to a close. 

Apart from the architectural results already gained, the finds within the walls of 
the palace have been of such a nature as to throw an entirely new light on the art and 

culture of prehistoric Greece Among the minor arts represented is that of 

miniature painting on the back of crystal and in tarsia work of ivory, rock-crystal, 
enamel, and precious metals, of which a splendid example has been found th s season in 
the remains of a royal draught-board. Other finds illustrate the connections with 
ancient Egypt and the East. Part of a small diorite statue from last year's excavations 
bears a hieroglyphic inscription fixing its date about the begiuuing of the second millen- 
nium B.C., while a more recently-discovered alabaster lid bears the cartouche of the 

[ 183 J 

190L] MAN. [Nos. 145-146, 

Hyksos King, Kbyan. A fine cyliuder of lapis lazuli, mounted with gold and engraved 
with mythological subjects, bears witness to the early connections with Babylonia. 

The most interesting of all the discoveries is the accumulated evidence that there 
existed on the soil of prehistoric Hellas a highly-developed system of writing some eight 
centuries earlier than the first written Greek monuments, and going back six or seven 
centuries, even before the first dated record of the Phoenician script. A whole series of 
deposits of clay tablets has come to light, many of the most important of them during 
last season's excavations, engraved with a linear script, often accompanied by a decimal 
system of numeration. Besides these linear tablets there was discovered a separate 
deposit of clay bars and labels containing inscriptions of a more hieroglyphic cJa>g. 
Although contemporary with the linear tablets, the script on these is apparently of quite 
distinct evolution, and in all probability in a different language. 

Beneath the palace itself and the adjoining houses, and underlying the whole top of 
the hill, was also a very extensive Neolithic settlement (cf Man, 1901. 146). The relics 
found, such as the small human figures of clay and marble, supply the antecedent stages, 
hitherto wautiug, to the Early Metal-age Culture of the ^Egean Islands. 

In addition to the assistance given to Mr. Evans in his work at Knossos, the Cretan 
Exploration Fund has contributed towards various works of exploration in the island 
undertaken under the auspices of the British School at Athens. In 1899 the late 
Director of the School, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, excavated a series of prehistoric houses in 
the lower town of Knossos. Mr. Hogarth further successfully explored the great cave 
of Zeus on Mount Dicta, discovering remains of a prehistoric sanctuary and large 
deposits of votive bronze figures and other objects, among which the double axe, the 
symbol of the Cretau and Cariau Zeus, was specially conspicuous. During the present 
year Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, the new Director of the British School, has carried out an 
exploratiou of the site of Pnesos, in the easternmost region ©f Crete, in historic times the 
chief civic centre of the original Eteocretan elemeut of the island (cf Man, 1901. 148). 
This season Mr. Hogarth has also been euabled by a grant from the fund to explore an 
ancient site at Zakro in the extreme east of the island (cf. Man, 1901. 147). He has 
there uucovered a small Myceiueau town with well-preserved remains of the lower part 
of the houses and magaziues, and a pit containing fine examples of early pottery. 

Other interesting sites, already previously secured for British excavation, remain 
to be explored. The Executive Committee of the Cretan Exploration Fund, however, 
are of opinion that, before devoting any sums towards breaking new ground, a sufficient 
amount shall be raised to enable Mr. Evans to complete his excavation of the palace of 
Knossos, a considerable* part of the cost of which has already fallen on the explorer's 
shoulders. The large scale of the work, ou which throughout the whole of last season 
200 workmen were constantly employed, makes it necessarily costly, and in this case, 
in addition to mauy other incidental items of expenditure, a great deal has to be done 
towards the conservation, and in some cases even the rooting-in, of the chambers dis- 
co vered. It is estimated that a sum of between one and two thousand pounds will be 
necessary for the adequate completion of this important work. The unique character 
of the results already obtained is, however, so widely recoguised that the Committee 
confidently trust that no financial obstacles will stand in the way of this consummation. 

J. L. M. 

Crete. Evans. 

The Neolithic Settlement at Knossos and its Place in the History of Early 4AO 

JEgcan Culture. By Arthur J. Evans, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. I^tO 

The hill of Kephala at Knossos, which contained the remaius of the Palace of 

Minos and early houses going back to the pre-Mycena3an or Kama res period of Crete, 

proves to have beeu the scene of a much earlier and very extensive Neolithic settlement 

[ 184 ] 



[No. 146. 

The exploration of this by the author, in addition to the work on the later remains of 
the "Miuoan " Palace, has been greatly aided by the grant from the Association in 1900. 
The remains were contained in a stratum of light clay underlying the later prehistoric 
buildings, and which seems to have been formed by the disintegration of successive 
generations of wattle and daub huts and their clay platforms. This clay stratum, which 
had been a good deal re-used for later foundations, showed a mean thickness on the top 
of the hill of about five metres. Iu some places it was over seven metres thick, and 
went down to a depth of about teu metres below the surface. It contained an abundance 
of primitive, dark, hand-made pottery, often punctuated and incised, and with white 
chalky inlaying, more rarely chrome-coloured. The ornamentation was angular and of 
textile derivation. Stone implements abounded of greenstone, serpentine, diorite, hema- 
tite, jadeite, and other materials. Among these were over 300 colts or axes, besides 
chisels," adzes, hammers, and other implements. The most characteristic implements, 





however, were the stone maces, the occurrence of which was especially important as 
bringing the Cretan Stoue-age into near relation with that of Auatolia — and indeed 
of Western Asia in general — where, as in the early deposits of Babylonia, stone maces 
formed a marked feature. This characteristic was shared by predyuastic and proto- 
(Ivnastic Egypt. Another interesting feature among the remains were the small human 
images of clay and marble which supplied the ancestors and prototypes of the stone 
images found in the early Metal-age deposits of Crete and the Cy chides. Their Anatolian 
analogies were pointed out, and reasons were adduced for their ultimate derivation, 
through intermediate types, from clay figures of a Babylonian Mother-Goddess, such as 
those lately found in the very ancient deposits at Nippur. 

The Neolithic settlement of Knossos was the first settlement of that period yet 
explored in the Greek world, and in many ways threw an entirely new light on the 
beginning of civilisation in that area. The contents showed a marked contrast to the 
earliest Metal-age remains, such as those from the deposit of Hagios Ouuphrios in 

[ 185 J 

1»01.] MAN. [Hob. 146-147. 

Crete, the date of which was approximately fixed by their association with Egyptian 
relics and the indigenous copies of them from 2800 to 2200 B.C. There were here no 
later vase forms of the high-necked and spouted class, no traces of painted pottery or 
metal, and no single example of the spiraliform decoratiou which in the early Metal -age 
deposits is found fully developed. This negative phenomenon strongly weighed io 
favour of the view that the JEge&n spiral system was introduced during this later period 
with other decorative types from the Egypt of the Middle Kingdom, where it had already 
attained a high development. 

The Neolithic stratum of Knossos itself actually underlay later buildiugs belonging 
to three distinct prehistoric classes : — 

1. The " Kamares," or Early Metal-age Period of Crete, illustrated by the content* 
of some of the earlier houses. The painted pottery in these was in some cases a mere 
translation into colour of the incised and punctuated Neolithic desigus. This period is 
approximately dated from the relics found in the Hagios Onuphrios deposit and the 
Cretan vase fragments found in Egypt in a Xllth Dynasty association from c. 2800 to 
2200 B.C. 

2. The Transitional Period, between the " Kamares " age and the Mycenaean. It 
is probable that the earliest elements of the Palace itself belong to this period, including 
an Egyptian monument ascribed to the close of the Xllth or to the early Xlllth 
Dynasty, c. 2000 B.C. 

3. The Mycenaean Period proper, the flourishing epoch of which is approximately 
fixed by the correspondence of some of the wall paintings with those representing the 
Keftiu on Egyptian tombs, c. 1550 B.C. 

Considering the distinct gap in development which still separates the latest elements 
of the culture represented by the Neolithic stratum of Knossos from the fully developed 
Kamares etyle, it would be rash to bring down the lowest limits of the settlement later 
than about 3000 B.C. On the other hand, the great depth of the deposit must carry its 
higher limit back to a very much more remote date. The continued exploration of the 
Neolithic remains of Knossos is necessary for the full elucidation of many of the problems 
suggested by these discoveries. A. J. EVANS. 

Crete. Hogarth. 

Exploration at Zakro in Eastern Crete. By D. G. Hogarth, M.A. For the 1^7 
Cretan Exploratiou Fund. I ■ I 

The excavation at Zakro in East Crete has been coucluded so recently that I 
must confine myself to a plain statement of the raw material rendered available 
for study thereby. In 'estimating the final result it will be necessary to take account 
of positive and negative evidence not yet to hand from two other East Cretan sites, 
lately excavated, Pnesos and Goryuia. Zakro lies in the south-eastern angle of the 
island, and was chosen for research because it falls in the Eteocretau country anciently 
reputed to be inhabited by aborigines, and because its safe bay must always have been a 
main port of call for craft sailing between the JEge&u coasts and Africa. ' The small 
plain of Zakro, entirely hemmed in by rugged hills, is full of early remains, beginning in 
the later pre-Mycentean period and ending with the close of the age of bronze. No 
implements of iron were found in it at all, and no Hellenic pottery. The town, there- 
fore, owed its existence to a commerce which ceased or passed elsewhere from the 
Geometric age onward. The earliest settlement was on a rugged spur ; and although 
almost all trace of its structures has disappeared, it has left abundant evidence of itself 
in the contents of a pit about 18 feet deep. This was found half-full of broken vases in 
stone and clay, largely of the singular " Kamares " class not previously found in Eastern 
Crete. These, however, are maiuly of a highly-developed technique, and their com- 
monest schemes of ornament reappear unchanged on vases of distinctively Mycenaean 
fabric. In fact, Kamares shapes and decoration are more closely related to Mycenaean at 

[ 186 ] 

190L] MAN. [Nos. 147-148. 

Zakro than had been suspected. But the absence of both neolithic antecedents and the 
earlier kinds of painted ware from this site suggests that its civilisation did not develop 
on the spot, but was brought by colonists, perhaps partly Cretan, partly foreign. The 
fine quality of ware in this pit and the fact that, though of various periods, it was 
apparently all thrown in at one moment leads me to suspect that the pit contained the 
clearings of an early shrine. 

At a later period the settlement extended over a low spur nearer the sea, and there 
very massive and large houses were erected and inhabited till the verge of the Geometric 
period. Their outer walls are Cyclopean, but their inner partitions are of bricks of 
unusual size. Complete plans were obtained of two of the largest houses ; and parts of 
several others were explored, including the lower portion of what was probably the 
residence of the local chief or governor. These yielded a great deal of pottery, ranging 
from the acme of the Mycenaean period to its close, and the types furnish a better criterion 
of date than we have possessed hitherto in Crete. Numerous bronze implements were 
found, but these yield in interest to those from Gorynia. Two tablets in the linear 
" Cretan " script show that this system was known, though probably little used, and not 
indigenous, in East Crete. None were found couched in the pictographic system so 
often represented on East Cretan gems. Finally a hoard of 500 clay impressions of 
lost signet gems was brought to light. These display 150 different types and afford a 
priceless record of Mycenaean glyptic art and religious symbolism. Monstrous combina- 
tions of human and bestial forms occur in great variety, half a dozen, which are bull- 
headed, suggesting varieties of the Minotaur type. The comparison of all this mass of 
new material with the symbols of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and other cults, which 
cannot fail to be fruitful, has yet to be made. Cist burials were discovered in caves 
farther inland, whose grave furniture seems to support certain negative evidence obtained 
in the Upper Zakro district and at Pnesos, in showing that the aboriginal civilisation 
of East Crete was independent of both the Karaares and Mycenaean civilisations. If 
these last were foreign to the Eteocretan country, it seems improbable that the Eteo- 
c re tan language, as represented by the Prtesos inscriptions, will prove to be that 
expressed by the linear script on the Knossian tablets ; and the hope that these will be 
deciphered becomes fainter. D. G. HOGARTH. 

Crete : Excavations. Bosanquet. 

Report on Excavations at Prtesos in Eastern Crete. By iR. C. Bosanquet, 1 A Q 
Director of the British School of Archaeology in Athens. I"U 

Pnesos, the ancient capital of the aboriginal Eteocretan s, lies high on the central 
plateau of eastern Crete. 

The excavations which were conducted in the spring of 1901, with the aid of 
Mr. J. H. Marshall and Mr. R. D.Wells, architect, did not bear out the expectation that 
the Eteocretan capital would prove to have been a centre of Mycenaean culture. It is true 
that the Acropolis yielded a product of pure Mycenaean art under singular circumstances. 
A large leutoid gem, with the representation of a hunter and a bull, was found 
embedded in the mud-mortar of a late Greek house ; it must have been plastered in 
unseen along with the earth from an adjacent rock-cut tomb which had evidently been 
emptied by the Hellenistic builders. 

But no other vestige of Mycenaean occupation was found upon the site of the later 
city. The waterless ridge, encircled by deep ravines, offered nothing to primitive 
settlers. The ea*rliest remains lie a mile away in a lateral valley near a spring. Here 
are several groups of megalithic walls, the chief of which was shown by excavation to 
be a sub- Mycenaean homestead. Its strictly rectangular plan, its massive thresholds, 
the spiral ornamentation of large jars in its cellars, show that, whatever fate had 
overtaken the cities on the coast, a certain standard ot good workmanship had beeu 

[ M ] 

1901.] MAN. [No. 148. 

their legacy to the people of the hills. Nearer the city two tombs of the same period 
were discovered : the one, a square chamber with a dromos, yielded parts of two painted 
larnakes, thoroughly Mycemean in design, a gold ring, a crystal sphere, parts of a silver 
vase, and a quantity of iron swords. The other was a well-built bee-hive tomb, 
differing from the usual type in being entered through a vestibule : it contained an 
enormous mass of geometric pottery, an openwork gold ring, a bronze fibula and other 
objects in gold, ivory and Egyptian porcelain. In the same neighbourhood a number 
of later tombs were opened, ranging from the Geometric period to the fourth century. 
Amoug the numerous geometric vases there are several new types, in particular a vesnel 
in the form of a bird and a slender jug painted with delicate white patterns on a black 
ground. The later graves yielded jewellery in gold, silver, and crystal. 

Prominent among the considerations which caused Pnesos to be put upon the 
programme of the Cretan Fund was the fact that an inscription in an unknown tongue, 
presumably the Eteocretau, had come to light there and the hope that others might be 
found. It was dug up at the foot of the Altar Hill, a limestone crag precipitous on 
three sides which dominates the south eud of the site, ami had probably fallen from the 
level summit, loug known to the peasants as a hunting-ground for "antikas." More 
fortuuate than Professor Halbherr, who made a small excavation here with the same 
object before the Cretan Revolution, we obtained a second and longer iuscriptiou of 
17 lines and apparently in the same non-Hellenic language, close to the entrance steps 
of a temenos on the hill top. It must have been a frequeuted place of sacrifice, for the 
rock was covered several feet deep with a deposit of ashes, burnt bones, aud votive 
offeriugs of bronze and terra- cotta. The terra-cot tas, rangiug from the sixth to the 
fourth century, are important as giving a glimpse of a local school of artists working in 
clay (for Crete has no marble of her own, aud Pncsos at any rate imported none) and 
possessed of an independent and vigorous style. The great prize is the upper part of 
an archaic statue of a young god, half the size of life ; the head aud shoulders are 
intact, the remaiuder had disappeared. An equally well-preserved head, with fragmen- 
tary body, of a couchant lion is a further revelation of early Cretan sculpture. The 
bulky fragments of another lion, life-sized, later and feebler in style, prove the 
persistence of the local method. Among the bronzes there is a noteworthy series of 
votive models of armour, especially helmets, cuirasses, and shields. The pottery shows 
that the Altar Hill was frequented from the eighth century onwards. 

By this time Pracsos had probably Income the religious and political centre of the 
district, a primacy for which it is admirably fitted by its position at a meeting place of 
valleys midway between the two seas. The Acropolis was fortified, the water of the 
distant spring brought to its foot in earthenware pipes, aud a small temple built on its 
summit. The upper slopes of the Acropolis, though much denuded, yielded two archaic 
bronzes. Trial pits iu the deeper terraces below revealed only Helleuic things, plaiuly 
built houses of limestone, roadways and cisterns, aud a rubbish pit full of terra-cottas. 
A building larger and more massive than the rest was completely excavated ; it contains 
eight rooms and has a front 7«> feet long. Outside the town two minor sanctuaries were 
investigated ; oue adjoining the spring already mentioned contained large terra-cotta 
figures of a goddess of quite new type. A survey of the whole site was made by 
Mr. Wells, and a systematic exploration of the surrounding country by Mr. Marshall. 

Although Pnesos was barren of Mycenaean remains they are evident enough at 
Petras on the modern harbour of Sitia seven miles to the north. I made some trials 
here in June. Nine-tenths of the site had been ruthlessly terraced by its Moslem owner 
and would not repay a large excavation. The remaining tenth is occupied by cottages, 
and here under the roadway it was possible to uncover one side of a large buildiug 
containing pituoi and " Kanuires " vases. On the hill-top there remain a few foundations 
of a large mansion, and outside the walls — for Petras is unique among early Cretau sites 

[ 1^8 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nob. 148-149. 

in possessing remaius of fortifications — was found a rubbish heap of the now familiar 
type, yielding whole cups and lamps and sherds of earthenware and steatite. Ten miles 
east of Petras, across the Itanos peninsula, is another early site, Palaiokastro, which has 
been sadly mauled of late years by clandestine excavation. In the course of one of his 
exploring journeys Mr. Marshall made a remarkable discovery here. Heavy rains — the 
same that flooded Mr. Hogarth out of his quarters on the beach at Zakro — had exposed 
the corner of a very fine larnax ; the native diggers had not noticed it, and he lost no 
time in securing it and some vases for the Candia Museum. One of its four picture 
panels represents a double axe planted upright upon a column, an important illustration 
of the axe and pillar cults discussed by Mr. Evans in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
XXL, 99 ff. " R. C. BOSANQUET. 

Philippines. Koetze. 

Crania Ethnica Philippinica. Von G. A. Koetze ; mit 25 Tafeln. Haarlem : i/| Q 
H. Kleinmann & Co. 1901. ItaJ 

This is the first part, with six plates, of a work to be completed in Hve parts on the 
anthropology of the Philippine Islands. It is based on the examination of about 
270 skulls, 60 of which are Negritos, collected by Dr. A. Schadenberg and sent by him 
to the Museum of Leyden. Mr. Koetze, formerly prosector of anatomy in that 
University, has Injen entrusted with the examination and description of the crania. The 
author describes the craniological methods which he has followed, and, before stating 
the characters of the individual skulls, he writes a short chapter on the diversity of 
races inhabiting the Philippine Islands. From their position they have a considerable 
Malay population, and their proximity to China and Japan has led to the introduction 
of Mongolian people. The occupation of these islands for some centuries by the 
Spaniards has also been the means of introducing an European element. Prior, 
however, to the entrance of these races the islands were occupied by Negritos, who 
are apparently the aboriginal inhabitants. It would appear that two great Malay 
invasions took place. In the first they mixed with the Negritos and from this admixture 
proceeded the Igorrots, Ginaanese, and some smaller tribes, but the Negritos who lived 
in the mountainous districts did not cohabit so freely with the Malays as those living 
near the coast. 

Many years later a second invasion occurred aud the Igorrots with their companion 
trilies were driven more into the interior. The Tagals, Visayas, Ilocanos, who at the 
time of the conquest by Spain lived on the seaboard, represent the second invasion, and 
they also cohabited with the people who were in possession on their arrival, aud the 
Negritos tiecame eonfiued to a limited area in the north of Luzon. 

The Chinese and Japanese colonists also mixed with the races then present in the 
islands, and the Igorrots show in their faces Mongolian characters. Although the 
Spaniards exercised great iufluence over the earlier inhabitants, by the introduction of 
their religiou and customs, it seems doubtful if they produced much effect on their 
physical characters. The Malay inhabitants are divided into three large groups, the 
Ilocanos in the north of Luzon, the Tagals in the middle, and the Visayas in the south 
on the Visaya islands and Mindanao. 

In the first part of his work the author describes the Visayas and the Igorrots. 

The Visayas (Bisayas) proper are the purest Malay people in the Philippines. 
They occupy Samar, Leyte, Negros, Bohol, Cebu, and to some exteut the north coast 
of Mindanao. They have smooth, straight, long hair, and the skin is not very dark. 
The Calamians have a darker skiu than the proper Visayas and the hair is curly, 
perhaps from a mixture of Negrito blood. Twenty- two skulls of these people are 

[ 189 ] 

1901.] MAN. [Nos. 149-150. 

described and their general characters were as follows : In the men the cranial capacity 
ranged from 1,315 to 1,720 cc, the mean being 1,475 cc. ; in the women from 1,310 to 
1,395 cc, the mean being 1,345. The cephalic index varied from 75 • 7 to 87 • 3 ; 57 • 1 
percent, were mesocephalic, 42 * 9 per cent, brachycephalic : the meau of the whole series 
was 80* 4. The length-height index ranged from 71 *9 to 83 • 8 ; with four exceptions 
the index was hypsicephalic. The breadth-height index with a mean 97 exceeded the 
cephalic. The face in general was leptoprosopic. The nasal index was as a rule 
platyrhine, only two were leptorhine. Koetze considers that the skulls are of two 
types, the one mesohypsicepbalic with index 77 • 72, the other brachy hypsicephalic 
with index 83 * 84. Both a Malay and an Indonesian type are found, the latter the 
more abundant. He regards the Visayas as not a distinct race, for whilst the Malay 
and Indonesian elements preponderate there are traces both of Chinese and Negrito 

Twelve Igorrot crania were examined, but the present part contains an account of 
only six, the remaining six and the general summary of characters being obviously 
deferred till part two appears. They occupy north Luzon. The skin is coloured a 
not very dark olive brown or yellowish copper colour and the muscular system is 
powerful. W. TURNER. 

Upper Burma, Scott and Hardiman. 

Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States. By J. G. Scott, assisted 4P A 
by J. P. Hardiman. In live volumes. Rangoon, 1900. 8vo. Vols. I., II., I0U 
parts 1 and 2 ; Vol. III., part 2 ; pp. 727 + x, xi + 549 ; 560 + xi + viii,xvi + 802 ; 
xii + 437 + viii. 

Five bulky volumes represent our present official knowledge of Upper Burma. 
Biuding, printing, quality of paper and of illustrations (all equally inferior) proclaim 
them to be of Calcutta official production — fitted to the financial conditions which at 
present rule the Indian treasury. Two of these volumes are devoted to the physical 
geography, history, ethnology, geology, &c, of the wild districts with which the 
gazetteer deals, and the other three comprise the familiar Indian gazetteer lists of place 
names (with short descriptive articles attached) and the very necessary index thereto. 
Probably no writer on Burma and the Burmese who has ever illustrated the story 
of the eastern frontiers with a lively and entertaining pen could have been found more 
capable of dealing with such a subject than Mr. J. G. Scott ; but there are indications 
that the dead weight of statistical details with which he was confronted have proved 
a little too much for him. He is certainly less entertaining than usual. It is unfor- 
tunate for those writers who in future will have to place before the public any such 
comprehensive review of the physiography of the East and the conditions of life 
therein prevailing, that such a literary giant in the field of gazetteering as Sir W. W. 
Hunter should have preceded them. If Hunter had never written about India no one 
would have looked in the pages of a gazetteer for entertaiumeut. 

In the geographical section of the work the most interesting feature is Scott's 
examination into the evidence already existing as to the sources of the Irrawadi. He 
unhesitatingly assigus to the N'mai river (which is the easternmost of the two great 
branches of the Upper Irrawadi) that geographical precedence which eutitles it to be 
considered as the true source, on account of its superior volume, although it has not yet 
been traced throughout its course and is unsuited to navigation. The very fact that 
there should still exist the shadow of a doubt on such a point is sufficient indication of 
the nebulous condition of present geographical information about the hinterland of 
Upper Burma ; and the same haze of uncertainty may be said to rest on every subject 
which is related to the physical attributes of the country and its people. Many points 
of interest still remain to be determined as regards the ethnographical affinities of the 

[ 190 ] 

190L] MAN. [No. 150-152. 

great mass of Indo-Chinese, or Tibeto-Burman, tribes, who have apparently occupied 
from time immemorial the wild hills and valleys which they now hold. They present 
few, if any, of those problems of race movement (the geographical shiftings of nations) 
which distinguish all such enquiries on the north-west frontier of India. The wide 
extension of the Shan tribes is pointed out, and their general adaptability to European 
influences seems to open up possibilities of a consolidated and well-regulated " buffer " 
on the eastern Burmese frontier between ourselves and France. The history of Burma 
practically commences in 1852 with the Mindon Min. The earlier records are (as Scott 
puts it) " parochial and uniuteresting," full of names and fables. The interest of it com- 
mences with our annexation, and then, of course, it is as modern as the contributions 
of any special correspondent. 

Of the general value of the gazetteer as a work of reference it is unnecessary to say 
anything. It is an integral and necessary part of the administrative machinery of the 
Government of India, and that Government is fortunate in finding officers to compile 
it who combine such wide experience and such literary skill as Messrs. Scott and 
Hardiman. T. H. HOLDICH. 

Great Britain : Ethnology. Macnamara. 

Origin and Character of the British People. By N. C. Macnamara. 8vo. Itl 
London : Smith, Elder, 1900. 10 I 

This little book aims at explaining the underlying causes of differences in character 
between the inhabitants of the South and West of Ireland, of Wales, and of Eugland 
and Scotland. It is clearly written, well priuted, and has an index. Beginning, as it 
does, with palaeolithic man, and ending with the effects of city life on the modern 
Londoner, it can only pretend to be a sketch of so vast a subject, but withiu the limits 
the author has laid down for himself, it is well done. The author, from his profession 
as a surgeon, naturally relies greatly on the physical characters as the basis of his 
theories. It is, therefore, the more surprising that he should support Professor Boyd 
Dawkins in his belief that the Eskimos are the actual descendants of glacial man in 
Europe. The physical characters of a people are no doubt slow to change, and in this 
respect are more to be relied on than language, but where other material exists it is rash 
to dogmatize from the physical side alone. A true judgment can only be obtained by 
taking into consideration all the complex conditions which go to differentiate one race 
from another. This is, however, only a small matter in Mr. Macnamara's book, which will 
be read by all who feel an interest in the origin of the people of these islands. C. II. R. 

Proceedings. Anthropological Institute. 

Huxley Memorial Lecture, October 29, 1901. — The Huxley Memorial 1£Q 
Lecture was delivered in the hall of the Society of Arts, the Right Hon. Lord ■**» 
Avebury, F.R.S., ex-President of the Institute, iu the chair. 

The lecture was delivered by Mr. Francis Galton, D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., on the 
possibility of improving the human race under the present couditiotis of law aud 
sentiment. The lecture is published in abstract in Man, 1901. 132, and in full in 
Nature , November 1, 1901. 

The Huxley Memorial Medal was presented by Lord Avebury to the lecturer. 

On the motion of Mr. E. W. Brabrook, C.B., seconded by Professor G. B. Howes, 
F.R.S., the thanks of the meeting were given to Mr. Galton for his lecture. 

A vote of thanks to Lord Avebury for presiding at the lecture was also passed. 

Ordinary Meeting, November 12, 1901. — Mr. W. GowlanJ, F.S.A., Vice-President, 
in the chair. 

[ 191 ] 

1901] MAN. [Nob. 152-158. 

The election was announced of Messrs. G. J. Henderson, F. T. £1 worthy, J. O. 
Brant-Sero, M. Lendou- Bennett, and H. R. Tate as Fellows of the Institute. 

Mr. Shelford exhibited and described ti series of lantern slides made by Dr. Garsou 
from photographs of the natives of Sarawak taken for Her Highness the Ranee of 

A collection of gold jewellery, found iu Borneo but apparently of Hindu origin, 
was exhibited on behalf of His Highness the Rajah of Sarawak and described by 
Mr. Shelford ; the jewellery was discussed by Messrs. Balfour, Daltou, and Gowland. 

Mr. Shelford read his paper on A Provisional Classification of the Swords of the 
Sarjwak Tribes. The paper was discussed by Messrs. Balfour and Gowland. 

Mr. J. Gray exhibited a eraniometer for measuring the auricular height of the 
head. It was discussed by Messrs. Garson and Shrubsall. 

Proceedings. Soc. d'Anthr. de Paris. 

Sommaire des Procks-verbal de la Seance du tf octobre 1901. 4P ft 

Le President rend compte de la mission que la socicte lui uvait confiee IwO 
<le la represeuter aux fetes du Prof. Virchow. 

M. Sanson presente sa photograph ie pour les collections de la socicte : il serait a 
desirer que tons nos eollc^ues en f assent autant. 

M. Zaborowski : Photographies de types du Congo. 

M. Cauderlier : Les causes de la depopulation de la France. Discussion : MM. 
Macquart, Robin, Herve. 

SSance du 17 octobre 1901. 

Le President annonce la mort de MM. Ascoli, Pommerol, et Serrurier, membres 
titulaires, et M. Chil y Naranjo, membre associe Stranger. Au uom de la Societe, il 
s'associe a la douleur des families de ces tres regrettes collegues. 

M. A. de Mortillet presente des objets des Dolmens d'Aveyrou : M. Paul de 
Mortillet, la Liste des publications de Gabriel de Mortillet ; M. Zaborowski, des 
photographies du Caucase. 

M. Lejeune : Rapport de la Commission des Conferences. 

M. Macquart : Diminution de la Natalite. Discussion : MM. Papillault, Worms, 
Atgier, Zaborowski, Robin, Letourneau, Rahon, Regnault, Sanson, Lejeune, Ad de 
Mortillet, Tate. Chervin. 

M. Lejeune : La representation sexuelle en religion, en art et en pedagogic. 
Discussion : MM. Chervin, A. de Mortillet, Zaborowski. 

Seance du 7 novembre 1901. 

M. Herve* presente des photographies des fouilles de Chamblandes (Lac Leman), 
crane macrocephale helveto-burgonde trouve par M. Schenk. 

M. Verneau : Reproduction d'un manuscrit mexicain precolombien public par 
M. le due de Lou bat. 

M. Volkov : Influence de Tage sur les caracteres anthropologiques, par M. Ptitzuer. 

M. Regnault : Anomalies osseuses pathologiques. 

M. Georges Raynaud : Dechiffremeut des ecritures de PAmerique eentrale. 

M. Marcel Baudouin : Photographies stereoscopiques des megalithes. Discussion : 
M. Nicole. 

M. Thieullen : Silex-bijou du Diluvium. Discussion : MM. Letourneau, Vauville, 
Tat6, Giraux. 

M. Laville : Sur le caractere de certaines populations canaiques. Disque et lame 
en forme de grattoir magrial£nien. 

Printed by Eyeb akd Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, Bast Harding Street, E.C.